Presentation on theme: "Dr. Seuss and Social Stratificaton"— Presentation transcript:
1 Dr. Seuss and Social Stratificaton “When the Star-Belly children went out to play ball, Could a Plain Belly get in the game? Not at all. You only could play if your bellies had stars And the Plain-Belly children had none upon thars.” -The Sneetches and other StoriesThe “Sneetches And Other Stories” by Dr. Seuss is a story about two groups of “sneetches”. One group has stars on their bellies, and the other doesn’t. The star-bellied sneetches are looked at as superior to the inferior plain-bellied sneetches, and as a result of this, plain-bellies are shunned from picnics, parties, and events that star-bellies regularly attend. However having a star or not has no technical advantage, so should they stratify their society as such?
2 ANIMAL FARM In the beginning of the book, the author says "All animals are created equal.”In the end of the book, the author says “All animals are created equal but some are more equal than others.”The pigs take over the classless barnyard and make it their own, with their rules.They mock the tendency of humans to form ranks.They write their rules against humans“Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy, No animal shall wear clothes. No animal shall sleep in a bed. No animal shall drink alcohol.”Whoever goes against it is outlawed from the group, andseen as inferior to the rest of the group.The pigs are seen as superior and never seem to make mistakesand can bend the rules themselves.
4 Social Stratification Ranking of people or groups according to their unequal access to scarce resources.Most important resources are:IncomeWealthPowerPrestige
5 What is social stratification? A hierarchy of relative privilege based on power, income,wealth, and prestigeLots of power, property, and prestigeSome power, property, and prestigeVery little power, property, or prestige.
6 Social ClassMax Weber argued that class was a combination of property, prestige, and power.Is this a better way of thinking about social class?Why do you need all three in order to understand social class?Usually, if you have one, you can get the others…PropertyPrestigePower
7 Bill Gates - Property He has property - $58 billion as of 2008 Does he have prestige?Just spoke at TEDWhat about power?PrestigePropertyPower
8 Bill Clinton - Power He had power as president Does he have property? Made $35,000 per year as governor of Arkansas prior to running for presidentStandard speaking fee today - $150,000; makes around $10 million per yearWhat about prestige?PrestigePowerProperty
9 Michael Phelps - Prestige Gained prestige as an Olympic athleteDoes he have property?Makes millions via endorsementsNet worth is somewhere around $6-$10 millionHis contract with Speedo, which has been extended through 2009, is estimated to be worth about $9 million.What about power?PropertyPrestigePower
10 Consequences of Social Class Does social class matter?How?Physical HealthPoorer are less likely to have health insurance (Brian)This reduces access to healthcareReduces life expectancyAlso tend to have poorer eating and exercising habitsMental HealthGreater stresses in life translate into worse mental healthPoorer classes have worse mental health than wealthier classes
11 Consequences of Social Class Family LifeChoices of husbands and wives is particularly importantPrestige, respect, and tradition matterThis also helps maintain money among the moneyedDivorceHigher odds of divorce among the poorer classesResult of stressesChild RearingTalked about different socialization – working class push obedience; upper classes push creativity
12 Consequences of Social Class How does class affect education?How are primary and secondary education funded in the U.S.?What significance does this have for educational attainment and quality of education?What about college and graduate school? How are they funded?Think about it in terms of a race…
13 The Runner Example So, is the educational system in the US fair? Student in wealthy district has a head startIf equally skilled, the student in the poorer district never catches upSo, is the educational system in the US fair?To catch up, the only option available to the poorer student is to run faster13
14 Consequences of Social Class ReligionSome connection to class, but diminishing – we’ll talk more about this laterFor now, just note that more conservative religious groups (e.g., Pentecostals, Baptists) tend to attract people from lower classes…PoliticsHigher social classes tend to vote conservative and Republican – Why?Intriguing interaction – more conservative religious groups tend to attract lower socioeconomic classes, who then vote conservativelyWhy is this not in their best interest?Why do they do it?
15 Consequences of Social Class Crime and the Judicial SystemThe lower your social class, the higher your odds of being arrested for a crimeSocial Class and the Changing EconomyDoes globalization – the spreading of a global culture and the development of a world economy – equally affect the different classes?Why/Why not?Who are the lower classes competing with for jobs?What does this do to their wages?Increasingly it isn’t the lower classes competing…
16 IncomeTh amount of money or its equivalent received during a period of time in exchange for labor or services, from the sale of goods or property, or as profit from financial investments.
17 Wealth -The greater amount of money or the valuable items possessed by an individual or group.
19 PowerDefinition: the ability to control the behavior of others, even against their willCan be given( through elections for example) and/or inherited (monarchy system)There is some form of power in every societyThose in power often use corrupt ways to push their policies and beliefs
20 Power Paris Hilton arrested on DUIs Jail cell description, a special section “reserved for police officers, public officials, celebrities and other high-profile inmates” in Century Regional Detention Facility, an all female jail in Lynwood, CaliforniaHow does this reflect power?
21 Prestige1. reputation or influence arising from success, achievement, rank, or other favorable attributes.2. distinction or reputation attaching to a person or thing and thus possessing a cachet for others or for the public:An Example: The system, run by the Jordanian king himself, enjoys an unlikely prestige.
22 Why does Social Stratification Happen ?Structural Functionalism Why is social stratification “universal”?Davis and Moore’s ExplanationSociety must make sure all necessary positions are filled (e.g., garbage collector)Some positions are more important than othersIs this true?More important positions are filled by more qualified peopleAgain, is this true? And, what is meant by “qualified”?To motivate qualified people, they must be rewardedIs this true? Evidence from Soviet UnionTumin’s Critique of Davis and MooreHow do we know which positions are most important?Stratification should lead to an actual meritocracyStratification should to benefit everyoneDo we need stratification?
23 What is it?It explains that social, political, and material inequality exists because some people are willing to exploit othersInequal people
24 Social Class in America Social class is a controversial issue in the United States, having many competing definitions, models, and even disagreements over its very existence. Many Americans believe in a simple three-class model that includes the "rich", the "middle class", and the "poor". More complex models that have been proposed describe as many as a dozen class levels; while still others deny the very existence, in the strict sense, of "social class" in American society. Most definitions of class structure group people according to wealth, income, education, type of occupation, and membership in a specific subculture or social network.
26 Functionalist Theory Of Stratification It recognizes that some jobs are more important than others, and that these jobs often require special training or special talents. Usually the more qualified people fill the most important positions.
27 The Upper Class Only 1 percent population. The top is “aristocracy” Represents the old-money families whose names appear in high society.For membership its most elite in blood rather than sweat and tears.Seldom marry outside their class.The rich is talking about how the poor man is nothing in society.
28 Lower Upper Class- New Money This is the bottom end of the upper class.Most people in the lower upper class have gotten there wealth from some type of athletic or business achievement. Being born into or inheriting wealth is not as common.Certain jobs such as doctors, lawyers and business men can also be categorized in this class.An average income for the lower upper class would be $100,000 and up.
29 Working-Poor ClassAccording to the US Census Bureau, in 2010, 21 million people lived in working-poor families. 9.6 percent of all American families living below 100 percent of poverty have at least one family member working . Truck drivers unload trucks or small part time jobs.
30 The Working ClassThe working class (sometimes called "proletariat") consists of all people who must work for someone else in order to make money with which to survive. This includes factory workers, maintenance people, programmers, cooks, dishwashers, secretaries, firemen, etc.Usually work long hours for enough money to get by
31 The Working ClassEssentially, members of the working class work in unskilled or semiskilled professions for wages which are typically low. Typically, working class work environments are distinguished by very rigid schedules with penalties for workers who run late or slack on the job, and they are often organized in a very hierarchical way, with a clear delineation between workers, managers, and employers. The term also includes dependent family members of someone working in such an industry.
32 UnderclassUnderclass are people, typically unemployed, who came from families that have been poor for generations.They lack an education and skillsMany are single mothers with little to no incomeSome underclass people work in part-time mental jobs (unloading trucks, picking up litter, etc.), in addition physical and mental disabilities are common.There are many routes to this class- birth, old age, loss of a marriage, lack of education, alcoholism, physical or mental disabilities, however, there are very few paths out.
33 Absolute PovertyThe absence of enough money to secure life’s necessities like enough food, a place to live, clothing, etc.Receive the minimum amount of income.Poverty is measured in an annual income level.People below the average income level are considered as “absolute poverty”
36 What is itA relative measure of poverty is essentially a measure of inequality in the lower half of the income distribution.
37 How is it measered?A nation’s relative poverty rate is determined largely by three things: wage inequality among individuals in the bottom half of the distribution, employment inequality among households in the bottom half, and the generosity of the public safety net.
39 Well…Relative poverty measurements can sometimes produce odd results, especially in small populations
40 Poverty Cycle Endless continuation of poverty. Once a person or community falls below a certain level of resourcefulness, a chain of events starts to occur that tends to perpetuate the situationLeading to lack of employment opportunities.Effects (Snowball Effect)-Leads to criminal activity (such as sale of illegal drugs) for survival, leading to addiction, shattered health, early death, and breakup of family, leading to even bleaker future for the next generation ... and so on. This cycle continues until someone intervenes by providing worthwhile means (not handouts) for people to climb out of destitution, and by ensuring children's health and education. See also poverty trap.
41 Social Mobility Refer to horizontal mobility Denotes movement from one position to anotherWithin same social levelChange jobs without altering occupational statusMovement of individuals, families, groups through system of social hierarchy, stratification = American Culture
42 Percent of Population Living on Less than $1 per day - 2006
44 Horatio AlgerInfluential writer who used his rags to respectability formula for many books that gave credence to the American dream.
45 Examples of social inequalities Education: who has access to the best education possibleHealth care: who gets the newest medicines and attentionJobs: who has the best opportunities for the best jobsTechnologies: who has access to the newest devices to help in everyday lifeHome ownership: who is able to own or rent a place to live
46 Has Welfare Reform Worked? In million families were on welfare by 2004 the amount of families dropped to less than 2 million.63% of welfare receiving mothers got a job within 3 years of welfare reform.Former welfare recipiants averaged $8 dollars an hour wages which means many received over minimum wage.
47 Welfare ReformThe process of reforming the framework of social security and welfare provisions
48 What is the nature of Welfare Reform? 23% social security, 19% national defense, 12% Medicare, 11% Net Interest, 6% other means tested entitlements, 7% Medicaid, 6% Other MandatoryBenefits to children of unwed teenage mothers are denied unless mother remains in school and lives with adultCash aid to able bodied adults will be terminated if they fail to get job after 2 years
49 1 Example of a wealthy American who pays little taxes Warren BuffettOne of America’s wealthiest menUpper 1%Only pays 11% taxFavors paying higher tax with Obama tax cutsSecretary currently pays more tax than him
50 DescriptionAn Open Class System is the stratification that facilitates social mobility, with individual achievement and personal merit determining social rank.The hierarchical social status of a person is achieved through their effort. Any status that is based on family background, ethnicity, gender, and religion, which is also known as ascribed status, becomes less important.There is no distinct line between the classes and there would be more positions within that status. Core industrial nations seem to have more of an ideal open class system.
51 Vertical Mobility Vertical Mobility When a person’s occupational status or social class moves upward or downwardExample of upward: a cubical workers becomes a CEOExample of downward: a Doctor becomes unemployed
52 In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Clothing may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.
53 Muslim men traditionally wear white robes and a cap during prayers
55 In some societies, clothing may be used to indicate rank or status. In ancient Rome, for example, only senators were permitted to wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple.
56 Who uses this class structure? East Asian countries such as:South KoreaJapanTaiwan
57 2010 Poverty Thresholds, Selected Family Types Single IndividualUnder 65 years $ 11,34465 years & older $ 10,458 Single ParentOne child $ 15,030Two children $ 17,568 Two AdultsNo children $ 14,602 $ 17,552 $ 22,113Three children $ 26,023
58 Intergenerational Mobility Intergenerational Mobility for any individual is primarily determined by two factors. One factor is the amount of opportunity in society. Another is the rate of economic growth associated change in occupational structure.Opportunity is defined as a degree to which income and social status are determined by the innate skills and ambitions of the individual and not inherited advantages and disadvantages.The more closely a person’s socioeconomic status is determined by parent’s status, the less opportunity existsThe more independent the two parents are, the more opportunity is present. Children with equal abilities will have equal chances to succeed.
59 How does the United States measure poverty? The United States determines the official poverty rate using poverty thresholds that are issued each year by the Census Bureau. The thresholds represent the annual amount of cash income minimally required to support families of various sizes.The methodology for calculating the thresholds was established in the mid-1960s and has not changed in the intervening years. The thresholds are updated annually to account for inflation.[
60 How has poverty changed over time? In the late 1950s, the poverty rate for all Americans was 22.4 percent, or 39.5 million individuals. These numbers declined steadily throughout the 1960s, reaching a low of 11.1 percent, or 22.9 million individuals, in Over the next decade, the poverty rate fluctuated between 11.1 and 12.6 percent, but it began to rise steadily again in By 1983, the number of poor individuals had risen to 35.3 million individuals, or 15.2 percent.For the next ten years, the poverty rate remained above 12.8 percent, increasing to 15.1 percent, or 39.3 million individuals, by The rate declined for the remainder of the decade, to 11.3 percent by From 2000 to 2004 it rose each year to 12.7 in 2004.
61 StatisticsIn 2010, 46.2 million people were in poverty, up from 43.6 million in 2009—the fourth consecutive annual increase in the number of people in poverty.The poverty rate in 2010 (15.1 percent) was the highest poverty rate since 1993 but was 7.3 percentage points lower than the poverty rate in 1959, the first year for which poverty estimates are available.Between 2009 and 2010, the poverty rate increased for non-Hispanic Whites (from 9.4 percent to 9.9 percent), for Blacks (from 25.8 percent to 27.4 percent), and for Hispanics (from 25.3 percent to 26.6 percent). For Asians, the 2010 poverty rate (12.1 percent) was not statistically different from the 2009 poverty rate
62 Cont.The number of people in poverty in 2010 (46.2 million) is the largest number in the 52 years for which poverty estimates have been published.Between 2009 and 2010, the poverty rate increased for children under age 18 (from 20.7 percent to 22.0 percent) and people aged 18 to 64 (from 12.9 percent to 13.7 percent), but was not statistically different for people aged 65 and older (9.0 percent).The official poverty rate in 2010 was 15.1 percent — up from 14.3 percent in This was the third consecutive annual increase in the poverty rate. Since 2007, the poverty rate has increased by 2.6 percentage points, from 12.5 percent to 15.1 percent.
63 WAR ON POVERTYIn 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson’s “War on Poverty” expands the government’s role in providing housing, education, and health care to the poor.
64 What factors do you think made this happen at this time ?
65 Caste SystemThe Indian caste system is a system of social stratification and social restriction in India in which communities are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called Jātis.
66 Untouchables Caste System The untouchables were the outcastes, or people beyond the caste system. Their jobs or habits involved “polluting activities” including:-Any job that involved ending a life, such as fishing.-Killing or disposing of dead cattle or working with their hides.-Any contact with human emissions such as sweat, urine, or feces. This included occupational groups such as sweepers and washer men.-People who ate meat. This category included most of the primitive Indian hill tribes.Untouchables were often forbidden to enter temples, schools and wells where higher castes drew water. In some parts of southern India, even the sight of untouchables was thought to be polluting. The untouchables forced to sleep during the day and work at night.
67 Age and Social Class9.1% of people 55 and over are below poverty; the other 90.9% are at or above.27% of children 18 and under suffer from poverty.18% of adults suffer from poverty.Older people have always been wealthier than the young. Older people have been racing ahead, helped by government retirement benefits. Young people are running in place, partly because they're delaying careers to get more education.Ages 55-59: Median income rose 52% in the last 15 years.Ages 35-39: Median household net worth fell 28% to $48,940. Median income fell 10%.
68 Systems of Social Stratification – Caste System Status in the social hierarchy is determined by birth; generally life-longIndia’s Religious CastesBrahman – priests and teachersKshatriya – rulers and soldiersVaishya – Merchants and tradersShudra – Peasants and laborersDalit – outcastes; degrading laborers (clean up waste)Abolished in 1949, but still continues at some levelsSouth Africa - apartheidDivided by “race” – blacks, whites, mixed, and Asians; determined social status in hierarchy and jobs – ended in 1990sU.S. Racial Caste SystemInformal/formal system – considered “higher status” if white; for some groups, this continues until today (hate groups)
69 Psychological cost of downward mobility The consequences are enormous for people in a society that measures self-worth by occupational status. Downwardly mobile people experience lowered self-esteem, despair, depression, feelings of powerlessness, and a loss of a sense of honor.
70 Capitalism and Stratification Does capitalism lead to stratification?What checks and balances do we have on capitalism in the U.S.?Regulation, anti-monopolization legislationWhy does capitalism seem to be winning around the world?Capitalism leads to competitionCompetition (think evolution) leads to change, generally toward more advanced technologiesCompetition gives capitalist countries the edge over non-capitalist countries – in both money and technologyCapitalism (and overspending) destroyed Soviet communism
71 How do elites maintain stratification? Do elites try to maintain stratification systems?Why would they?How do they do it?Ideologies and ForceReligion?Eternal lifeMedia?Hugo Chaves in U.S. mediaWho owns the media companies in the U.S.?NBC – owned by GE; CBS – was owned by Westinghouse, now by National Amusements, Inc.; ABC – Walt Disney company; Fox – News CorporationAll of these companies own businesses other than news; Why?Force?Kill or imprison those who criticizeFree press – necessary?
72 Social MobilityRefers to changes in class - generally changes between one generation and the nextDoes this happen?1/3 of children end up in the same social class as their parents (that means going up and down)Correlation of .4 between incomes of parents and incomes of childrenNOTE: The U.S. – the alleged land of “rags to riches” – has less social mobility than many other developed countries (except the U.K.).
73 What is poverty? What does it mean to be poor? Relative povertyA sense of relative deprivation – you feel like you have less than othersAbsolute povertyYou cannot afford the basic necessities of lifeThe U.S. government draws a line for poverty in the U.S…
75 Myths about the poor Most are lazy Poor are trapped and few escape Half are too old or young to workWhat about the other half?30% work part time; many others don’t make enough workingPoor are trapped and few escapeFor most, poverty (by federal definition) is short-livedMost are Latino and African-AmericanDisproportionate percentage, but most are whiteMost are single mothers and kidsOnly about 38%Most live in inner cityAbout 42%Most are on welfare25% of poor people’s income comes from welfare; 25% from Social Security; the balance is from wages
76 Culture of PovertyAre the poor just a bunch of welfare mothers who abuse the system?Very few fit that stereotype…Most want to workWe should be asking a different question: Why aren’t there enough jobs?
77 Why are people poor?Features of society deny opportunity to certain groupsEducation, social mobility, job market, selfishness, etc.Unemployment is a necessary component of capitalismWe even punish and penalize the poorWelfare reform in the mid 1990s limited time on welfareAre all the poor “undeserving”?Is there such a thing as “deserving” poor?Who?
78 Poverty – final thoughts Cultural element – Delayed gratificationWhy is this important for poverty?How is this important?Who (which social class) teaches it to offspring?Is America the land of dreams, where anyone can go from “rags to riches”, like Horatio Alger claimed?How exactly would that work?We can’t all exploit someone…
80 High development.8 to 1Mid development.5 to .799Low development.3 to .499
81 What is social class?People who rank close to one another on wealth, power, and prestigeWealthDistinction between wealth and incomeProperty (including cash) minus debtsDistribution of wealth, property, and income (following slides)Power – the ability to carry out your will despite resistanceWho has power in the U.S.?How do we know?Prestige – how much respect is leveled toward an occupationHigh prestige occupations generally:pay morerequire more educationentail more abstract thoughtoffer greater autonomy
82 Jains and Muslim men wear unstitched cloth pieces when performing religious ceremonies. The unstitched cloth signifies unified and complete devotion to the task at hand, with no digression.
83 Status InconsistencyOrdinarily wealth, power, and prestige are similarWhen they don’t match, can lead to more radical political viewse.g., college professors – high prestige, low power and wealthOne of the most radical professions in their socio- political viewsOther examples?
84 Determinants of Social Class Max Weber argued that class was a combination of property, prestige, andpower…How do you know who has “power”?Why do you need all three in order to understand social class?
86 WHAT IS THE AMERICAN DREAM? The American Dream is the traditional social ideals of the US, such as equality, democracy, and material prosperity.The ideals of freedom, equality, and opportunity traditionally held to be available to every American.A life of personal happiness and material comfort as traditionally sought by individuals in the U.S.
87 DYING DREAM CONTINUEDJames Truslow Adams, published a definition of the American Dream, describes it as "a dream of a social order in which each man and each woman should be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position."ABC News put out a poll showing that 62 percentof Americans are spending less on things like vacations, cars, and dining out.Americans don’t want the high expensive items anymore, they feel like it would be best to back track to a more less appeal.
88 IS THE AMERICAN DREAM DYING? American dream of success, fame and wealth through thrift and hard work. However, the industrialization began to erode the dream, replacing it with a philosophy of "get rich quick".Graph: The debt of school loans, car insurance, taxes, marriage, and home insurance is not enough to sustainthat throughout the years.Too much spending, too expensivefor America, having whatever wewant is not appealing anymore.We want something that won’t bringus to spending our hard work.
89 HOW DID WE GET TO THE DECREASE OF THE “DREAM”? Americans are struggling—squeezed by rising costs, declining wages, credit-card debt and diminished benefits, with little left over to save for retirement.America’s money is increasing. We spend more as it increases throughout the years.Too much spending has broughtthe Americans to not want tospend as much money so theycan look to the future of a betterlife for them and their families.
90 HOW IS THE “DREAM” TODAY? 5.9 million Americans ages 25 to 34 are living with their parents.Men are now twice as likely as young women to live with their parents.There's not just one American Dream, but a multitude of American Dreams which a multitude of people are working toward.
91 BARRIERS TO THE AMERICAN DREAM Government as Help or Hindrance:72% of Americans believe that thegovernment should actively work tohelp people achieve the AmericanDream.45% believe the government hasdone more to hinder their pursuitof the American Dream than help.85% say that local, state andfederal government must worktogether to give people a fair shotat achieving the American Dream.Two-thirds of the American people say the American Dream is becoming harder to achieve, especially for young families.
92 THE “DREAM” IN REAL LIFE The earn, spend, earn era has come toan end for us," Patrick Wojtowicz says. "The idea of living a fuller, more satisfying life seems simple to us now. … Money, cash, credit, maybe they don't matter. Maybe, just maybe, it is those things that impede our ability to be truly happy…”People like Patrick see that what we earn should be used cautiously and not spend once we get the check. We shouldn’t splurge on what we think is a necessary product.
93 WHAT WILL IT BE LIKE IN THE FUTURE? “…fewer facelifts…less Botox, less dyed hair…They will look more like people used to look, before perfection came in. Middle-aged bodies will be thicker and softer…The new home fashion will be spare: the good, frayed carpet; dogs that look like dogs and not a hairdo in a teacup..."America is retreating to what we used to have before everyone wanted to be perfected.
94 WHAT IS THE AMERICAN DREAM TO YOU? This video shows what people in Washington, D.C. think the American Dream is to them.We all have different perspectives on what it means to us and how we should live it.Many people had a different answer,asked people of all different ages,and of different ethnicities, andprobably different success rates.