Anti-Japanese Sentiment Anti-Japanese sentiment in BC “Stealing” Jobs by working for lower wages Exasperated by Depression Unwilling to integrate (many believed that Japanese-Canadians remained loyal to Japan) Dominated fishing industry Mob style vandalism sprees
Pearl Harbour and Hong Kong Provoked national outrage CPR fires all of its Japanese workers Largely responsible for surge in Japanese immigration to Canada
Two Month Later..... Fearing a Japanese attack on Vancouver, the Canadian government designated all areas within 100 miles of the coast as “protected” Some officials claimed it was for “their own protection” to prevent vigilante retribution. Any person of Japanese descent (including second generation Canadians) was prohibited from living there. War Measures Act used to imprison (without trial) over 22,000 Japanese-Canadians
Internment Thousands squeezed into Hastings Park (Vancouver) livestock building before being shipped away in sealed train cars. Men were given the choice to between Northern BC workcamps (no family but better conditions) and Prairie farming communities (family but worse conditions) Work camps logged timbers and established roads Farming communities contributed to war effort.
Pay for your own prison Unlike POWs who were not financially responsible for their own imprisonment, Japanese-Canadians were expected to pay for their incarceration. The Canadian government (with strong support from the BC fishing industry) seized over 1000 fishing boats and sold them to finance Japanese internment. Any and all property was confiscated and sold/appropriated.
Relocation or Repatriation In April of 1945 Japanese-Canadians were given choice of being relocated “East of the Rockies” or being deported back to Japan. Many settled in Toronto Almost 4000 were “repatriated” back to Japan.
Official Apology In 1988 Brian Mulroney issued a formal apology to all Japanese-Canadians who were interned during the war. “I know that I speak for Members on all sides of the House today in offering to Japanese Canadians the formal and sincere apology of this Parliament for those past injustices against them, against their families, and against their heritage, and our solemn commitment and undertaking to Canadians of every origin that such violations will never again in this country be countenanced or repeated.” Canada issued a $21,000 redress to any citizen who was interned. Had to prove you were there Many refused money Children born in camps get no money Later studies found that Japanese posed no threat.
Held over 35,000 POWs 25 Camps in Canada Largest in Lethbridge Alberta holding 12,500 Most German POWs reported outstanding treatment Sports Plays Leave grounds Many immigrated back to Canada after the war.
Woodland Cemetery Kitchener, Ontario Originally called “Berlin” Largest German population in Ontario 1961-1970 Managed by German Wargraves Commission
George Hoegel Radio operator on U- 30 Part of the crew that sunk the Athenia Sent to Lethbridge before being transferred to Abatibi Ontario Became a famous artist while being detained as a POW.