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Liberty and Order in the 1790’s Problems faced by the US prior to the Constitutional convention were still present Problems faced by the US prior to the.

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Presentation on theme: "Liberty and Order in the 1790’s Problems faced by the US prior to the Constitutional convention were still present Problems faced by the US prior to the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Liberty and Order in the 1790’s Problems faced by the US prior to the Constitutional convention were still present Problems faced by the US prior to the Constitutional convention were still present How to solve the debt problem How to solve the debt problem Alexander Hamilton : Secretary of the treasury Alexander Hamilton : Secretary of the treasury Hamilton developed a plan Hamilton developed a plan Federal government would take over debts of the states Federal government would take over debts of the states

2 Hamilton’s Strategy Hamilton felt that by owing the creditors from the national level, they, in turn would have a vested interest in the new country Hamilton felt that by owing the creditors from the national level, they, in turn would have a vested interest in the new country Gave the US better chance to survive Gave the US better chance to survive Outlined regular payment plan that would include interest (extra sum of money that borrowers pay lenders in return for a loan) Outlined regular payment plan that would include interest (extra sum of money that borrowers pay lenders in return for a loan) 1791 – congress placed tax on Whiskey 1791 – congress placed tax on Whiskey 1792 – congress created a tariff or tax on foreign goods imported into the country 1792 – congress created a tariff or tax on foreign goods imported into the country

3 Hamilton’s strategy In order to handle the extraordinary amount of money, congress created the Bank of the United States in 1791 In order to handle the extraordinary amount of money, congress created the Bank of the United States in 1791 Transformed the debts of the state governments into a long-term investment for the US Transformed the debts of the state governments into a long-term investment for the US

4 Hamilton’s opponents Many objected to the interference of the federal government into the affairs of state governments Many objected to the interference of the federal government into the affairs of state governments Opponents saw the federalist program as a return to aristocracy and monarchy Opponents saw the federalist program as a return to aristocracy and monarchy Major opponent – Secretary of State Jefferson Major opponent – Secretary of State Jefferson Within Washington’s cabinet, Jefferson was constantly at odds with Hamilton as Washington frequently sided with Hamilton Within Washington’s cabinet, Jefferson was constantly at odds with Hamilton as Washington frequently sided with Hamilton Jefferson resigned in 1793 as secretary of state Jefferson resigned in 1793 as secretary of state

5 Jefferson vs Hamilton Respective viewpoints can be described as their construction, or view of the constitution. Respective viewpoints can be described as their construction, or view of the constitution. Jefferson – “ strict construction ” - he believed that the government should not do anything – such as start a national bank – that the constitution did not specifically say it should do Jefferson – “ strict construction ” - he believed that the government should not do anything – such as start a national bank – that the constitution did not specifically say it should do Hamilton – “loose construction” – thought constitution was only a loose framework on which the government could build laws upon as it saw fit. Hamilton – “loose construction” – thought constitution was only a loose framework on which the government could build laws upon as it saw fit.

6 French Revolution 1789 people of France started the revolution in the name of “liberty, fraternity, and equality” people of France started the revolution in the name of “liberty, fraternity, and equality”. People could not decide how these ideas would lead to reality. People could not decide how these ideas would lead to reality. Result was a prolonged period of violence known as the “ Reign of Terror ”. Result was a prolonged period of violence known as the “ Reign of Terror ”. Thousands of people including King Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette were executed. Thousands of people including King Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette were executed.

7 American Reaction Federalists, in general were opposed to the revolution Federalists, in general were opposed to the revolution Jefferson and his supporters saw the French Revolution as an extension of the American Revolution Jefferson and his supporters saw the French Revolution as an extension of the American Revolution Applauded the rejection of government by kings and its acceptance of a republican government Applauded the rejection of government by kings and its acceptance of a republican government

8 Who to Support Soon after the French Revolution, war broke out between Britain and France Soon after the French Revolution, war broke out between Britain and France Nation could not afford to offend the British whose navy dominated the oceans. Nation could not afford to offend the British whose navy dominated the oceans. Few, however, wanted to abandon the French who had helped the Americans during the war for independence. Few, however, wanted to abandon the French who had helped the Americans during the war for independence. The best strategy was to remain neutral The best strategy was to remain neutral April 1793 Washington issued the proclamation of neutrality April 1793 Washington issued the proclamation of neutrality

9 The Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey was an important product on the frontier land of Western PA Whiskey was an important product on the frontier land of Western PA Was one of the few products that could be made out of corn and taken to market without spoiling Was one of the few products that could be made out of corn and taken to market without spoiling Became useful in bartering, currency in a way. Became useful in bartering, currency in a way. 1794, opposition to the Whiskey tax was so strong that PA tended to be in a state of rebellion against the authority of the federal government. 1794, opposition to the Whiskey tax was so strong that PA tended to be in a state of rebellion against the authority of the federal government.

10 The Whiskey Rebellion Similar to Shay’s Rebellion and the Stamp act in that rebels closed courts and attacked tax collectors Similar to Shay’s Rebellion and the Stamp act in that rebels closed courts and attacked tax collectors Washington and Hamilton saw the rebellion as an opportunity to demonstrate the power of the federal government Washington and Hamilton saw the rebellion as an opportunity to demonstrate the power of the federal government 1794, an army of 12,000 under the command of General “Light Horse Harry” Lee accompanied by Hamilton led the army to the Pittsburgh area. The rebellion soon dissolved. 1794, an army of 12,000 under the command of General “Light Horse Harry” Lee accompanied by Hamilton led the army to the Pittsburgh area. The rebellion soon dissolved.

11 Jay’s treaty Arguments grew in the debate over who to support in the war, England or France Arguments grew in the debate over who to support in the war, England or France Washington and Hamilton eventually agreed that the long term interests of the US would be better served to side with Great Britain Washington and Hamilton eventually agreed that the long term interests of the US would be better served to side with Great Britain Chief Justice John Jay was sent to London to negotiate. Chief Justice John Jay was sent to London to negotiate. Britain agreed to leave the Forts it occupied in the Northwest Territory Britain agreed to leave the Forts it occupied in the Northwest Territory Other provisions were added to expand trade between the two. Other provisions were added to expand trade between the two.

12 Jay’s Treaty Jay was unsuccessful in convincing the British from stopping American ships at sea in order to find British subjects Jay was unsuccessful in convincing the British from stopping American ships at sea in order to find British subjects Critics of the treaty claimed that it left American shipping unprotected Critics of the treaty claimed that it left American shipping unprotected Many Americans saw it as a sell-out to the hated British Many Americans saw it as a sell-out to the hated British Treaty was ratified in 1795 Treaty was ratified in 1795 Federalists had established an economic program, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion, and made peace with the British. Federalists had established an economic program, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion, and made peace with the British. With all this in place, still federalists had lost the support of many americans. With all this in place, still federalists had lost the support of many americans.

13 Election of 1796 Federalists: John Adams Federalists: John Adams Democratic Republicans: Thomas Jefferson Democratic Republicans: Thomas Jefferson Adams wins, TJ = VP Adams wins, TJ = VP Remember, it used to be that the top two finishers in an election became Pres and VP Remember, it used to be that the top two finishers in an election became Pres and VP How do you think they got along? How do you think they got along? John Adams: the first Red Sox fan

14 Drama OK, you already know that TJ and JA worked together on the Dec. Of Independence OK, you already know that TJ and JA worked together on the Dec. Of Independence They were pretty good friends for awhile after that, but serving together seriously damaged the relationship They were pretty good friends for awhile after that, but serving together seriously damaged the relationship They held completely different political beliefs: TJ was more of a small government guy, and JA was a big government guy They held completely different political beliefs: TJ was more of a small government guy, and JA was a big government guy For the rest of their lives they were on and off enemies, but eventually reconciled before they died on the same day on July 4, 1826 For the rest of their lives they were on and off enemies, but eventually reconciled before they died on the same day on July 4, 1826

15 Ah, Les Francais and the XYZ Affair France mad about Jay Treaty, they feel betrayed (well, they might have a point about that) France mad about Jay Treaty, they feel betrayed (well, they might have a point about that) France starts harassing U.S. ships, just like the British did France starts harassing U.S. ships, just like the British did John Adams sends US delegates sent to France to deal with the problem John Adams sends US delegates sent to France to deal with the problem 3 French secret agents (X, Y, and Z) meet them 3 French secret agents (X, Y, and Z) meet them

16 Cont’d Refuse to meet with unless they pay $250,000- was this really a bribe? Refuse to meet with unless they pay $250,000- was this really a bribe? US delegates refuse US delegates refuse Undeclared Naval war starts, also known as the ‘Quasi War’ Undeclared Naval war starts, also known as the ‘Quasi War’

17 Lets ponder…. Review: Review: What’s going on with France? What’s going on with France? What restrictions are there today on freedom of speech? What restrictions are there today on freedom of speech? Why are there these restrictions? Why are there these restrictions? Where in your homework was there an example of a restriction on free speech? Where in your homework was there an example of a restriction on free speech?

18 Impact on US citizens The government began to construct forts in cities along the coast The government began to construct forts in cities along the coast The government approved the creation of a standing army with Hamilton The government approved the creation of a standing army with Hamilton Alien and Sedition Acts -Instead of 5 years, it now took 14 years to become a citizen -The President could imprison any immigrant if they were going against the US -Punished newspaper publishers for printing anything that spoke out against the government

19 Continued… set jail time and fines for people who spoke against the government of the US set jail time and fines for people who spoke against the government of the US John Adams never jailed an immigrant, but the government did arrest some reporters John Adams never jailed an immigrant, but the government did arrest some reporters 14 Republican journalists prosecuted 14 Republican journalists prosecuted

20 Opposition to Acts Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions created by Madison and TJ Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions created by Madison and TJ They said a state could void any national law, and that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional They said a state could void any national law, and that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional Were they right? What do you think would happen if a state could decide to enforce a national law? Were they right? What do you think would happen if a state could decide to enforce a national law? TJ: that sneaky person that proposed the Virginia Resolution

21 Tension with France Increases Increase army and navy Increase army and navy Hamilton put in charge of both Hamilton put in charge of both Adams open negotiations with France Adams open negotiations with France truce reached truce reached divides Federalist Party and hurts Adams divides Federalist Party and hurts Adams

22 Election of 1800: Candidates Thomas Jefferson (with Aaron Burr) Thomas Jefferson (with Aaron Burr) John Adams (with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney) John Adams (with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney)

23 Things that hurt Federalists Tax Tax Problems w/ France Problems w/ France Alien and Sedition Act Alien and Sedition Act Arrogance Arrogance

24 Results Burr and TJ tied in the electoral college Burr and TJ tied in the electoral college Because of the tie, the House of Reps had to vote on the next President Because of the tie, the House of Reps had to vote on the next President The Federalists still controlled the House, so they persuaded Burr to challenge TJ The Federalists still controlled the House, so they persuaded Burr to challenge TJ Burr was the lesser of two evils for the Federalists Burr was the lesser of two evils for the Federalists On the 36 th ballot, TJ won the election On the 36 th ballot, TJ won the election

25 Jefferson’s goals as President Jefferson’s goals as President Reduce size and expense of government Reduce size and expense of government Repeal Alien and Sedition Laws Repeal Alien and Sedition Laws Jefferson and the Court Problem: Judiciary Act of 1801 Supreme court justices went from 6 to 5 16 new positions

26 Jefferson’s solution removed as many as he could removed as many as he could Any problems with this???

27 Marbury v. Madison Marbury sues Madison (secretary of state) for not delivering his appointment Marbury sues Madison (secretary of state) for not delivering his appointment Marshall rules that Madison was wrong Marshall rules that Madison was wrong but also that Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional but also that Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional Establishes power of Judicial Review Establishes power of Judicial Review


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