Presentation on theme: "THE BRITISH CIVIL WAR. Why is Parliament in charge? (don’t have to write this…background) Henry VIII – king of England. He wanted to divorce his Catholic."— Presentation transcript:
Why is Parliament in charge? (don’t have to write this…background) Henry VIII – king of England. He wanted to divorce his Catholic Wife. The Pope said “No” to the divorce. Henry VIII formed his own Church: The Church of England Henry VIII gave Parliament control of the Country’s finances in return for them approving the Church of England and his divorce.
6 wives. Henry VIII’s Children: Mary “Bloody Mary”with Catherine (Wife #1)(Catholic) Elizabeth (Wife #2) (Church of England) Edward (Wife #3) (Church of England)
Henry VIII Dies, then… Following Henry VIII’s death in 1547: Edward VI becomes King. He Dies in 1553. Mary I becomes Queen in 1553 until she died in 1558. Elizabeth I becomes Queen in 1558 until 1603 when she dies without an heir James I becomes King in 1603. He was a relative of Henry VII, father of Henry VIII who was Elizabeth’s father.
STEWART RULE Because of Henry VIII’s separated from the Catholic Church, Parliament controls the finances of the Country. Due to “Bloody” Mary’s rule in Parliament, “Puritans” want to purify England of anything Catholic. James I takes the throne and is a believer in the Divine Right of Kings. James I asks for money and is rejected by Parliament. To get around Parliament he sold titles of nobility for money. He dies peacefully in 1625.
Charles I Charles I (Divine Right of Kings) –He disbands Parliament because they won’t give him the money he wants to go to war with Spain and France. He attempts to get Nobles to “loan” the govt. money, put them in jail if they refused. He forces people to house troops at their own expense.
Which of the following is not a cost saving measure used by the King? 1. No more wars 2. “borrow” money from Nobles 3. Soldiers housed at owners expense 4. Put areas under marshal or military law
Parliament’s Pretty Unhappy When Parliament is called back into session they pass the Petition of Right (1628): –1. The king cannot collect taxes without Parliament’s consent. –2. The king could not declare martial law unless the country was at war. –3. Troops could not be housed against the will of the house’s owner. –4. The king could not imprison anyone without just cause The king ignored the Petition of Right and disbanded (11 years ruling by himself ) Parliament and vowed never to reinstate them. The king ignored the Petition of Right and disbanded (11 years ruling by himself ) Parliament and vowed never to reinstate them.
Why did the King reject the Petition of Right? 1. He suggested a better way of raising money. 2. He thought the King should have all the power 3. He didn’t and followed it’s rules. 4. He was Catholic and thought the Church was more important.
THE SHORT OF IT King Charles persecutes Puritans. He had their books burned and publically whipped outspoken people –Where did these Scotts go? England invades Scotland because of because the Scottish are not obeying the King What is needed to go to war? –Charles needs more $ to stop the rebellion, Charles calls Parliament into session. They will not do what he wants. He disbands them after three weeks. This is called the SHORT PARLIAMENT –The Scottish defeat Charles again (in England) Why would this be a problem? T
Charles freaks out and is forced to recall Parliament to get $. This is known as the LONG PARLIAMENT and they wanted to decrease the power of the King. –Long Parliament- met on and off for 20 years (when it fit the king) –Kings ability to dissolve (send parliament home) is ended Parliament must meet every 3 years
What causes the King to recall the Parliament? 1. The King changed his mind 2. The Scots invaded 3. Parliament recalled the King 4. Germany declared war on England
Charles Vs Cromwell Irish rebel (land taken and given to British, Irish work land as tenant farmers) –Parliament says they will command the army Charles says no way, I got this (arrests his opponents) Civil War!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Objective of Civil War –To take away the King’s power. –The British Civil War Cavaliers (kings side) vs. Roundheads (Puritans against king) Cromwell is a Roundhead = winner!!!:
Protectorate Time – Executes Charles I in 1649. –Oliver Cromwell leads the Country until his death. (his destiny to lead country) –Stopped people from challenging his authority – Tried to create a constitution twice –Stayed in power with: $ from supporters, strong army, no opponents –Foreign relations: not good Navigation Act of 1651 –War w/ Dutch –Then End… for now!!!!
Who supports the Parliament? 1. The Roundheads * 2. The Cavaliers 3. The Whigs 4. The Tories
RESTORATION CHARLES II –Cavalier Parliament pass Clarendon Code Church of England is the official Church of Country Only Anglicans can attend universities or serve in Parliament. Forces King to follow the powers of the king outlined in the Constitution.
The Claredon Code doesn’t reinforce which of the following? 1. Catholics are not powerful in England 2. The power of the Anglican Church 3. The control of the King over Parliament 4. The Government of England is connected to the Church of England
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION I Exclusion Bill (1679) –Parliament wanted to keep James II from taking throne. Divided Whig and Tory –Tories defeat Exclusion Bill but must accept the right of Habeas Corpus: Made it illegal for the king or any government to hold anyone without just cause or without trial, This increased the rights of the individual and decreasing the rights of the king. James II takes the throne
Which of the following is False? 1. The Exclusion Bill passed Parliament 2. The two sides of the Bill were the Whigs and Tories 3. The Exclusion Bill would have allowed Catholics to take the Throne 4. The Habeas Corpus principal was the compromise of this Bill’s outcome
James’ Big Mistake He becomes Catholic and demands Absolute Power His daughter from his first marriage is Mary, who is Protestant and married to William who is the ruler of the Netherlands. His second wife has a son, who James II says will be Catholic. Parliament encourages William and Mary to attack James II who has no support. The switch is made quickly: –James II is out –William and Mary take the throne –This is known as the Glorious Revolution
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION II Under the rule of WILLIAM AND MARY the following pass: BILL OF RIGHTS: Trial by Jury Outlawed cruel and unusual punishment Limitation on the amount of bail Ability to appeal to the king by ordinary citizens ACT OF SETTLEMENT: Banned Catholics from ever taking the Throne Catholics of Ireland were forbidden from governing themselves.
The Glorious Revolution was: 1. A war between France and England 2. A reinstatment of the King on the throne 3. The installment of a foreigner and his wife to the throne of England 4. A triumph of Catholics in the Royal house of Stewart.
Which of the following did William and Mary not approve? 1. A law which added more individual rights 2. A law which forbade Catholics from taking the throne 3. A law which brought together Scotland and Ireland 4. The Bill of Right 5. The Act of Settlement
Start of the American Revolution ANNE –Act of Union brings together Scotland and England into Great Britain GEORGE, GEORGE, GEORGE –George III. Grows the empire. Takes much of France’s holdings in America. Attempts to pay for the French and Indian War with Colonial money.