Presentation on theme: " Shy, serious, and—like his father—deeply religious. Believed it was his duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the."— Presentation transcript:
Shy, serious, and—like his father—deeply religious. Believed it was his duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants of Europe. Hard working, yet agonized over decisions— halting government action. Aggressive for the sake of his empire Incredible wealth provided by his empire. Large standing army of 50,000 soldiers.
Palace Gray granite palace—The Escorial Massive walls and huge gates to demonstrate his power. Monastery inside.
Most powerful ruler in French history. Began his reign as a five-year-old boy Took control of government at age 23 Hated cities and loved to travel through France’s countryside. Wanted to know EVERY detail of his government. Very hard working
Spent a fortune to surround himself with luxury. Required nobles to live with him Palace—Versaille Immense—stretched for a distance of about 500 yards Like a small royal city
Under Louis, France was the most powerful country in Europe. However, plagues France with many years of wars while he tries to expand the empire. ▪ French people long for peace. ▪ Poor harvest=struggling, starving, suffering for French people Last years=more sad than glorious. Regretted the suffering he had brought on his people. News of his death prompted rejoicing throughout France.
Main enemy= Prussia She faced many years of war. Devoted herself to her family Married for love 16 children—10 of which reached adulthood Decreased power of the nobility Cared more for the peasants' well-being than most rulers. ▪ Limited amount of labor that nobles could force peasants to do.
Schönbrunn Palace Built to outshine the palace of Versaille, however costly wars made them have to settle for a more modest design. She designed it to be comfortable for her family and friends to stay with her.
Loved music, philosophy, and poetry Not military enough to rule. Tried to run away from the palace as a young boy. Father ordered him to witness the beheading of his friend whom he had tried to runaway with. Ended up following his fathers rigid military policies, yet softened some of his father’s laws because he believed a ruler should be a father to his people.
Married a woman he never cared for and neglected Died without a son to succeed him Encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. Lived in the Sanssouci palace Also tried to compete with Versaille
1533—came to throne at the age of three. Boyars (landowning nobles) fought to control young Ivan. Finally took power at the age of 16 and crowned himself czar. First to use this title meaning caesar. Married the beautiful Anastasia, related to an old boyar family, the Romanovs. 1547-1560 = “good period” Won great victories, added lands to Russia, code of laws, and ruled justly.
“bad period” began in 1560 after Anastasia died. Accused the boyars of poisoning his wife and turned against them. Organized his own police force Hunt down and murder “traitors” 1581—violent quarrel with his oldest son Killed him The Palace of Facets Used mainly for terror
1696—became sole ruler of Russia at the age of 24. Had large goals to “Westernize” Russia, that is, to make it more like European countries. Reduced power of landowners Hired European officers to train and build army Imposed heavy taxes Introduced potatoes to the Russian diet Started first newspaper Raised women’s status Ordered nobles to give up traditional clothes for Western Fashions
Wanted a seaport to make it easier to travel east St. Petersburg in Sweden Winter Palace Based on ideas of European palaces. Used by Russian rulers for many decades following.
1625—took the throne. Always needed money because he was at war with both Spain and France. Parliament said they would not grant him any more money unless he signed the Petition of Right. Would not imprison subjects w/o due cause Would not levy taxes w/o consent. Would not house soldiers in private homes Would not impose martial law in peacetime. After agreeing and getting the money, Charles ignored it.
Supporters and opponents of Charles I fight a civil war. The Puritans win the civil war. Charles I is executed. Whitehall Palace. over 1,500 rooms layout was extremely irregular different architectural styles looked more like a small town than a single building