Presentation on theme: "The History of the Church Pt II Chapter 15 The Church Faces Challenges."— Presentation transcript:
The History of the Church Pt II Chapter 15 The Church Faces Challenges
The history of the Church reveals many human decisions. Impt. To remember the Church is both-human and divine. – Even when there are: bad decisions – weak leaders – evil events – We can trust the Holy Spirit to lead us so that God’s saving plan can be carried out. No matter what happens the Holy Spirit is with us
Too Many Popes 14 th century Pope Clement V moved papacy from Rome to Avignon, France.(Italians not happy about this.) By creating a majority of French cardinals, Clement assured a line of French popes. Avignon became an extravagant papal court that served the interests of the king.
King of France Philip the Fair had control of the papacy – He imposed high taxes on the French clergy – He tried the bishops in his court – Boniface VIII reprimanded him Philip sent soldiers to imprison the Pope. – He ruled over 6 popes
Clement V Became pope after Boniface – Over powered by Phillip Avignon – remained center of the Church – Extravagant papal court – Served interests of the king
St. Catherine of Siena Well known mediator Wrote letters to Pope and visited him in Avignon Urged him to return to Rome
Pope Gregory XI – Returned the papacy to Rome Pope Urban VI became pope – Cardinals dissatisfied – Cardinals elected another pope – Clement VII – Returned to France
Urban VI elected 28 new Cardinals Christians supported both popes and papal courts Third pope was elected and further added to confusion
they elected the French cardinal Robert of Geneva, who became antipope (is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, ) Two popes claimed to head the Catholic Church – one in Rome, one in France. Nations took sides and thus unrest in the world. For short time 3 men claimed to be pope. Thus began the Western Schism that wracked the Roman Church for 40 years. French “Church” and Roman “Church”
Urban VI Italian Pope hoped to unite the faithful His harsh reign enraged the French Cardinals in Avignon French Cardinals declared Urban’s election as “null because it was not made freely but under through fear.”
Council of Constance Chose Martin V to be pope – Others deposed – Ended the great Western Schism
Church Council of Constance restored the papacy to Rome.
Great Western Schism – - the period from 1378 to 1417, – when there were two, and later three, rival popes, – each with his own following, his own Sacred College of Cardinals, and his own administrative offices.
Vatican Today As a result of the Great Western Schism: The Vatican became: – Sovereign nation – Smallest in world – This prevents any country from claiming ownership or authority over papacy – Pope cares for souls not land or property or one country – Truly Catholic (universal) He is the Pope for all Catholics
The Black Death Bubonic plague – crisis during 14 th century – Swollen glands – Dead in hours – 1/3 of Europe’s pop died – 50 years – Priest, nuns and monks helped people by bringing them food and burying them with dignity – Suffering makes one think more of God – People became more religious
Anointing the sick When ill people come face to face with God and ask Him for help. Church answered this with Anointing of the Sick Those suffering from illness receive a special grace Priest anoints head and hands of sick person They are strengthened and given courage, peace and dignity to endure their suffering Spiritual and physical healing can take place
A New Age – 16 th century Renaissance – rebirth – Emphasis on human achievement rather than divine presence – Revival of classical cultures of Greece and Rome – Less interest in religion – New nations – kings wanted to take away power of Church – Printing press – spread ideas People questioned the Church About faith About role of Church in their lives
Bishops during Renaissance – lived life of princes – Neglected spiritual leadership – Took advantage of the people esp. poor – b/c of these bishops people questioned Lifestyles of Church Teaching of the Church
Renaissance Popes Great builders Patrons of arts Decadent lifestyle Favored their family over people of Church Acquired great personal wealth and land Were Involved in politics of countries Sad time in Church history
Call for change Martin Luther – Catholic priest – Professor of theology and Scripture – Young monk he wondered what he needed to do for salvation – Conclusion; salvation cannot be earned. It is by faith – He saw what was happening to the real mission of the Church
Church teaches: – Faith is necessary for salvation – Good works is also necessary
Some thought they could buy their way to heaven through donations instead of good works. Church leaders sold “indulgences” (remission of sins) in benefit of themselves and Church
Luther posted a list of 95 objections on the door of the Church in Germany – Some ideas which departed from Church Church – God speaks through Scripture and Tradition Luther – only Scripture - believed in only those sacraments found in Scripture (baptism, Eucharist, confirmation - did not believe in Pope, priesthood, religious life or acts of penance
Luther believed: that humans were basically sinful and lost their ability to choose spiritual good People need only faith to gain eternal life Mass, sacraments, good works, authority of Church, priesthood, papacy not necessary Married a nun and raised 6 children of own and 4 orphaned children
Pope- forbade Luther to preach or write about his objections – Excommunicated Luther – Luther continued his protest Princes /nobles backed him for political reasons Lutheran Church formed Augsburg Confessions – creed of Lutheran Church
Protestant Reformation – Appearance of separate Christian communities – Lutheran/Catholic
Progress Toward Reconciliation 1998 Catholic Church and Lutheran Churches signed a Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. – Both accept the notion that we are saved by God’s grace through faith in Jesus Christ and are thus called to good works.
2006 Catholic Church and World Methodist conferences also signed the Joint Declaration
A Friend Turned Foe England and the Pope – Begin 16 th century England loyal to Pope – Henry VIII received the title Defender of the Faith from pope regarding his writings supporting Church against Luther – Katherine was unable to bear him a son so he asked for an annulment – Pope refused
Henry declared that the Church in England would be under him instead of the Pope – Anyone who did not acknowledge Henry VIII as head of the Church of England was put to death – Church of England – Anglican Church US: Episcopal Church