2Rise of DictatorsThe apparent triumph of Democracy in Europe in was regrettably short lived.By 1939 only two European countries maintained a Democracy.FranceGreat BritainThe rest of Europe hadadopted TotalitarianDictatorships or FascismGovernments
3FascismIn the early 1920’s Benito Mussolini established the first Fascist Government in ItalyFascism glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a Dictator with an Iron Fist.Any opposition is repressed, often violently
4Rise of MussoliniAfter a severe recession following WWI much of Europe faced more working class strikes.Rather then risk a communist takeover Mussolini formed a paramilitary group called the Blackshirts and began attacking Socialist offices in Italy
5Rise of MussoliniThe middle class fear of socialism and communism made Mussolini’s movement much more attractiveMussolini played on national pride, feeling that Italy was not given enough land as part of the Treaty of Versailles.
6Rise of MussoliniIn 1922, Mussolini and his Blackshirts threatened to march on Rome.The Italian King Victor Emmanuel III gave in and appointed Mussolini Prime Mister of Italy
7Rise of Mussolini: Il Duce (The Leader) New Government Powers:Suspend publications that criticized the Catholic Church, the Monarchy, or the StatePrime Minister was made the head of the Government with the power to make laws.The Police were granted unrestricted authority to arrest and imprison anyone for political or non-political crimes.All other political parties were outlawed.
8Fascist ItalyMussolini also established the Italian Secret Police, called OVRA, with the sole purpose to watch the citizens political activities and enforce government policies.Mussolini tried to control the mass media and use it to spread Fascist propaganda, largely to little effect considering all they used were simple slogans like “Mussolini Is Always Right.”
9Fascist ItalyMussolini also used organizations to promote his Fascist visionFor example Fascist Youth organizations, which included about 66% of the populationThese Italian Fascist Youth groups focused on military activities and values.
10Fascist ItalyThe idea with these organizations was to create a new Italian culture that was fit, disciplined, and war – loving.However, in practice Mussolini’s Italy maintained traditional values and practices.Women were expected to stay at homeMussolini “their natural and fundamental mission in life.”In the long term compromise was Mussolini’s diplomatic policy.
11Mussolini’s Compromises Mussolini recognized the sovereign independence of Vatican City, a city-state within Rome since 1870When Mussolini formally recognized the sovereignty of the Vatican, the Pope in turn recognized the Italian State.Mussolini gave a large sum of money to the Catholic Church and recognized Catholicism as the “sole religion of the State”In return the Vatican gave support to Mussolini and his Fascist government.Mussolini’s Fascist government promised much , but delivered little however.
12Student of MussoliniThe premier student of Fascism was none other then Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany.Most of Hitler Fascist policies were direct copies of Mussolini’s Italy.
13Rise of HitlerA high school drop out, born in Austria, Adolf Hitler developed his corrupted view of the world while living in Vienna, Austria trying to become an artist.After being rejected by the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, Hitler became bitter and began to formulate is “grand vision”
14Rise of Hitler Hitler’s Core Beliefs: Anti-Semitism Anti-Homosexuality Anti-GypsyPro-Aryan (claimed to be the ancestors of the German people and western culture)Propaganda and Terror could be effective tools for politics.
15Rise of HitlerAfter serving in the German Military four years on the Western Front during WWI Hitler entered politics.Hitler joined a virtually unknown right-wing extreme Nationalist party called the German Workers Party
16Rise of HitlerBy the Summer of 1921 Hitler had taken control of the German Worker’s party, renaming it the National Socialist German Worker’s Party or Nazi Party for short.Within two years membership in the Nazi party surged to 55,000 people.This Nazi militia became known as the SA, the Brownshirts (because of their uniforms),And Stormtroopers
17Munich: November 1923Overconfident Hitler and his Nazi Stormtroopers tried to stage an uprising against the German governmentThis Beer Hall Putsch was quickly crushed and Hitler spent the next few years in jail
18Mein Kampf (My Struggle) While in jail Hitler wrote his book Mein Kampf detailing his beliefs and his vision for a new GermanyIn Mein Kampf extreme German nationalism, strong anti-Semitism and anti-communism are linked together via Social Darwinism.
19Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Mein Kampf emphasizes the right of superior nations to lebensraum (living space through expansion) and the right of Superior individuals to gain authoritarian leadership over the massesWhile in jail however, Hitler came to realize that the only way to achieve this plan was gain power via legal means, not a violent overthrow.
20Rise of the Nazi PartyUpon release from prison, Hitler expanded his Nazi party to all parts of Germany.By 1929 the Nazi party had become a national party organizationBy 1932 the Nazi party was the largest party in the Reichstag with over 800,000 members.
21Rise of the Nazi PartyNo doubt the economic woes of the Great Depression played a part in the support for the Nazi party.Hitler promised a new Germany, appealing to national pride, national honor and traditional militarism struck a emotional chord to the German Population
22Rise of the Nazi PartyBy 1930 Hitler realized the Reichstag had little power when controlling government affairs.With little faith in the German President, the right- wing elites, landed aristocrats, military officers and higher bureaucrats looked to a very charismatic Adolf Hitler for leadership.1933 German President Hindenburg awarded Hitler the title of Chancellor and granted him the power to create a new government
23The Nazi StateMarch 23, Chancellor Hitler convinces the Reichstag to pass the Enabling Act which would allow the government to ignore the constitution for four years to deal directly with Germany’s problems.
24The Nazi StateThe passage of the Enabling Act appoints Hitler as the Dictator of Germany, giving him the LEGAL leeway to set his grand plan into motion.
25Hitler’s PlanAll Jews and democratic elements were purged from civil service.Concentration camps were created to imprison all those who opposed the new government.Trade Unions were dissolvedAll Political Parties were abolished, except the Nazi Party.The office of the President was abolished after the death of President Hindenburg in 1934
26Soviet UnionAfter WWI Russia experienced a difficult period in their history.Lenin’s war communism policy was not effective so he shifted to a more socialistic economic system.Peasants were allowed to sell their produce openlyRetail and small industry (less then 20 workers) would remain privately ownedHeavy Industry, banking and mining would be controlled by the government.
27Rise of StalinWhen Lenin died in a struggle within the politburo (leading policy making body of the communist government) over the new leader.Two leaders emergedLeon TrotskyJosef Stalin
28Power struggleLeon Trotsky wanted to end Lenin’s economic plan and launch Russia on a path of rapid industrialization and spread communism to other countries.Stalin had similar ideas, and became involved in a personal rivalry with Trotsky.
29Rise of StalinIn the end Stalin used us position as general secretary of the communist party to seize control of the entire communist party.By 1929 Stalin had eliminated the Bolsheviks from the Politburo and created a powerful dictatorship.
30Soviet Union under Stalin In one of his first acts as leader of the Politburo was to end Lenin’s economic plan and launch one of his own.Five year plan: Stalin’s economic plan to rapidly change Russia from agricultural to industrial virtually overnight.
31Soviet Union under Stalin The first of Stalin’s plans emphasized production of capital goods and armaments.The plan quadrupled the production of heavy machinery, doubled oil production and increased steel production by almost five times.
32Cost of Stalin’s programs During the five year plan, farmer’s land was seized by the government and held collectively.This process of collectivization was met strong resistance by the private farmers, when they started to hoarding crops.Nevertheless, by million family farms had been collectivized into 250,000 units.
33Cost of Stalin’s programs During the collectivization ,10 million peasants died from famine and Stalin hardly cared.Stalin did allow the families to have small plot of land for a private garden.Those who resisted Stalin’s programs were sent to forced labor camps in Siberia.Stalin wanted to run things himself,which led to purges of the RussianGovernment.Many prominent Old Bolsheviks were put on trial or condemned to death.
34Stalin’s Purges Old Bolsheviks Army Officials Diplomats Party Members IntellectualsNumerous Ordinary Citizens8 million Russians were either sent to Siberia or executed.