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Gender Inequality in US. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 2  What is some proof that biology is the most important determinant in gender?  Sociology?

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Inequality in US. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 2  What is some proof that biology is the most important determinant in gender?  Sociology?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Inequality in US

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 2  What is some proof that biology is the most important determinant in gender?  Sociology? Gender Differences In Behavior --Biology or Culture?

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 3  Origins of Patriarchy: a theory  Early On, Life was Short  Females Limited by Childbearing  Men Became Dominant as Hunters and Warriors, Women developed agriculture How Females Became a Minority Group

4  Weapons, Trade, and Knowledge gained from Contact with Others Gave Men Power  Power yields privilege

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 5 “Unequal Access to Power, Prestige, and Property on the Basis of Sex.” How did Gender Stratification show itself a hundred years ago? What’s Gender Stratification?

6 Feminism   the view that biology is not destiny and that gender stratification is wrong and should be resisted.

7 First Wave Feminism 1848-1920  The Seneca Falls Convention  Elizabeth Cady Stanton – “Declaration of Sentiments”

8 First Wave Feminism 1848-1920  Suffragists (Suffragettes)  19 th Amendment – ratified 1920

9 Suffrage March

10 Declaration of Sentiments   Married women were legally dead in the eyes of the law   Women were not allowed to vote   Women had to submit to laws when they had no voice in their formation   Married women had no property rights   Husbands had legal power over and responsibility for their wives to the extent that they could imprison or beat them with impunity   Divorce and child custody laws favored men, giving no rights to women   Women had to pay property taxes although they had no representation in the levying of these taxes   Most occupations were closed to women and when women did work they were paid only a fraction of what men earned   Women were not allowed to enter professions such as medicine or law   Women had no means to gain an education since no college or university would accept women students   With only a few exceptions, women were not allowed to participate in the affairs of the church   Women were robbed of their self-confidence and self-respect, and were made totally dependent on men

11 How did women fight for their rights?   Speaking around the country   Stanton, along with Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, etc. traveled the country for the next 40 years. The Civil War slowed down the movement, but it picked up again afterwards.   Volunteering during WWI, campaigning for war bonds, etc   During WWI women helped a great deal in the war effort, filling in at some jobs when men went to war, but also campaigning for war bonds and other patriotic things.

12 How did women fight for their rights?   Demonstrating and parades   Hunger strikes and civil disobedience   Susan B. Anthony kept illegally trying to vote – and was tossed in jail for doing so   Especially picked up steam after some British women go the vote (women over the age of 30 who were: householders, the wives of householders, occupiers of property with an annual rent of £5, or graduates of British universities.)British universities   Post WWI demonstrations featured massive marches and demonstrations; women circled the white house in a human chain (some chained themselves to the White House fence– when they refused to stop, many were arrested and went on hunger strikes.   Despite great opposition from many, and only hesitant support from Woodrow Wilson, the 19 th Amendment would be ratified in 1920 and women would have the right to vote!

13 Second Wave Feminism– 1960s-70s  Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique  Goals: end sex discrimination in the workplace and society

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 14

15 Second Wave Feminism– 1960s-70s  1964 Civil Rights Act –  prohibited employment discrimination on the basis of sex as well as race, religion, and national origin.

16 Successes of Feminist Movement  If you're female and...  get paid as much as men doing the same job, thank a feminist.  went to college instead of being expected to quit after high school so your brothers could go because "You'll just get married anyway", thank a feminist.  can apply for any job, not just "women's work", thank a feminist.  can get or give birth control information without going to jail, thank a feminist. ...your doctor, lawyer, pastor judge or legislator is a woman, thank a feminist.  play an organized sport, thank a feminist.  can wear slacks without being excommunicated from your church or run out of town, thank a feminist. ...your boss isn't allowed to pressure you to sleep with him, thank a feminist.  get raped and the trial isn't about your hemline or your previous boyfriends, thank a feminist.  are on trial and are allowed to testify in your own defense, thank a feminist.  own property that is solely yours, thank a feminist.

17  have the right to your own salary even if you are married or have a male relative, thank a feminist.  get custody of your children following divorce or separation, thank a feminist. ...your husband beats you and it is illegal and the police stop him instead of lecturing you on better wifely behavior, thank a feminist.  are granted a degree after attending college instead of a certificate of completion, thank a feminist.  marry and your civil human rights do not disappear into your husband's rights, thank a feminist.  have the right to read the books you want, thank a feminist.  can testify in court about crimes or wrongs your husband has committed, thank a feminist.  can see yourself as a full, adult human being instead of a minor who needs to be controlled by a man, thank a feminist.

18 Third Wave Feminism - present

19 While women enjoy more rights today, gender inequality still exists. (Education)   Long term results of different thinking?   Despite evidence of educational gains made by women—more females than males are enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities and females earn 57 percent of all bachelor’s degrees—some traditional male-female distinctions persist.   At college males and females are channeled into different fields; 87 percent of library science degrees are awarded to females; 82 percent of engineering degrees are awarded to males.   The proportion of females decreases in post-graduate work.   There is gender stratification in both the rank and pay within higher educational institutions. Women are less likely to be in the higher ranks of academia, and at all levels are paid less than their male counterparts.   Changes are taking place; the proportion of professional degrees earned by women has increased in recent years.

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 20 Gender Inequality in Education



23 Science and Math? Yuck!  Less women in higher level math courses   Women are socialized out of math and science – its not seen as for girls, or too hard. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 23

24 Differences between females and males  Much debated:  Are there differences between male and female brains?  Maybe  Regardless:  There is evidence that stereotypes do long- term damage

25 Gender Inequality in Healthcare  Doctors sometimes dismiss complaints (because women are hypochondriacs)  Unnecessary treatments  Hysterectomies Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 25

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 26 Gender Inequality in the Workplace

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 27 Gender Inequality in the Workplace

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 28

29 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 29 Problems in the Workplace  The Glass Ceiling  For women  The Glass Escalator  For men  Sexual Harassment and Worse

30 Violence-some statistics

31 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 31  Women Less Likely to have Supportive Spouse  Men Reluctant to Incorporate Women in Decision Making Changing Face of Politics

32 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 32  Structural Barriers Coming Down  Abandoning Stereotypes  New Consciousness  Change in Relationships Glimpsing the Future With Hope Microsoft Images

33 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 33 It doesn’t make sense…  Women Majority in Population  Women Underrepresented in Law and Business Careers  Irregular Hours Incompatible with Role as Mother Microsoft Images

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 34

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 35

36  ate-on-increasing-college-degree- gap.html (graph data from Dept. of Ed.) ate-on-increasing-college-degree- gap.html ate-on-increasing-college-degree- gap.html

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