Presentation on theme: " Rashad Harris and Amanda Scudder France In Poverty The king Louis XVI lavished money on himself and residences like Versailles Queen Marie Antoinette."— Presentation transcript:
France In Poverty The king Louis XVI lavished money on himself and residences like Versailles Queen Marie Antoinette was seen as a wasteful spender Government found its funds depleted as a result of wars Including the funding of the American Revolution Deficit spending – a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenues Privileged classes would not submit to being taxed
The Three Estates EstatePopulationPrivilegesExemptionsBurdens First Circa 130,000 High-ranking clergy Collected the tithe Censorship of the press Control of education Kept records of births, deaths, marriages, etc. Catholic faith held honored position of being the state religion (practiced by monarch and nobility) Owned 20% of the land Paid no taxes Subject to Church law rather than civil law Moral obligation (rather than legal obligation) to assist the poor and needy Support the monarchy and Old Regime Second Circa 110,000 Nobles Collected taxes in the form of feudal dues Monopolized military and state appointments Owned 20% of the land Paid no taxes Support the monarchy and Old Regime Third Circa 25,000,000 Everyone else: artisans, bourgeoisie, city workers, merchants, peasants, etc., along with many parish priests None Paid all taxes Tithe (Church tax) Octrot (tax on goods brought into cities) Corvée (forced road work) Capitation (poll tax) Vingtiéme (income tax) Gabelle (salt tax) Taille (land tax) Feudal dues for use of local manor’s winepress, oven, etc.
After the death of Louis XVI in 1793, the Reign of Terror began. The first victim was Marie Antoinette. She had been prisoned with her kids after she was separated from Louis. First they took her son Louis Charles from her, He disappeared under suspicious circumstances. Then she led off a parade of prominent and not so prominent citizens to their deaths. The Guillotine was the new justice system, It brought terror to the victims of it while also seen as educational to the people. The Revolutionary times of France ordered the execution of 2,400 people in Paris by July 1794. Across France 30,000 people lost their lives
Napoleon takes Charge General political chaos created a need for a strong leader, and Napoleon had control of the army. Napoleon wanted to make sure that all major groups gained from his rule. So for peasants, Napoleon made sure that they could keep their land by eradicating Feudalism. He restored the Catholic Church to its former importance through the Concordat, and the peasants no longer had to pay tithes. For the Nobles, Napoleon offered ‘king-like’ stability. He created titles for some people, though these new nobles had no special privileges. Napoleon tried to reward talented and hardworking people by setting up the Legion of Honour in 1802
Napoleon Why was Napoleon and France disliked in much of Europe? Napoleon attempted to capture many other European countries. France was in great debt, and they were seen as desperate and doing anything to gain funds.
Napoleonic Code The Code Napoleon, 1804 The Code stated that: All people were declared equal before the law. There were no longer any special privileges for Nobles, Churchmen or rich people Feudal rights were ended. Trial by Jury was guaranteed. Religious Freedom was guaranteed. Parents were given powers over their children. Wives were not allowed to sell or give away property. A wife could only own property with her husband’s consent in writing. Fathers were allowed to imprison their children for any time up to a month.
In 1804 the Napoleonic Code was introduced. It had a set of clear laws, applicable to all members of French Society. The Code was also introduced into other parts of Europe conquered by Napoleon, like Italy, Spain and some parts of Germany.
How did he build an empire? Napoleon kept a well trained and large army. He also created several buffer states between France and the other great powers of Europe. He built his empire literally by his own will, and would always keep one coalition country as an ally while he fought others. France was also able to secure peace treaties like the peace of Amiens 1802 where France agreed to withdraw from the Papal States and Naples.
Peace was Restored The revolutionary Era left a France in turmoil