Presentation on theme: "World War I Mr. Laychuk 2013. Soldiers during World War I The First World War When the First World War began in 1914, few believed it wouldn’t last very."— Presentation transcript:
Soldiers during World War I The First World War When the First World War began in 1914, few believed it wouldn’t last very long. Many young people in Canada and elsewhere saw the war as an exciting chance for travel, adventure, and glory. NEXT
SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 World War I Begins Battles and Technology The War at Home Wilson Fights for Peace NEXT The First World War
Section 1 World War I Begins As World War I intensifies, Canada contributes over 600 000 men to the cause.
Causes of World War I Nationalism Nationalism—devotion to one’s nation Nationalism leads to competition, antagonism between nations Various ethnic groups resent domination, want independence 1 SECTION NEXT
Causes of World War I 1 SECTION NEXT Imperialism Powerful countries practised imperialism by establishing colonies all over the world to create empires. They exploited the land and resources of the weaker nations they controlled.
Causes of World War I 1 SECTION NEXT As the European powers scrambled for possessions in Africa, they needed to justify their actions. One such justification was the notion of the "white man's burden," which suggested that it was the duty of whites to assist Africans and other "inferior" peoples of the world by introducing them to the benefits of “civilization.”
Militarism Nations glamorized their armed forces, and the size of their armies and navies became essential to national prestige. They embraced militarism and saw war as an acceptable way to resolve conflicts and achieve their goals. 1 SECTION NEXT Causes of World War I
1 SECTION NEXT Causes of World War I Alliance System These intense rivalries in Europe resulted in a rush to make or join alliances. By the early 1900s, all the Great Powers in Europe were in alliances with other countries, promising to support one another if they were attacked
1 SECTION NEXT Causes of World War I Alliance System Triple Entente or Allies—France, Britain, Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire are Central Powers Alliances give security; nations unwilling to tip balance of power
1 SECTION NEXT Causes of World War I Balance of Power: The situation, especially before World War I, in which the strong nations of Europe attempted to remain of equal strength militarily and in their alliances.
1 SECTION NEXT Causes of World War I An arms race is a competition between two or more countries for military supremacy. Each party competes to produce larger numbers of weapons, greater armies, or superior military technology.
Section 2 Technology & Battles World War I was not inevitable, as many historians say. It could have been avoided, and it was a diplomatically botched negotiation.
2 SECTION NEXT Technology Trench Warfare: By the war's end, each side had dug at least 12,000 miles of trenches.
Sam Hughes Sam armed his men with the Canadian Ross rifle The rifles jammed in the mud and overheated after quick firing Hughes refused to replace them until it was to late Many died for his folly 2 SECTION Technology
Official figures declare about 1,176,500 non-fatal casualties and 85,000 fatalities directly caused by chemical weapon agents during the course of the war. 2 SECTION Technology
Gas at Ypres Modern warfare was born at Ypres,Belgium April 22,1915 The German army released 5700 gas cylinders The chlorine gas drifted across “no man’s land” The French colonial troops broke and ran The Canadians rushed in to close the gap The advance was stopped 2 SECTION Technology
The Germans first used gas against the Russians on Jan 13, 1915 with little effect Even German dogs were outfitted with gas masks 2 SECTION Technology
Blind British soldiers waiting for help. This image illustrates the idea of war of attrition. 2 SECTION Technology
Tanks The fighting conditions of the Western Front prompted the British Army to begin research into a self-propelled vehicle which could cross trenches, crush barbed wire, and would be impervious to fire from machine-guns. 2 SECTION Technology
Unlike semi-automatic firearms, which require one trigger pull per bullet fired, a machine gun is designed to fire bullets as long as the trigger is held down and ammunition is fed into the weapon. 2 SECTION Technology
2 SECTION Technology The first recorded powered flight was in 1903 when the Wright brothers flew their aircraft. In the autumn of 1914 a new recruit to the Royal Flying Corps had a greater chance of being killed during training than during combat.
Canada In The Air Canada produced more and better pilots than any other country Of the top 27 aces 10 were Canadian Billy Bishop Owen Sound Ontario “The Lone Wolf” 72 victories 3th for the war Raymond Collishaw Nanaimo BC 60 victories 5 th Will Barker Dauphin Manitoba Canada’s most decorated war hero Roy Brown a Canadian flyer who was credited with shooting down the “Red Baron” 2 SECTION Technology
Death was a constant companion to those serving in the line, even when no raid or attack was launched or defended against. In busy sectors the constant shellfire directed by the enemy brought random death. Shell Shock 2 SECTION Technology
In May of 1915, U-20 sank the liner RMS Lusitania. Though there was a great deal of outrage at the sinking of an "innocent" merchant ship at the time, historians now believe the Lusitania had 10 tons of weapons aboard, making it a valid target under international law. The Arms Race 2 SECTION Technology
Emperor Franz Joseph 2 SECTION Important People
Franz Ferdinand, Sophia and children 2 SECTION Important People
Nicholas II and George V 2 SECTION Important People
On JUNE 28, 1914, the heir to un Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Bosnia had been part of Austria-Hungary since 1908, but it was claimed by neighboring Serbia. Austria- Hungary blamed Serbia for the assassination, and on July 28 declared war. NEXT 2 SECTION Start of the War
From an early age, he suffered from tuberculosis, which was his eventual cause of death in 1918, and was also one of the reasons he let himself kill Archduke Ferdinand in the first place. Most historians agree that Princip was a member of the Black Hand. 2 SECTION Start of the War
The Schlieffen Plan If Germany fights Russia it must also fight Russia’s ally, France If Germany fights anyone, it must be the first to launch the attack A military-diplomatic powder keg: If politicians believe that war has become inevitable, they will strike the first blow and make it happen 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
The first division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) arrived in France in February 1915. These forces soon became involved in combat along the Western Front, including decisive battles in France and Belgium at Ypres, the Somme, Vimy Ridge, and Passchendaele. 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
THE CHRISTMAS TRUCE On Christmas Eve 1914, soldiers on patrol sang carols to each other in comradely greetings. The following day, troops along two-thirds of the front did not fight and church services were held. A few soldiers crossed into no-man’s-land to talk to their enemy and exchange simple gifts of cigarettes and other items. 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
The Second Battle of Ypres On April 22,1915, French and Canadian troops were blinded, burned, or killed when the Germans used chlorine gas, a tactic that had been outlawed by international agreement since 1907. 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
The Battle of Vimy Ridge In 1914, the Germans took control of Vimy Ridge, a key position near the Somme. This vantage point gave a clear view of the surrounding countryside, supply routes, and enemy positions. For more than two years, both French and British forces tried to capture the ridge but were unsuccessful. 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
Late in 1916, Canadian troops were chosen to lead a new assault on Vimy Ridge. Julian Byng, carefully planned the attack. –Artillery bombarded German positions for more than a month. –Sappers (army engineers) built tunnels to secretly move troops closer to the ridge. –On April 10, they captured Hill 145, the highest point on the ridge. By April 12 they had taken “the pimple,” the last German position. 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
It was a stunning victory. The Canadians had gained more ground. Taken more prisoners, and captured more artillery than any previous British offensive in the entire war. Although the cost was high—more than 3500 men were killed and another 7000 wounded 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
German U-Boat Response Germany sets up U-boat blockade of Britain U-boat sinks British liner Lusitania; 128 Americans among the dead - U.S. public opinion turns against Germany Germany asks U.S. to get Britain to end food blockade - otherwise will renew unrestricted submarine war NEXT 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
The Hundred Days Campaign 1 March 3,1918, Russia and the Central Powers signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk. This truce on the Eastern Front freed German troops to fight on the Western Front. –[n a desperate offensive beginning in March 1918, the German army struck at weak points in the Allies’ lines and drove deep into France. Positions that t had been won at great cost in lives, including Ypres, the Somme, and Passchendaele, were lost within weeks. 2 SECTION Battles of World War I
Section 3 The War at Home As World War I intensifies, Canada contributes over 600 000 men to the cause.
Supporting the War Effort By 1918, the war effort was costing Canada about $2.5 million daily. The government launched several initiatives to cover these costs. –Canadians were urged to buy Victory Bonds. –Honour rationing was introduced to help combat shortages on the home front. Canadians used less butter and sugar, and the government introduced “Meatless Fridays” and “Fuel-less Sundays” to conserve supplies. 3 SECTION The War at Home
The War Measures Act To meet the demands of war. Prime Minister Borden introduced the War Measures Act in 1914. The Act gave the government the authority to do everything necessary “for the security, defence, peace, order, and welfare of Canada.” 3 SECTION The War at Home
The government also had the power to limit the freedom of Canadians. It could censor mail. It suspended habeas corpus, which meant that police could detain people without laying charges. 3 SECTION The War at Home
Anyone suspected of being an “enemy alien” or a threat to the government could be imprisoned, or deported, or both. Recent immigrants from Germany and the Austro- Hungarian Empire were treated particularly harshly under this Act. Approximately 100 000 of them had to carry special identity cards and report regularly to registration officers. More than 8500 people were held in isolation in internment camps. 3 SECTION The War at Home
EMENY ALIENS Ottawa passed The War Measures Act an act that gave the government the power to do anything “for the security, defense, peace,order and welfare of Canada” The War Measures Act gave the government the power to arrest and imprison 8500 “enemy aliens” Canadians of German, Austrian,Turkish and Ukrainian birth were sent to interment camps Many of these people were used as “slave labour” The War Measures Act would be used in World War II to displace Japanese Canadians and again in 1970 to lock up French-Canadian nationalists without trial Anti-German fever was so high in Canada that Berlin was forced to change its name to Kitchener after the British Field-Marshall
In 1917, the Canadian government introduced income tax—a measure that was supposed to be temporary. Affluent individuals and families had to pay a tax of between 1 and 15 percent of their income. 3 SECTION The War at Home
Suffrage Is Granted to Women Without women’s efforts on the home front, Canada’s wartime economy would have collapsed. 3 SECTION The War at Home
The Halifax Explosion During the war, Halifax was a valuable base for refuelling and repairing Allied warships. It was also the chief departure point for soldiers and supplies headed to Europe. The harbour was extremely busy, but there was little traffic control and collisions were frequent. 3 SECTION The War at Home
The Halifax explosion 1917 caused by the collision of the Imo and the munitions ship, Mont Blanc. The resulting explosion caused nearly 2000 deaths. The Halifax Explosion
On December 6,1917, the SS Mont Blanc, a French vessel carrying more than 2500 tonnes of explosives, was accidentally hit by another ship. The collision caused an explosion so powerful that it devastated Halifax’s harbour and levelled much of the city. More than 2000 people were killed, another )000 were injured, and thousands were left homeless by the explosion and the fires it caused. 3 SECTION The War at Home
The Conscription Crisis By 1917, thousands of Canadian men had been killed and many thousands more had been seriously wounded. Many men were working in essential industries at home to support the war effort, so there were not enough volunteers to replenish the Canadian forces in Europe. 3 SECTION The War at Home
After the war began. Prime Minister Borden promised there would be no conscription, or compulsory enlistment, for military service. –In 1917, Borden introduced the Military Service Act, which made enlistment compulsory. at first, the Act allowed exemptions for the disabled, the clergy. Hose with essential jobs or special skills, and conscientious objectors who opposed the war based on religious grounds. 3 SECTION The War at Home
The cost of the war HE COST OF THE World War I in human lives is unimaginable. More than 65 million men fought. Of whom more than half were killed or injured I million di( disease, 21.2 million wounded, and 7.8 million taken prisoner or missing. In addition, about 6.6 million civilians perished. 3 SECTION The War at Home
Shellshock Shellshock is the collective name that was used to describe concussion, emotional shock, nervous exhaustion, and other similar ailments. Shellshock was not known before World War I, but trench warfare was so horrific that many soldiers developed shellshock during this war. 3 SECTION The War at Home
Women on the Western Front More than 2800 women served during the First World War. They were part of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps and worked on hospital ships, in overseas hospitals, and in field ambulance units on the battlefields. Many were killed or injured by artillery fire, bombs, and poison gas. 3 SECTION The War at Home
Section 4 The Fight for Peace As World War I intensifies, Canada contributes over 600 000 men to the cause.
On November 11, 1918, the German and allied military leaders signed an armistice (ceasefire) which ended the fighting on the western front in World War I. Armistice
Canada’s Emerging Autonomy The Paris Peace Conference lasted for six months and resulted in a number of treaties that defined new borders and compensation for losses suffered during the war. For the first time, Canada gained international recognition as an independent nation.
The Treaty of Versailles This document laid out the terms of peace between Germany and the Allies. Initially, U.S. President Wilson proposed a 14-point plan for “just and lasting peace” that emphasized forgiveness and future international cooperation.
Treaty of Versailles Demilitarization of the Rhineland War guilt clause blamed Germany for the war and justified reparations German and Turkish colonies taken over by the League of Nations who gave overseas colonies to the allies and created mandates in the middle east. Restoration of Belgium & Poland Creation of Yugoslavia
The League of Nations The Treaty of Versailles included the formation of the League of Nations. The League was Woodrow Wilson’s brainchild— –The League was based on the principle of collective security. –The League’s 42 founding nations first met in Paris on January 16,1920.
Flu Pandemic of 1918 During the winter of 1918 to 1919, a deadly influenza virus (called Spanish Flu) swept across Europe, killing millions. –Young people were especially susceptible to the virus, which caused the deaths of an estimated 21 million –Approximately 50 000 Canadians died during the epidemic. –Many small Aboriginal communities were almost wiped out.
The War Introduces New Hazards New Problems of War New weapons and tactics lead to horrific injuries, hazards Troops amidst filth, pests, polluted water, poison gas, dead bodies Constant bombardment, battle fatigue produce “shell shock” Physical problems include dysentery, trench foot, trench mouth 2 SECTION NEXT Image