Presentation on theme: "The apparent triumph of Democracy in Europe in 1919 was regrettably short lived. By 1939 only two European countries maintained a Democracy. France Great."— Presentation transcript:
The apparent triumph of Democracy in Europe in 1919 was regrettably short lived. By 1939 only two European countries maintained a Democracy. France Great Britain The rest of Europe had adopted Totalitarian Dictatorships or Fascism Governments
In the early 1920’s Benito Mussolini established the first Fascist Government in Italy Fascism glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a Dictator with an Iron Fist. Any opposition is repressed, often violently
After a severe recession following WWI much of Europe faced more working class strikes. Rather then risk a communist takeover Mussolini formed a paramilitary group called the Blackshirts and began attacking Socialist offices in Italy
The middle class fear of socialism and communism made Mussolini’s movement much more attractive Mussolini played on national pride, feeling that Italy was not given enough land as part of the Treaty of Versailles.
In 1922, Mussolini and his Blackshirts threatened to march on Rome. The Italian King Victor Emmanuel III gave in and appointed Mussolini Prime Mister of Italy
New Government Powers: Suspend publications that criticized the Catholic Church, the Monarchy, or the State Prime Minister was made the head of the Government with the power to make laws. The Police were granted unrestricted authority to arrest and imprison anyone for political or non-political crimes. All other political parties were outlawed.
Mussolini also established the Italian Secret Police, called OVRA, with the sole purpose to watch the citizens political activities and enforce government policies. Mussolini tried to control the mass media and use it to spread Fascist propaganda, largely to little effect considering all they used were simple slogans like “Mussolini Is Always Right.”
Mussolini also used organizations to promote his Fascist vision For example Fascist Youth organizations, which included about 66% of the 8-18 population These Italian Fascist Youth groups focused on military activities and values.
The idea with these organizations was to create a new Italian culture that was fit, disciplined, and war – loving. However, in practice Mussolini’s Italy maintained traditional values and practices. Women were expected to stay at home Mussolini “their natural and fundamental mission in life.” In the long term compromise was Mussolini’s diplomatic policy.
Mussolini recognized the sovereign independence of Vatican City, a city-state within Rome since 1870 When Mussolini formally recognized the sovereignty of the Vatican, the Pope in turn recognized the Italian State. Mussolini gave a large sum of money to the Catholic Church and recognized Catholicism as the “sole religion of the State” In return the Vatican gave support to Mussolini and his Fascist government. Mussolini’s Fascist government promised much, but delivered little however.
The premier student of Fascism was none other then Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany. Most of Hitler Fascist policies were direct copies of Mussolini’s Italy.
A high school drop out, born in Austria, Adolf Hitler developed his corrupted view of the world while living in Vienna, Austria trying to become an artist. After being rejected by the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, Hitler became bitter and began to formulate is “grand vision”
Hitler’s Core Beliefs: Anti-Semitism Anti-Homosexuality Anti-Gypsy Pro-Aryan (claimed to be the ancestors of the German people and western culture) Propaganda and Terror could be effective tools for politics.
After serving in the German Military four years on the Western Front during WWI Hitler entered politics. Hitler joined a virtually unknown right-wing extreme Nationalist party called the German Workers Party
By the Summer of 1921 Hitler had taken control of the German Worker’s party, renaming it the National Socialist German Worker’s Party or Nazi Party for short. Within two years membership in the Nazi party surged to 55,000 people. This Nazi militia became known as the SA, the Brownshirts (because of their uniforms), And Stormtroopers
Overconfident Hitler and his Nazi Stormtroopers tried to stage an uprising against the German government This Beer Hall Putsch was quickly crushed and Hitler spent the next few years in jail
While in jail Hitler wrote his book Mein Kampf detailing his beliefs and his vision for a new Germany In Mein Kampf extreme German nationalism, strong anti-Semitism and anti-communism are linked together via Social Darwinism.
Mein Kampf emphasizes the right of superior nations to lebensraum (living space through expansion) and the right of Superior individuals to gain authoritarian leadership over the masses While in jail however, Hitler came to realize that the only way to achieve this plan was gain power via legal means, not a violent overthrow.
Upon release from prison, Hitler expanded his Nazi party to all parts of Germany. By 1929 the Nazi party had become a national party organization By 1932 the Nazi party was the largest party in the Reichstag with over 800,000 members.
No doubt the economic woes of the Great Depression played a part in the support for the Nazi party. Hitler promised a new Germany, appealing to national pride, national honor and traditional militarism struck a emotional chord to the German Population
By 1930 Hitler realized the Reichstag had little power when controlling government affairs. With little faith in the German President, the right- wing elites, landed aristocrats, military officers and higher bureaucrats looked to a very charismatic Adolf Hitler for leadership German President Hindenburg awarded Hitler the title of Chancellor and granted him the power to create a new government
March 23, 1933 Chancellor Hitler convinces the Reichstag to pass the Enabling Act which would allow the government to ignore the constitution for four years to deal directly with Germany’s problems.
The passage of the Enabling Act appoints Hitler as the Dictator of Germany, giving him the LEGAL leeway to set his grand plan into motion.
All Jews and democratic elements were purged from civil service. Concentration camps were created to imprison all those who opposed the new government. Trade Unions were dissolved All Political Parties were abolished, except the Nazi Party. The office of the President was abolished after the death of President Hindenburg in 1934
After WWI Russia experienced a difficult period in their history. Lenin’s war communism policy was not effective so he shifted to a more socialistic economic system. Peasants were allowed to sell their produce openly Retail and small industry (less then 20 workers) would remain privately owned Heavy Industry, banking and mining would be controlled by the government.
When Lenin died in 1924 a struggle within the politburo (leading policy making body of the communist government) over the new leader. Two leaders emerged Leon Trotsky Josef Stalin
Leon Trotsky wanted to end Lenin’s economic plan and launch Russia on a path of rapid industrialization and spread communism to other countries. Stalin had similar ideas, and became involved in a personal rivalry with Trotsky.
In the end Stalin used us position as general secretary of the communist party to seize control of the entire communist party. By 1929 Stalin had eliminated the Bolsheviks from the Politburo and created a powerful dictatorship.
In one of his first acts as leader of the Politburo was to end Lenin’s economic plan and launch one of his own. Five year plan: Stalin’s economic plan to rapidly change Russia from agricultural to industrial virtually overnight.
The first of Stalin’s plans emphasized production of capital goods and armaments. The plan quadrupled the production of heavy machinery, doubled oil production and increased steel production by almost five times.
During the five year plan, farmer’s land was seized by the government and held collectively. This process of collectivization was met strong resistance by the private farmers, when they started to hoarding crops. Nevertheless, by million family farms had been collectivized into 250,000 units.
During the collectivization,10 million peasants died from famine and Stalin hardly cared. Stalin did allow the families to have small plot of land for a private garden. Those who resisted Stalin’s programs were sent to forced labor camps in Siberia. Stalin wanted to run things himself, which led to purges of the Russian Government. Many prominent Old Bolsheviks were put on trial or condemned to death.
Old Bolsheviks Army Officials Diplomats Party Members Intellectuals Numerous Ordinary Citizens 8 million Russians were either sent to Siberia or executed.