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1Renaissance Student Revision Lecture Section A:The City-States of the Italian Peninsula,the Concept of the Renaissance,Humanism,Art and PatronageandSection B:Florence Politicspresented byRobyn Westwood, Centre for Adult Education,13/10/13
2The Exam: Friday 15th Nov. 2013The exam is 2 hours long with 4 sections:Section A: City-states, Historians’ Views on the concept of the Renaissance, Humanism, Art and PatronageSection B: Florence – Political structuresSection C: Florence or Venice Social LifeSection D: The Myth of VeniceYou should aim to spend 30 minutes on each section. Practise your timing in your preparation for the exam. Write practice answers under strict time limitations.Do not use excess time on one question if that time should be devoted to another question unless you have answered all sections and have time remaining to go back to unfinished sections.
3The Study Design: Section A The different types of city-states, their diverse physical, political and economic structuresThe wealth of the newly formed city-states resulted from trade and industryInteraction between city-states; exchange of goods and ideasThe term ‘Renaissance’ is linked with the revival of classical learning; the rebirth of many of the ideas and values of classical Greece and Rome; the application of these ideas by the elitist groups to many facets of urban lifeTo investigate the concept of the Renaissance and its impact on the visual arts, humanism and educationCultural and artistic changes which developed across the Italian peninsula in predominantly urban centres were closely linked to the financial success and the political character of these communitiesThe role of patronage, such as leading families, the Church, the State and corporations like guilds and private patrons such as the Medici, on individual artists, architects and humanists, contributing to the flowering of Renaissance culture.
4The Study Design: Section A Key knowledge:Knowledge and understanding of the growth and development of city-states in the 14th and 15th centuries: geography and topography and how these influenced economic, political and social structuresDifferent types of city-states and how they interacted economically, politically and culturallyThe economic background of Renaissance Italy: trade, industry, products, banking and commercial centresThe concept of the Renaissancethe growth and importance of humanist studiesChanges and developments in the Renaissance art … in the development of Renaissance culture
5As a result, you need to know each of the 5 sections. Section AIn this section you will have 2 questions to answer and both must be answered.The examiners have 5 sections from which to choose to base these 2 questions:City-States:Explaining/defining types of city-statesHow the economy was influenced by the geography and topographyPolitical structural differences/similaritiesComparison of city-statesInteraction between city-statesHistorians’ views on the concept of the RenaissanceRefer to at least five or six historiansHumanismtypes of humanism, role of humanism, key people involved/leaders and their roleArtKey developments in art, reference to specific artists, artworks/architecture (discuss at least five or six)PatronageTypes of patrons, role of patronage, particular examples of involvement of patronsHumanism, Art and Patronage can be asked about individually or can be combined into a single question.As a result, you need to know each of the 5 sections.
6City-StatesThe different types of city-state in the 14th and 15th centuries:Republic: Venice, Florence, GenoaPrincipality (despotism or signori): Milan, Ferrara, Bologna, Urbino, Mantua, PaduaKingdom: NaplesPapal States: Rome and territories/states (ie Bologna, Ferrara)What are the features/characteristics of:a RepublicA PrincipalityA KingdomThe Papal StatesHow do the Republics of Venice and Florence compare and contrast in their political ideology and structures?Compare and contrast a Republic with another form of government in the Italian Peninsula
7City-StatesThe economies of the City-States and their relationship to geography/topography:Florence: wool products; silk production; banking; some agriculture = Arno River runs through centre of city; western foothills of Apennines; north central location; on land trade routes; access via sea port to sea trade routes.Venice: entrepot (import/export); fishing, salt, luxury goods (ie spices, silks, slaves from the East via trade monopoly); glassmaking (Murano); lace-making (Burano) = located top of Adriatic/sea access, ½ way between East/West.Milan: mining/metallurgical products (ie weapons, armour); silk production; trade route through Alps pass (taxes on goods, provides guides through Alps) = located on the passes through the Alps; northern Italy; mountainous terrain.Naples: agrarian/agricultural; economically poor = in the drier south of peninsula; semi-fertile soils; no wealth-making resources, often foreign rulers lack interest; off the main trade routes internal to peninsula.Papal State/Rome: Church tithes; donations/indulgences; vast landholding throughout western Europe; pilgrimages = located in central Italy, west of Apennines; access to sea port; centre of Catholic faith.Ferrara: agriculture; trade; textile production: terracotta tiles, soap, leather, glass manufacture; irrigation/drainage techniques = parallel latitude to Florence but on eastern side of Apennines; on plains of Lombardy – very fertile; on River Po; swamps, access to trade routes.
8City-StatesFinally, how do the various city-states interact with each other?Politically - treaties, negotiations, letters between leaders for advice/support, politico-military alliances, wars, marriage alliances, territorial alliancesEconomically – tradeCulturally – humanists, artists and architects move physically and ideologically between city-states and patrons; exchange of ideas, techniques and knowledge
9Historians’ Views: Concept of the Renaissance ‘Concept of the Renaissance’ will require you to be able to discuss the various views historians, past and present, have held about the Renaissance.You should have learned at least 6 or more quotes from different historians you can use to construct an evaluation of how views change over time or display degrees of similarity or differenceIt would be useful to start with Burckhardt as he set the agenda that later historians developed their ideas, either in agreement or contrast.Other important historians to use, as a base showing chronological evolution of views, would be John Hale, Lauro Martines, Gene Brucker, Alison BrownThere are many other valuable historians your teacher will have introduced to you that you should use
10Middle Ages or Renaissance? What are characteristics of the medieval world?Europe dominated by the Roman Catholic Church: faith, education and politicsFeudalism firmly in place – societies comprised of mainly villages and few towns of any size existedFixed places in society and identitiesFixed geographical places – little movement of population (excepting aristocracies and armies)Largely illiterate population, from aristocracy to commonersChronology:c. 8th to 13th centuriesAccording to Burckhardt – the Medieval world was where a ‘consciousness lay dreaming or half awake’(Robert Hole: Renaissance Italy)Alison Brown: Burckhardt’s view is ‘embarrassing and out of date’(Alison Brown, The Renaissance)Lauro Martines: two stages to the Renaissance –Stage one = ‘social energies – economics, politics, a vibrant demography … produced the shaping, long-term values’ = rise of towns (12th and 13th centuries) = Middle Ages?Stage two = ‘the lead went into cultural energies’ = rise of culture (14th to 16th centuries)‘Quattrocento humanism would have been impossible without the civic ideals … that rose out of the thirteenth century’(Lauro Martines, Power and Imagination)
11Martines’ Stages: Modelling the Renaissance Stage 1: c – 1250: A brave new worldBreak up of the feudal systemRise of townsSpecialisation of tradesGrowth of industriesRise of new class - middle classes/’new men’Political ambitions of the new social group –Overthrowing of authority of traditional rulers - nobilityRise of communes – autonomous rule by towns’ landowners (middle classes tradesmen)Development of internationalism (trade between towns/countries)A more complex system of mercantile exchangeStage 2: c – 1550: New society and progression to cultural changesChanging needs to be met:EducationalPoliticalTraditional ideas are no longer useful or sufficientComplexities of trade required greater intellectualism for a broader spectrum of the communityRise of internationalism = a new concept of identity and personal/family ambitionPolitical changes = new dominant group and new style of governmentNew educational needs resulted = advancement in trade and politics
12Examples of Historians’ Views Burckhardt:‘the concept of man as an individualist with hints of universality and paganism’ (according to Hole)the Middle Ages as a time when human consciousness ‘lay dreaming or half-awake beneath a common veil… of faith, illusion and childish prepossession’‘the Renaissance was a dramatic break with the past, a new age on which man as an individual emerged… a universal man’Hale:‘man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon and the world, with its expanding physical and mental horizons, became his oyster’Martines:‘the Italian Renaissance came in two stages…[and] were joined inseparably: the first produced the shaping long-term values from which the second took rise’‘the cultural Renaissance had its direction in the needs and consciousness of the upper-class group’Brown:‘the ability of Renaissance historians to distinguish ‘middle ages’ from classical antiquity and the present meant they were eventually able to distance themselves from the past’‘the Renaissance offered a coherent social ‘strategy’ for rising in the world’‘the tendency to stress continuity, rather than change…has eroded the distance between the medieval and modern periods’Brucker:‘it was an age of great achievement…more oriented toward secular goals and objectives’‘it was essentially an urban or city phenomenon…the mercantile classes of the Italian cities developed a social order which was quite different from the rural , tradition-bound society of medieval Europe…it was more fluid and flexible’‘Italy did not reject or ignore the Christian tradition; Christianity remained a vital and essential element of Renaissance culture’
13Humanism: Their Sources of Inspiration Ancient RomeCicero Ovid TacitusPlato Aristotle SocratesClassical Greece
14Why? Why the rise of humanism? Why Rome before Greece? Geography: Justification of wealthJustification of powerReligious entity – role of manCivic dutyLocation – surrounded by ancient ruinsWhy Rome before Greece?Geography:Roman ruins surrounding Italian citiesMedieval education:Church conducted religious rituals in LatinTheological education was in LatinAncient Romans used Latin as lingua francaAccessibility of texts:Monasteries and town archives held predominantly Ancient Roman books/scrollsRelevance:Ancient Rome was the last democracy (Republic) and could be used as an example for new governments
15The 3 Types of HumanismLiterary Civic Neo-Platonic (Petrarch) (Bruni) (Ficino)
16Key Literary Humanists Dante (1265 – 1321) -Divine Comedy (Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso) – describing men and institutions of his time and passing political and moral judgements, pointing the way to a truly Christian society.Petrarch (1304 – 74) -Found copies of works by Cicero and LivyConsummate operator who kept out of politics when political life was very unstable yet formed close associations with all political leadersSaw Italy as a whole, not actually a collection of city-statesMan of letters with no commitment to place or causeBelieved in the idea of loyalty to yourself, but also believed in the public dimension of what the individual owes to societyWas always concerned about his interest with pagan antiquity and whether he was a good enough ChristianBoccaccio (1313 – 75) -Wrote the Decameron: collection of stories about people in a country house expecting to die from the plague (‘eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we die’)Wrote a commentary on the Inferno and biography of DanteDrew attention to the writings of Tacitus
17Key Civic Humanists Salutati (1331 – 1406) - Chancellor of Florence (1376 – 1406)Strong supporter of the republicSaw a ‘political purpose in history writing, observing that a knowledge of the past inspired princes and taught all men how to act in the present’(Hole, Renaissance Italy)Bruni (1370 – 1444) –Chancellor of Florence (1410 – 1411 & )Fervent Republican and patriotWrote Panegyric to the City of Florence, a History of the Florentine People, and many other worksWrote ‘the careful study of the past enlarges our foresight in contemporary affairs and affords to citizens and monarchs lessons of incitement or warning in the ordering of public policy. From history we draw our share of examples of moral precepts.’De Studias et Literati, c. 1405Chrysoloras (1355 – 1415) –provides the connection between civic and neo-platonic humanismPre-eminent scholar of Greek philosophy and learningInvited to Florence from Constantinople by Salutati to train humanists (the study of Greek is original, therefore promotes Florence as advanced culturally)
18Key Neo-Platonic Humanists Ficino –Set up the Platonic Academy under the directive from Cosimo de’ Medici (1462)Translated all known works of Plato for Cosimo de’ Medici (finally published 1484)Wrote On the Soul of Man and many other worksPico della Mirandola –Published 900 theses at the age of 23Precocious geniusSome of his ideas were considered by the Church to be heretical, but according to Hole ‘managed to stay on the right side of the Church’
19The Advent of Literary Humanism When is literary humanism?c – 1440Influential civilisation?Ancient RomeWhat was its role in society?To provide a secular education (as opposed to traditional theological education), to broaden knowledge, to improve social standing and business expertiseStudias humanitatis – a secular education programme devised for the needs of this new society.Subjects studied:Poetry, Grammar, Rhetoric, History, Moral philosophy (ethics)Languages – Latin and GreekWho were leaders in literary humanism?Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio
20The Needs of Government: Civic Humanism When is Civic Humanism?c – 1440Influential civilisation?Ancient RomeWhat is its role in society?Political emphasisEducation – international trade required better business practices, better negotiation skills (rhetoric/persuasion),Models for communes and republics – how to govern?break down of the feudal system, expelling of aristocracynew ruling middle class had no knowledge of self-governmentAncient Rome last working RepublicCivic pride and patriotism – sense of belonging in a changing world, unity, belief that your city was the most culturally advanced, wealthiest and best governed.
21The Development of Neo-Platonic Humanism When is Neo-Platonic humanism?c.1440 – 1530Influential civilisation?Classical GreeceWhy the change from civic humanism?Related to changes in the political structures (from increased importance of patrician hegemony since its increasing dominance between 1380 and 1434)Medicean regime (initiated by Cosimo in 1434) consolidating its hold on Florentine politicsMedicean hold non-electiveContrary to concepts of civic humanism of republicanism and democracyRise of princely family dominance (ie Medici)No further need to learn how to govern/be a republic (role of civic humanism and study of ancient Romans such as Cicero)Predominant emphases?Greek philosophical sources predominate (ie Plato)More aestheticIdentity of man; self control and how to be a better ChristianNot ideologically political
22Common Characteristics of the Forms of Humanism TimeBelief in antiquityideas are contemporaneous (existing in the same time)Nature of eliteActive and reflective go togetherOnly through reflection can you act virtuously and respectfullyBy mastering classical culture you can do anything (adaptable)Look more critically at sourcesInterchange of ideasUniversality of ideasEducation in some sense becomes pan-elite (elite circle is expanded – anyone can join)Relationship of things and ideas
23Influences of Humanism in Art Rise of the new mercantile men =new views and interestsThe desire for realism and naturalismbeautyThis led to a mix of old and new genres of artReligious art (traditional)PortraitureNarrative (both religious and political)MythologicalLandscapeSculptureAnd new styles and methods from classical Greece and ancient RomeProportionPerspectiveHarmony/balanceNaturalism/realismUse of spaceAlso the use of chiaroscuro (shading)
24Art and Humanism: Religion Giotto‘Madonna and child’il Bronzino, ‘Eleanor of Toledo and her son Giovanni dei Medici’Masaccio ‘Madonna and child’ 1426
25Art and Humanism: Portraiture Domenico Ghirlandaio,Giovanna Tornabuoni, 1493Leonardo da Vinci,Mona Lisa, c. 1503
26Art and Humanism: Mythology Sandro Botticelli Primavera,
27Art and Humanism Landscape Giorgione, 1508 The Tempest
28Art and Humanism: Political narrative Gozzoli,Procession of the Magi,Botticelli,Adoration of the Magi, c.1475
29Art and Humanism: Sculpture Michelangelo David, Michelangelo, Pieta, 1501
30Patronage What are the types of patronage? StateChurchGuilds and confraternitiesIndividualsWhy do groups or individuals become patrons?Piety ‘for love of God’Prestige - personal/social- political (advertising their success)Pleasure (result of humanist education)InvestmentWhat is the role of patronage?Support of artist – economic and socialCommissioning of worksExpansion/transmission of ideasHow did patronage influence and drive the Renaissance?WealthNetworksCompetitionIdeas
31Previous Exam Questions There will be 2 questions, each worth 10 marks.2012Explain the similarities and differences of the political structures of one republican and one non-republican city-state.Discuss two or three problems associated with the use of the term ‘Renaissance’. In your response, you should refer to the different interpretations of the period by historians.2011Explain how geographic features shaped economic activity in different types of city-states. Refer to at least one republican and one non-republican city-state.Explain the ways in which the investment of both public and private patrons contributed to the growth and development of Renaissance art and architecture.2010Explain how a principality and a republican city-state interacted economically or politically during the Renaissance. (Students should provide a range of examples.)Explain the growth of humanist studies that occurred during the 15th century. (Students should refer to both humanism and education.)2009Compare and contrast the political structures of a republic and one other different type of city-state such as a principality, kingdom, papal state or duchy.How did patronage of the visual arts benefit both the patron and the artist? In your answer consider a range of patrons such as families, private patrons, the Church, the State and corporations like guilds. Your answer should also provide specific examples of commissioned art.2008Explain the economic background of one Italian city-state. This may include trade, industry, products, banking and commerce.Explain why humanism involved a renewed emphasis on the knowledge of Latin and an appreciation of Latin texts and /or scholarship.
32Summary of Previous Section A Exam Questions 2012:City-states – comparison of political structuresConcept of Renaissance – historians’ views2011:City-states – influence of geography on economyPatronage in art/architecture2010:City-states – interaction: politically or economicallyHumanism2009:Patronage and art2008:City-states – economic background
34The Study Design: Section B The changes in political institutions and societal attitudes helped to shape urban communities which had a sense of their own uniquenessThe application of classical ideas by the elitist groups to the political facets of urban lifeFlorence as a walled urban environment featuring a diversity of occupations and functionsFlorence in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuriesThe desire for political involvementThe need to retain republican institutionsSystem of government based on councils with short-term officesPower struggles in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries by family groups and power blocs to control the organisation, distribution and use of power and to narrow the power base
35The Study Design: Section B Key knowledgePolitical institutions of FlorenceChanges and continuities in the organisation, distribution and use of power in Renaissance Florence from 1293 – 1513Medicean Florence from 1434 – 1494Views of the Florentine political system expressed by contemporary writers and historians, such as Bruni and Machiavelli
36Section BIn this section you will be given anything between 2 and 4 excerpts from primary and secondary documents to read.You would be advised to read these a first time in the 15 minutes reading time at the start of the exam, after you have looked through the entire examYou will then be asked 3 to 5 questions of varying complexity relating both to the documents and the topic overall.The first 2 -3 questions will be of a basic comprehension nature with your responses based solely on the documents providedLater questions will require a mix of the use of the given documents and your own knowledge of the wider topicThe final question will require you to extend your response beyond any of the documents and to use your own knowledge to discuss an aspect of the topic in an extended answer. You should not use the documents given for this answer – the examiners have tested you sufficiently on them. They want to know what else you know and how you can apply it to the question asked.
37To Hold Power (Berardo di Berardo, Consulte, 1413) For in the past, many sought to gain political power and office for glory and fame; today no one seeks it except for private advantage and profit … It is to be feared that if it is not checked, civic dissension will lead to our ruin … Our only hope for safety lies in concord; dissent must be suppressed, and the Signoria should delegate some citizens to achieve this …’(Berardo di Berardo, Consulte, 1413)
38THE ORDINANCES OF JUSTICE 1293 - 95 Marks the change from commune to republicIs a constitutionUses Ancient Rome as the model of a republican system of governmentCategorises Florence as a limited republican democracy; a guild regimeDefines the political/spatial layout of Florence: four quarters/districts divided into gonfalones or wards: Santa Spirito, Santa Maria Novella, Santa Croce, San GiovanniClearly identifies the various bodies of government and terms of office: eg Priori (2 per district/quarter), Standard-bearer of Justice (rotated electorally around the districts) = Signoria; 16 Gonfalonieri, 12 Goodmen, Collegio, 8 of War, balia…; with terms between 2 – 6 months (or unlimited for some balia), depending on weight of powerClearly identifies who is eligible to vote and be elected (age, financial liquidity…)Clearly identifies who is not eligible to vote and be elected (bankruptcy, family background…)
39WALTER OF BRIENNE Podesta: 1343 Marks a low point in Florentine government where the system has descended into chaosWealthy rival families (ottimati) have contested control of the power baseA balia meets and selects a podesta to re-install orderWalter of Brienne tries to re-install the system based on the Ordinances of Justice and eliminate the social and economic injustices that have entered the political systemThis means wresting control from the dominance of the ottimatiOpposition (ottimati) against Walter of Brienne grows and he is variously reported to be a) removed from office and expelled from Florence, or b) violently removed from office and literally torn into pieces.
40CIOMPI REVOLTThe lowest economic and social group in Florence begin to speak out against what they see as injustices.They say they are unfairly taxed, pay unwarranted penalties and are not treated equally under the law.They further and later add that they want to be politically represented by being allowed to vote and have their own guildsThey riot through the streets and force the existing government to give way. New Standard-bearer of Justice is wool carder: Michele di Lando.Three new guilds are created – adding vastly to the voting populace. They dominate the elections by sheer numbers.The ottimati are not happy and manage to dominate the signoria and councils in 1382, when they are able to rescind the new guilds and restore the previous electoral rolls.
41PATRICIAN HEGEMONYWith the ousting of the Ciompi, the ottimati narrows the electoral systemKey positions are shared between the wealthy leading families (the new aristocracy)Minor guilds are restricted in their access to power.Major guilds restrict who is eligible and desirable. Families like the Bardi, Alberti, Strozzi and Albizzi take control and dominate the political system.None of these changes are official – the ottimati do not change the constitutionBy the 1420s and early 1430s, the Albizzi are the dominant family in the government (the Albizzi regime) after an earlier attempt in 1382 to control Florence. They are trying to create a dynasty , but do not succeed. It is the Medici who achieve this political ambition.
42THE MEDICI YEARS 1434 - 1494 There are four Medici: Cosimo (1434 – 1464)Piero the Gouty (1464 – 1469)Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469 – 1492)Piero the Fatuous ( 1492 – 1494)They are not elected leaders of the RepublicThey hold power unofficially, but with the apparent agreement of all levels of society, but not all members of the ottimati.There are challenges to the dominance of Piero the Gouty (in 1466) and Lorenzo (1478).Piero the Fatuous is expelled from Florence and dies in battle after a few years. He never enters the city again.
44COSIMOBetween 1410 and 1433, Medici money is supporting the Albizzi regime with the result that Cosimo asks for a greater say in government. The Albizzi refuse. They imprison him, try to seize his money, but failCosimo is exiled from Florence in 1433 by the Albizzi, where he uses his money to destabilise the Albizzi regime from afarIs invited back in 1434 by the SignoriaExiles the AlbizziIs the puppet masterIs at pains to appear ‘a private citizen’ with no more influence than any other Florentine of his rankUses his wealth to maintain power, in the same way as it was used to attain powerChanges the political system: introduction of Cento, manipulates the accopiatori and the commission of scrutators and allows the previously banned groups, magnates, back into the political systemWhen he dies, Florence mourns and name him ‘The father of the country’.With his death, there is a danger of political instability.
46PIERO THE GOUTYContinues the Medicean regime when he takes control after the death of his father, Cosimo.Is very ill and not expected to live longHas a number of sons; the two eldest being Lorenzo and Giuliano, but both are in their early to mid teensIs trying to live long enough to allow Lorenzo to reach age of political eligibilityThere is a move against his control by members of the ottimati, but Piero negotiates with Luca Pitti and sees off the challengersPiero dies, leaving no heirs of legal age to inherit control of the Medici regime
48LORENZOLorenzo is only 20 when his father dies. His brother Giuliano is younger still.Lorenzo is 10 years under the legal voting ageHe later writes that ‘principal men of the city’ came to his house and begged him to take control.Lorenzo agrees, admitting ‘it is ill living in Florence for the rich unless they rule’He begins his rule carefully, and possibly too gently, probably as a result of being underage.He overcomes an insurrection from Volterra, under Florentine controlLorenzo also has his authority challenged by the Pazzi conspiracy in 1478 where he survives an assassination attempt, although Giuliano is killed.Lorenzo’s rule becomes much more ruthless after this.Makes further changes to the political system: narrows the Cento to Seventy, creates two new councils: the Eight and the TwelveLater still he is challenged by the preacher, Savonarola.
49PAZZI CONSPIRACY 1478 Ringleader was Jacopo de’ Pazzi Other conspirators included the Riario family, Archbishop Salviati of Florence, the Archbishop of Pisa and the PopeThere had been a number of aborted plots before the final attempt to kill Lorenzo and Giuliano, but various circumstances conspired against the conspiratorsDesperation plan was for the assassination to occur in the Cathedral, which so scared the paid assassin that he refused.Assassination was delegated to two priests who both stabbed Giuliano whilst a wounded Lorenzo sought safety in the SacristyJacopo de’ Pazzi fled crying “People and Liberty” in attempt to enlist the popolo.FailedWithin hours the Archbishop of Pisa and other leaders were killed and their hanging bodies bedecked the windows of the Palazzo della Signoria.All conspirators were hunted down to be executedMachiavelli warned that if an assassination attempt failed, which they invariably did, the all sympathy would go to the victim, not the assassin, wherein lay the danger.This is what happened: the Pazzi were reviled and the Medici reaped public adulation
51PIERO THE FATUOUSPiero is in control of Florence for barely two years.He tends to ignore the Signoria, something his predecessors were careful not to doWhen Italy was invaded by the French King, Piero tried to prevent Florence being invaded and ransacked by riding out and offer the keys of the city to the King (without the Signoria’s permission).The Signoria and the rest of Florence are furious, turn on Piero and he and his family barely manage to escape Florence with their lives. He never returns.
52Means by which the Medici Kept Control Methods of attaining and maintaining power:Popularity wealthy guildsmenmiddle class guildsmen (commoners)popolo – miserabili (non-guildsmen)Church observance/pietySocial work – confraternitiesSocial networks friends, marriageassociations with powerful familiesWealth use as an entrée to socio-political levelsbriberyhumanism – culture: art/learningspectacles and public displaysDestabilise the existing governmentfalse accusations – corruption, incompetencedissenting populace – build dissatisfactionforeign power networksPropagandaChange the political systemFear/public punishments
54THE SAVONAROLA YEARSSavonarola is a Dominican monk who is not a native of Florence.He is invited in initially by LorenzoSavonarola preaches against the excesses of the Medicean regimeWhen the Medicis are expelled, Savonarola acts as guide and advisor to the new government of ottimatiVenerated as a prophetMedicean changes to the political system are dismantled and electoral rolls are revisedSavonarola seems to grow too arrogant, and challenges the Pope’s authority.He is excommunicated and in 1498 he is burned as a heretic in the Piazza de Signoria
56THE GREAT COUNCIL YEARS 1498 - 1512 After Savonarola there is an attempted return to the a similar form of the patrician hegemony of the last centuryThe popolo do manage to wrest more control and there is a degree of instability in Florence as the two groups – Ottimati and popolo vie for powerAny existing Medicean ‘reforms’ are further dismantled and electoral rolls continue to be revisedEventually in 1502 Piero Soderini is elected as a lifetime head of state, in the style of Venice’s Doge, but with much more political power.In 1512, Soderini is deposed.The Medici have their first return and finally return as permanent Princes of Tuscany in 1530.
57Previous Exam Questions Focus – liberty/democracy/Medicean yearsFinal question – To what extent did ideas of liberty and equality remain important under the Medicean regime (with reference to the rule of at least two Medicean leaders, using primary and secondary sources.(10 marks)2011 (5 questions)Focus – Ordinances of Justice/distribution of powerFinal question – To what extent was 15th century Florence still a guild-based republic under Lorenzo de Medici (using primary and secondary sources)?
58Previous Exam Questions Focus – public displays of political powerFinal question – To what extent did the Medici use unofficial means to dominate the city? (using primary and secondary sources)(10 marks)2009 (3 questions)Focus – Ciompi RevoltFinal question- Evaluate the extent to which the Ciompi Revolt brought about change in the organisation, distribution and use of political power from 1378 – 1433 (using primary and secondary sources.
59Previous Exam Questions Focus – liberty/democracyFinal question- In his panegyric, Bruni praises Florence’s ‘internal order… and harmonious cooperation’ yet there had been, and were to be, challenges to political power such as the Ciompi Revolt (1378), the Albizzi challenge (1382), Cosimo de Medici’s return from exile (1434), the Pitti challenge to Piero di Cosimo (1466), and the Pazzi conspiracy (1478).From the above list, discuss one challenge to the organisation and distribution of power, and the response of the ruling group.(10 marks)