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Launching a New Nation. Washington Takes Office  George Washington – inaugurated 30 April 1789  New York City  Washington would set precedent  Constitution.

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Presentation on theme: "Launching a New Nation. Washington Takes Office  George Washington – inaugurated 30 April 1789  New York City  Washington would set precedent  Constitution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Launching a New Nation

2 Washington Takes Office

3  George Washington – inaugurated 30 April 1789  New York City  Washington would set precedent  Constitution gave general outline of the office of President  Government included: ◦ 75 post offices ◦ Few clerks ◦ Army of 672 soldiers ◦ President, Vice President, 26 Senators, 66 Representatives

4  Congress passed laws to set up: ◦ Department of State – Thomas Jefferson ◦ Department of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton ◦ Department of War – Henry Knox  President appointed: ◦ Edmund Randolph – Attorney General ◦ Began meeting regularly - Cabinet

5  Supreme Court – 6 Justices  3 Circuit Courts  13 District Courts  Main job of federal courts – hear appeals from state courts  John Jay – Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

6  US - $52 Million in debt  Bond – certificates issued by government that it promises to pay back with interest  Americans/foreigners invested  Speculators – people who invest in risky ventures in hope of big profit  Would Federal government pay back state’s debts

7  US Government would pay all federal and state debts  US would charter a national bank for depositing government funds  US impose a high tax on imported goods

8  Hamilton wanted to show the world that the US would not renege on debts  Wanted people to be willing to invest again  South opposed plan to pay off debts  Southern states had already paid some off  Congress debated for 6 months  Compromise ◦ The new US capital city would be built in the South ◦ Along the banks of the Potomac/Maryland, Virginia ◦ South agreed

9  Privately owned bank of the US ◦ Safe place to deposit money/issue paper money  Jefferson opposed ◦ Argued that the Constitution didn’t allow a bank ◦ Strict interpretation of the Constitution  Hamilton argued ◦ Art. 1 Sect.8 gave Congress power to make laws necessary and proper to fulfill its duties ◦ Loose interpretation of the Constitution  1791 Congress passed law ◦ Washington signed it

10  Raise money for government  Protect US manufacturing  Congress did not pass it ◦ Southerner opposed ◦ North had more industry ◦ South would pay more for goods they bought

11  1791 – Congress placed tax on whiskey made/sold in US  Raise funds for gov’t  Led to a revolt ◦ Backcountry farmers made extra $ making corn whiskey ◦ Sensitive to taxes ◦ Organized protests, refused to pay tax

12  Officials in western Pennsylvania tried to collect taxes  Farmers rebelled – burned house of tax man  Large, angry mob marched on Pittsburgh  Washington sent a militia – 13,000 troops  Rebels backed down  Washington later pardoned the leaders  Showed the nation - armed rebellions would be dealt with by the gov’t

13 The Birth of Political Parties

14  Framers thought people would rise above personal or local interests  People talked of factions  Washington, Jefferson & Hamilton hated factions  Madison thought they were selfish  By 1790s two political parties were forming

15  Republicans  Led by Jefferson  People have political power  Strong state gov’t  Strict interpretation  Pro-French  Opposed National Bank  Opposed tariffs  Federalists  Led by Hamilton  Wealthy, educated have political power  Strong central gov’t  Loose interpretation  Pro-British  Favored National Bank  Favored tariffs

16  Republicans  Named after political clubs  Southern planters  Northern farmers  Madison/Jefferson  Jefferson resigned as Secretary of State 1793  Federalists  Named after people who supported Constitution  Merchants, Property owners/ordinary workers  Strong in the North  Hamilton  Washington favored Hamilton’s policies

17  Washington refused to seek a third term  Republican’s candidate – Jefferson  Federalist’s candidate – John Adams  Did not elect President/Vice President together  Adams finished first/Jefferson finished second  Serious tensions during the Adams’s presidency

18 Troubles at Home and Abroad

19  British had promised to remove troops from forts in NW Territory within a reasonable time  10 years later – troops were still there  Supplying guns to Native Americans

20  Native Americans wanted to keep lands  Attacked settlements  American leaders thought settling western lands would be important to nation  Government tried to pay the Natives for land  Successful in Kentucky and Tennessee  North of the Ohio River Natives refused

21  1790 Washington sent troops to end attacks  Natives led by Little Turtle (Miami) and Blue Jacket (Shawnees)  Troops defeated – 900 soldiers killed/wounded  Washington sent Anthony Wayne (war hero)  Defeated Natives at Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794  Battle defeated Native American nations  Treaty of Greenville ◦ Gave most of Ohio to US

22  Began 1789 – most Americans supported  Became controversial ◦ More violent – peaked in 1793 – Reign of Terror ◦ Revolutionaries executed 17,000 people ◦ Included King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ◦ Beheaded by guillotine ◦ Federalists denounced ◦ the violence ◦ Jefferson argued that ◦ in fight for freedom some ◦ in justices are expected

23  1793 – France and Britain were at war  Washington declared the US as neutral  US needed to trade with both sides  France/Britain feared that trade would benefit the other  Began to stop US ships and seize cargoes  British made it worse – impressment of sailors – seized sailors and forced them to serve in British navy

24  Hamilton – stay friendly with Britain ◦ Britain bought 75% exports ◦ Britain supplied 90% imports  Washington agreed ◦ Sent John Jay to London

25  US will pay all debts to British merchants  British agree to pay for all ships they seize  British agreed to remove troops from NW Territory and stop aiding Native Americans  But:  Refused to recognize right to trade with France  Refused to cease impressment of US sailors

26  Republicans ◦ Angered ◦ Claimed US gave away too much  Federalists ◦ Like the treaty ◦ Kept peace with Britain ◦ Had control of Congress ◦ Approved the treaty

27  Published a letter to the American public ◦ Farewell Address made two points  Warned against political divisions  Feared violent divisions might tear nation apart  Accomplishments ◦ US had a functioning gov’t ◦ Economy was improving ◦ Avoided war ◦ British now had to leave forts in NW Territory  Area safe for settlement

28 The Presidency of John Adams

29  2 nd President of the United States  March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801  Federalist  Former Ambassador to Great Britain  Quincy, Massachusetts  Married to Abigail Adams  New States admitted under Washington ◦ Vermont – March 1791 ◦ Kentucky – June 1792 ◦ Tennessee – June 1796

30  President Adams faced immediate crisis  French - angry about neutrality  Hadn’t the French supported the colonists?  Jay Treaty increased tensions ◦ Put US on Britain’s side ◦ French reacted by snubbing a US diplomat ◦ Continued to attack American merchant ships

31  1797 – Adams sent 3-person mission to France  Met with agents from France  French agents demanded a bribe of $250,000  They also wanted US to loan France money  Became public – caused a sensation  Kept the names secret so they were called X,Y,Z

32  XYZ Affair stirred war fever  Federalists demanded Adams ask Congress to declare war on France  Adams asked to increase size of army/navy  Created separate department of the navy  Fought undeclared naval war with France

33  Opposed full-scale war  Sent a new mission to France to negotiate  Napoleon Bonaparte busy with war in Europe  Agreed to stop seizing American ships ◦ Agreement angered Federalist Party leaders especially Hamilton (pro-British) ◦ Weakened Adams politically

34  War fever deepened mistrust between Federalists and Republicans  Federalists fear of revolutionary France spread to a fear of immigrants  Feared that immigrants would become Republicans  Needed to destroy political opponents  Passed the Alien Act ◦ Lengthened time to become a citizen from 5 to 14 yrs ◦ President has power to deport or imprison any alien he considers dangerous

35  Sedition - an activity designed to overthrow a government  Sedition Act limited free speech  Strongest limit of free speech ever passed  Made it a crime to write or say anything insulting or false about the President, Congress or the government in general  – 10 convicted under the act  Most were Republican editors and printers

36  Republicans denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts  Charged that the Sedition Act violated the First Amendment  Unclear if the Supreme Court could declare a law unconstitutional  Expressed opposition in state legislatures

37  Wrote resolutions suggesting that states could overrule federal law  Declared that states has the right to declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional  Madison’s resolution passed in Virginia  Jefferson’s resolution passed in Kentucky  Resolutions themselves had little impact  Sedition Act expired at end of two years  1802 – time for immigrants to become citizens restored to 5 years

38  Resolutions were more important for what they symbolized  Claimed that states could nullify a law passed by Congress  Boosted ideas of ‘States Rights’ ◦ Idea that the union binding “these United States” is an agreement between the states and that they can overrule federal law ◦ In the future, states will refuse to obey certain federal laws


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