In most of Europe Old Regime – socio-political system which existed in most of Europe during the 18 th century Countries were ruled by absolutism – the monarch had absolute control over the government (Divine Right) What do you suppose the enlightenment philosophers think of this????
Causes of the French Revolution Causes of The French Revolution
1.The (unfair) Social Class Structure In France, people were divided into three estates First Estate High-ranking members of the Church Privileged class Second Estate Nobility Privileged class Third Estate Everyone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy bourgeoisie (middle class) merchants in the cities Unprivileged class
EstatePopulationPrivilegesExemptionsBurdens First High-ranking clergy Collected the tithe Censorship of the press Control of education Kept records of births, deaths, marriages, etc. Catholic faith held honored position of being the state religion (practiced by monarch and nobility) Owned 20% of the land Paid no taxes Support the monarchy and Old Regime Second Nobles Collected taxes in the form of feudal dues Owned 20% of the land Paid no taxes Support the monarchy and Old Regime Third Everyone else: artisans, bourgeoisie, city workers, merchants, peasants, None Paid all taxes Tithe (Church tax) Octrot (tax on goods brought into cities) Corv ée (forced road work) Capitation (poll tax) Vingtiéme (income tax) Gabelle (salt tax) Taille (land tax) Feudal dues for use of local manor’s winepress, oven, etc.
Do Now: Take out HW answer the questions below What are the responsibilities of a King? Which Enlightenment thinker would disagree most with all the responsibilities a King has? Is anyone in here French? If not think about your heritage and the country your from, were your people at one time ruled by a monarch? If so how was freedom gained?
Test To get your grade: Multiply raw score on MC by 3 (do not pay attention to the % correct) Add that number to what you scored out of 25 on the writing People lost points in 2 common places Multiple choice (next test take a look at regents prep and the questions at the end of the chapter) Part 2 of the writing task (many people did not even attempt to address it!)
What was Louis the XVI’s job? Appointed the Intendants, the “petty tyrants” who governed France’s 30 districts Appointed the people who would collect his taxes and carry out his laws Controlled justice by appointing judges Controlled the military Could imprison anyone at any time for any reason (blank warrants of arrest were called lettres de cachet) Levied all taxes and decided how to spend the money Made all laws Made decisions regarding war and peace
2. Too Much Power Louis XVI controlled all aspects of the government Controlled the military Controlled the finances (what to do with tax payer money) Controlled who paid taxes!!
3. Unfair Tax System First and second estates do not have to pay the taille Taille- France’s chief tax!
4. France is Bankrupt!! The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and residences like Versailles Queen Marie Antoinette was seen as a wasteful spender Deficit spending – a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenues Privileged classes would not submit to being taxed
4b. The American Revolution The spark that puts France into financial crisis Louis XVI spends huge amounts to assist the colonist
5. The Enlightenment People are discontent and looking for change Enlightened ideas offer a different path A path that calls for: Equality Separation of powers Democracy!!!
The Estates-General Meets (which had not met since 1614) Winter of 1788-1789 Louis XVI had called the Estates General meeting to raise taxes to pay off growing debt Members of the estates elected representatives Nothing out of the ordinary at this meeting
How the Estates General Works Voting was conducted by estate – Each estate had one vote – First and Second Estates could operate as a bloc to stop the Third Estate from having its way First Estate + Second Estate Versus Third Estate
Quiz Tomorrow Who was the King of France before the French Revolution? Why did people hate Marie Ant0inette so much? The causes of the French Revolution The estate system Helping which country helped spark the financial crisis in France?
Meeting of the Estates- General: May 5, 1789 Representatives from the Third Estate demanded that voting be by population – This would give the Third Estate a great advantage – Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath On June 23, 1789, Louis XVI relented. He ordered the three estates to meet together as the National Assembly and vote, by population, on a constitution for France. The Third Estate relocated to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay together and create a written constitution for France. Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting. The Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly.
National Assembly (1789-1791) Louis XVI did not actually want a written constitution News of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reaches Paris On July 14, 1789, people stormed the Bastille
THE GREAT FEAR Peasant rebellions-attacks on nobles “Neither a man nor a crowd nor a nation can be trusted to act humanely or to think sanely under the influence of a great fear.”
Declaration of the Rights of Man Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Guaranteed property rights “Liberty, equality, fraternity!” Right of the people to create laws Right to a fair trial End of Special privileges
This Day In History: October 1 1768 - British troops under General Gauge land in Boston 1768 17761776 – American Patriots learn they will have French support 1791 - 1st session of new French legislative assembly 1795 - France annexes Southern Netherlands 1795 - Belgium is conquered by France. 1800 - Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty 1814 - Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw the Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte the previous spring. 1791 1795 1800 1814
Do Now: Define the following words and answer the question Radical- Commune- Sans-culottes- Critical Thinking/Drawing Connections: Why is it ironic that so many were executed during the French Revolution? Whose ideas did this go against Topic: World Leaders He took office 34 days before FDR and left office 19 days after FDR. Who is he?
Why the revolution becomes radical Threat of foreign intervention to restore monarchy Still food shortages Still financial woes War with Austria going badly
Goodbye, Versailles! Women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789 Royal family to relocates to Paris Allows the National Assembly to make some reforms Flying of the new flag
Rise of the Commune Paris radicals declare themselves the commune Abolish the monarchy Take the King and Queen hostage Call themselves sans-culottes Meaning “without breeches” b/c they wore long trousers Key members are Georges Danton and Jean-Paul Marat 1792 the French Republic is born
Fate of the King Girondins, less radical, lean towards keeping him alive Jacobins club, push for execution Did not want the king to be a rallying point for opponents of the republic 1793 the King is condemned to death January 21 he is beheaded by the Guillotine!!!
Begin to develop an essay As we move through this chapter, we want to begin to formulate an essay on the causes, stages, and effects of the French Revolution. You have the groundwork for this essay (you can write an introduction, causes and beginning stages) Helpful Hints: 1. The French Revolution occurred between the 1789 and 1795 (give or take) 2. The stages of the revolution begin with the calling of the Estates General Theme: Change – Revolution Throughout history, revolutions have developed in response to a variety of conditions. These revolutions have often resulted in significant political, economic and social change.