Presentation on theme: "Monarchy in England Chapter 4 section 3. I. Background A.Two prominent figures ruled England as monarchs but, despite their power, both Father (Henry."— Presentation transcript:
I. Background A.Two prominent figures ruled England as monarchs but, despite their power, both Father (Henry VIII) and his daughter (Elizabeth I) had to learn to work with Parliament 1.The Act of Supremacy named the King of England as the head of the Church of England 2.This was created during the reign of Henry VIII
B. Mary Tudor, Henry’s first daughter ruled England as a Catholic 1. When she died in 1558, Elizabeth I inherited the crown and returned England to Anglican, English Protestant. 2. Not a typical quality of an absolute monarch, but very beneficial to her reign, was Elizabeth’s willingness to let the members of Parliament speak their minds without fear of punishment.
3. Elizabeth reinforced her rule with a zero tolerance policy i. In 1601 one of her favorite courtiers, the Duke of Essex, asked publicly “Is an earthly power or authority infinite?” ii. He was tried and publicly executed, warning other merchants to curb their efforts
II. Stuarts A.Elizabeth dies without an heir 1.Elizabeth’s relative, the King of Scotland, James I became the King of England in 1603. 2.James I favored divine right (just like Philip II of Spain) 3.James I constantly conflicted with Parliament i.James constantly conflicted with Parliament because of: ii.He was low on funds iii.He was from Scotland and was considered an outsider
James I [r. 1603-1625] James I’s speech to the House of Commons: I am surprised that my ancestors should ever be permitted such an institution to come into existence. I am a stranger, and found it here when I arrived, so that I am obliged to put up with what I cannot get rid of!
B. The Puritans were strict Calvinists, who wanted to “purify” the English Church 1. James saw them as a threat, so he didn’t pass many of the Puritans requests. 2. One reform James agreed to was the publication of an English version of the Bible, known as the King James Bible.
James I [r. 1603-1625] Problems he faced: Large royal debt. He wasn’t English he didn’t understand English customs [esp. English law!] Believed in Divine Right of Kings. Pro-Catholic sympathies. Clashed with Parliament He raised money without Parliament’s consent!
III. Charles I A.When James died in 1625, his son was crowned Charles I. 1. In 1628 Charles summoned Parliament to request money 2. Parliament wouldn’t grant his requests until Charles signed a document, called the Petition of Right which placed limits on the king’s power, a direct challenge to absolute monarchy
i.King couldn’t levy taxes without Parliament’s approval ii.Couldn’t imprison anyone without legal justification iii.Force citizens to house soldiers iv.Declare martial law in peace time v. *Martial Law: the exercise of government and control by military authorities over the civilian population of a designated territory.
3. Charles dismissed Parliament and in 1629 decided to rule without consulting Parliament ever again. 1. Charles didn’t call Parliament into session for over a decade (10 years) until 1640 when he was so badly in debt because of religious rebellion in Scotland, that he had no choice.
B. After being ignored for so long Parliament made Charles I agree to 2 rules that he must heed in the future: 1. Parliament must be called at least every three years 2. The king could no longer dismiss Parliament C. Charles I wages war on Parliament when a Puritan group within Parliament moved to abolish the appointment of bishops in the Anglican Church, which would diminish the kings power.
Charles led troops into the House of Commons to arrest leaders of that Puritan group, but the men had already escaped This was the beginning of the English Civil War
Civil War (1642-1649) Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliamentarians (Roundheads) a House of Lords a N & W England a Aristocracy a Large landowners a Church officials a More rural †House of Commons †S & E England †Puritans †Merchants †Townspeople †More urban
IV. The English Civil War A.Without the support of Parliament the king had to rely on contributions to pay for his army 1.Royalists (cavaliers)- mostly made up of wealthy nobles, were supporters of the king. 2.Roundheads- were members of Parliament who opposed the king i.Leader of the Roundheads was Oliver Cromwell ii.Rose to power by being a successful military leader, in 1644 he led a victory for the Roundheads where they killed 4,000 of the king’s soldiers.
B. In 1646 the king surrendered and Cromwell accumulated full control. 1. Cromwell dismissed all members of Parliament who disagree with him and created what was called a Rump Parliament. 2. This group of Cromwell’s men eventually charged the king with treason and on January 30 th 1649 Charles I was publicly executed.
V. England Under Cromwell A.A. The House of Commons abolished the House of Lords and outlawed the monarchy 1. England became a commonwealth, which is a republican government based on the common good of ALL the people 2. In 1653 Cromwell was given the title Lord Protector of England
B. Following his faith very closely, Cromwell demanded complete obedience and eradicated all useless distractions such as theaters and limiting other forms of popular entertainment 1. Cromwell, the king’s death and war troubled many English people 2. One of the popular Royalists who fled France during Cromwell’s reign was Thomas Hobbes
i. Wrote Leviathon which argued that people needed an all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live ii. This inspired England to try to find a balance between a representative government and the monarchy.
VI. The Restoration A.Richard Cromwell took over after his father’s death in 1658. 1. Eventually parliament reconvened and voted to bring back the monarchy, this event eventually became known as The Restoration 2. In 1660, Parliament invited the son of king Charles I (dead/executed) to rule, which he accepted, and that same year was crowned Charles II.
B. The rule of Charles II had positive and negative events (1660-1685) 1. Positive: i. Reopened the theaters and encouraged the arts ii. Passed the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679, which guaranteed that someone accused of a crime had the right to appear in court to determine if they were to be held or released.
2. Negative: i. Resurgence of the Bubonic Plague in 1665, killing 100,000 in London alone. ii. The Great Fire of London, which destroyed large parts of the city but also killed the rats that spread the deadly plague.
VII. James II A.A. Because James II was a Catholic he wasn’t very popular when he took the throne after his brother, Charles death in 1685. 1. James, like many before him, believed in an absolute monarchy, which the people of England couldn’t tolerate anymore. 2. In 1688 a group of nobles invited James’s daughter Mary and her husband William to rule, they would become William and Mary of Orange. B. James didn’t put up a fight and fled to France. Because there was no bloodshed during this major political shift it became known as the Glorious Revolution.
The “Glorious” Revolution: 1688 a Whig & Tory leaders offered the throne jointly to James II’s daughter Mary [raised a Protestant] & her husband, William of Orange. He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV. He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.
VIII. Changes in Government A.Parliament had essentially crowned the new king and queen. 1. The English Bill of Rights William and Mary had to sign before taking the throne. 2. The United States Constitution would eventually be based upon this document. B. Document prevented monarchs from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisions
English Bill of Rights [ 1689 ] a Main provisions: 1. The King could not suspend the operation of laws. 2. The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice. 3. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent. 4. Freedom of speech in Parliament. 5. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently. 6. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment. 7. The monarch must be a Protestant. 8. Freedom from arbitrary arrest. 9. Censorship of the press was dropped. 10. Religious toleration.
English Bill of Rights [ 1689 ] a It settled all of the major issues between King & Parliament. a It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights. a It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18 c and early 19 c in England.
1. This document England’s growth as a Constitutional Monarchy, a term for a monarchy limited by laws. 2. England had finally rejected the concept of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, now there would only be a monarchy ruled by law.