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Chapter 8 Launching a New Nation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Launching a New Nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Launching a New Nation

2 Washington Takes Office
Section 1 Washington Takes Office

3 The First President George Washington – inaugurated 30 April 1789
New York City Washington would set precedent Constitution gave general outline of the office of President Government included: 75 post offices Few clerks Army of 672 soldiers President, Vice President, 26 Senators, 66 Representatives

4 First Job of President/Congress
Congress passed laws to set up: Department of State – Thomas Jefferson Department of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton Department of War – Henry Knox President appointed: Edmund Randolph – Attorney General Began meeting regularly - Cabinet

5 Judiciary Act of 1789 Supreme Court – 6 Justices 3 Circuit Courts
13 District Courts Main job of federal courts – hear appeals from state courts John Jay – Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

6 First Economic Crisis US - $52 Million in debt
Bond – certificates issued by government that it promises to pay back with interest Americans/foreigners invested Speculators – people who invest in risky ventures in hope of big profit Would Federal government pay back state’s debts

7 Hamilton’s Financial Plan
US Government would pay all federal and state debts US would charter a national bank for depositing government funds US impose a high tax on imported goods

8 Paying the Debt Hamilton wanted to show the world that the US would not renege on debts Wanted people to be willing to invest again South opposed plan to pay off debts Southern states had already paid some off Congress debated for 6 months Compromise The new US capital city would be built in the South Along the banks of the Potomac/Maryland, Virginia South agreed

9 National Bank Privately owned bank of the US Jefferson opposed
Safe place to deposit money/issue paper money Jefferson opposed Argued that the Constitution didn’t allow a bank Strict interpretation of the Constitution Hamilton argued Art. 1 Sect.8 gave Congress power to make laws necessary and proper to fulfill its duties Loose interpretation of the Constitution 1791 Congress passed law Washington signed it

10 High Tariff on Imported Goods
Raise money for government Protect US manufacturing Congress did not pass it Southerner opposed North had more industry South would pay more for goods they bought

11 The Whiskey Rebellion 1791 – Congress placed tax on whiskey made/sold in US Raise funds for gov’t Led to a revolt Backcountry farmers made extra $ making corn whiskey Sensitive to taxes Organized protests, refused to pay tax

12 The Whiskey Rebellion Officials in western Pennsylvania tried to collect taxes Farmers rebelled – burned house of tax man Large, angry mob marched on Pittsburgh Washington sent a militia – 13,000 troops Rebels backed down Washington later pardoned the leaders Showed the nation - armed rebellions would be dealt with by the gov’t

13 The Birth of Political Parties
Section 2 The Birth of Political Parties

14 Political Parties Emerge
Framers thought people would rise above personal or local interests People talked of factions Washington, Jefferson & Hamilton hated factions Madison thought they were selfish By 1790s two political parties were forming

15 Republicans Against Federalists
Led by Jefferson People have political power Strong state gov’t Strict interpretation Pro-French Opposed National Bank Opposed tariffs Federalists Led by Hamilton Wealthy, educated have political power Strong central gov’t Loose interpretation Pro-British Favored National Bank Favored tariffs

16 Political Parties Republicans Named after political clubs
Southern planters Northern farmers Madison/Jefferson Jefferson resigned as Secretary of State 1793 Federalists Named after people who supported Constitution Merchants, Property owners/ordinary workers Strong in the North Hamilton Washington favored Hamilton’s policies

17 The Election of 1796 Washington refused to seek a third term
Republican’s candidate – Jefferson Federalist’s candidate – John Adams Did not elect President/Vice President together Adams finished first/Jefferson finished second Serious tensions during the Adams’s presidency

18 Troubles at Home and Abroad
Section 3 Troubles at Home and Abroad

19 Conflicts in the Northwest Teritory
British had promised to remove troops from forts in NW Territory within a reasonable time 10 years later – troops were still there Supplying guns to Native Americans

20 A Struggle Over Lands Native Americans wanted to keep lands
Attacked settlements American leaders thought settling western lands would be important to nation Government tried to pay the Natives for land Successful in Kentucky and Tennessee North of the Ohio River Natives refused

21 A Series of Battles 1790 Washington sent troops to end attacks
Natives led by Little Turtle (Miami) and Blue Jacket (Shawnees) Troops defeated – 900 soldiers killed/wounded Washington sent Anthony Wayne (war hero) Defeated Natives at Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 Battle defeated Native American nations Treaty of Greenville Gave most of Ohio to US

22 The French Revolution Began 1789 – most Americans supported
Became controversial More violent – peaked in 1793 – Reign of Terror Revolutionaries executed 17,000 people Included King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette Beheaded by guillotine Federalists denounced the violence Jefferson argued that in fight for freedom some in justices are expected

23 British and French Problems
1793 – France and Britain were at war Washington declared the US as neutral US needed to trade with both sides France/Britain feared that trade would benefit the other Began to stop US ships and seize cargoes British made it worse – impressment of sailors – seized sailors and forced them to serve in British navy

24 French/British Problems
Hamilton – stay friendly with Britain Britain bought 75% exports Britain supplied 90% imports Washington agreed Sent John Jay to London

25 Jay Treaty of 1795 But: US will pay all debts to British merchants
British agree to pay for all ships they seize British agreed to remove troops from NW Territory and stop aiding Native Americans But: Refused to recognize right to trade with France Refused to cease impressment of US sailors

26 Jay Treaty of 1795 Republicans Federalists Angered
Claimed US gave away too much Federalists Like the treaty Kept peace with Britain Had control of Congress Approved the treaty

27 Washington Retires From Public Life
Published a letter to the American public Farewell Address made two points Warned against political divisions Feared violent divisions might tear nation apart Accomplishments US had a functioning gov’t Economy was improving Avoided war British now had to leave forts in NW Territory Area safe for settlement

28 The Presidency of John Adams
Section 4 The Presidency of John Adams

29 John Adams 2nd President of the United States
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801 Federalist Former Ambassador to Great Britain Quincy, Massachusetts Married to Abigail Adams New States admitted under Washington Vermont – March 1791 Kentucky – June 1792 Tennessee – June 1796

30 Troubles With France President Adams faced immediate crisis
French - angry about neutrality Hadn’t the French supported the colonists? Jay Treaty increased tensions Put US on Britain’s side French reacted by snubbing a US diplomat Continued to attack American merchant ships

31 The XYZ Affair 1797 – Adams sent 3-person mission to France
Met with agents from France French agents demanded a bribe of $250,000 They also wanted US to loan France money Became public – caused a sensation Kept the names secret so they were called X,Y,Z

32 War Fever XYZ Affair stirred war fever
Federalists demanded Adams ask Congress to declare war on France Adams asked to increase size of army/navy Created separate department of the navy Fought undeclared naval war with France

33 Adams and Views of War Opposed full-scale war
Sent a new mission to France to negotiate Napoleon Bonaparte busy with war in Europe Agreed to stop seizing American ships Agreement angered Federalist Party leaders especially Hamilton (pro-British) Weakened Adams politically

34 The Alien Act War fever deepened mistrust between Federalists and Republicans Federalists fear of revolutionary France spread to a fear of immigrants Feared that immigrants would become Republicans Needed to destroy political opponents Passed the Alien Act Lengthened time to become a citizen from 5 to 14 yrs President has power to deport or imprison any alien he considers dangerous

35 Sedition Act Sedition - an activity designed to overthrow a government
Sedition Act limited free speech Strongest limit of free speech ever passed Made it a crime to write or say anything insulting or false about the President, Congress or the government in general – 10 convicted under the act Most were Republican editors and printers

36 Opposition to the Acts Republicans denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts Charged that the Sedition Act violated the First Amendment Unclear if the Supreme Court could declare a law unconstitutional Expressed opposition in state legislatures

37 Jefferson/Madison lead the attack against the Alien/Sedition Acts
Wrote resolutions suggesting that states could overrule federal law Declared that states has the right to declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional Madison’s resolution passed in Virginia Jefferson’s resolution passed in Kentucky Resolutions themselves had little impact Sedition Act expired at end of two years 1802 – time for immigrants to become citizens restored to 5 years

38 States Rights Resolutions were more important for what they symbolized
Claimed that states could nullify a law passed by Congress Boosted ideas of ‘States Rights’ Idea that the union binding “these United States” is an agreement between the states and that they can overrule federal law In the future, states will refuse to obey certain federal laws

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