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Was Napoleon a liberal ruler?. So… Aims of Lecture To identify Napoleon’s domestic reforms and actions. To explain the point of these changes. To assess.

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Presentation on theme: "Was Napoleon a liberal ruler?. So… Aims of Lecture To identify Napoleon’s domestic reforms and actions. To explain the point of these changes. To assess."— Presentation transcript:

1 Was Napoleon a liberal ruler?

2 So… Aims of Lecture To identify Napoleon’s domestic reforms and actions. To explain the point of these changes. To assess whether this makes Napoleon liberal or illiberal as a leader. To identify Napoleon’s domestic reforms and actions. To explain the point of these changes. To assess whether this makes Napoleon liberal or illiberal as a leader. Potential questions How important were Napoleon’s administrative reforms in maintaining control in France in the years 1799 to 1814? (24) Explain why a Concordat was made with the Catholic Church in (12 marks) How important were Napoleon’s administrative reforms in maintaining control in France in the years 1799 to 1814? (24) Explain why a Concordat was made with the Catholic Church in (12 marks)

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4 1799 Constitution

5 1 st Consul – Napoleon Council of State members chosen by Napoleon. Could nominate local and central officials and initiate legislation Tribunate 100 men aged over 25, able to discuss legislation but not vote on it Senate 60 members chosen by Napoleon. Legislature 300 members aged 30+ able to vote on legislation in secret, not discuss it. 6,000 Notables 60,000 Departmental List 600,000 Communal List 6,000,000 All Frenchmen aged 21+ Is this system democratic? Democratic Façade!!

6 1799 Constitution Drafted by Sieyes and referred to as “short and obscure”. Used Roman terms to create sense of history, i.e. Consul. Gave dictatorial powers to Napoleon as First Consul. First constitution with a Declaration of Rights. Drafted by Sieyes and referred to as “short and obscure”. Used Roman terms to create sense of history, i.e. Consul. Gave dictatorial powers to Napoleon as First Consul. First constitution with a Declaration of Rights. Created the law making bodies of the Senate, Tribunate and Legislature. Also mentioned the term “notables”, recognised by French as ‘important people’ in society, i.e. clergymen. These were generally voted in to represent the people. Accepted by plebiscite in 1800, which offered a “veneer of democracy”. Created the law making bodies of the Senate, Tribunate and Legislature. Also mentioned the term “notables”, recognised by French as ‘important people’ in society, i.e. clergymen. These were generally voted in to represent the people. Accepted by plebiscite in 1800, which offered a “veneer of democracy”.

7 Additional Laws 1.The French Republic is one and indivisible. Its European territory is divided into departments and communal districts. 2.Every man born and residing in France fully twenty-one years of age, who has caused his name to be inscribed upon the civic register of his communal district and has since lived for one year upon the soil of the Republic, is a French citizen. 22. The sittings of the Senate are not public. 33. The session of the Legislative Body commences each year upon 1 Frimaire, and continues only four months; it can be convoked in extraordinary session during the other eight months by the government. 41. The First Consul promulgates the laws; he appoints and dismisses at will the members of the Council of State, the ministers, the ambassadors and other foreign agents of high rank, the officers of the army and navy, the members of the local administrations, and the commissioners of the government before the tribunals. He appoints all criminal and civil judges other than the justices of the peace and the judges of cassation, without power to remove them. 42. In the other acts of the government, the Second and Third Consuls have a consultative voice: they sign the register of these acts in order to attest their presence; and if they wish, they there record their opinions; after that the decision of the First Consul suffices. 1.The French Republic is one and indivisible. Its European territory is divided into departments and communal districts. 2.Every man born and residing in France fully twenty-one years of age, who has caused his name to be inscribed upon the civic register of his communal district and has since lived for one year upon the soil of the Republic, is a French citizen. 22. The sittings of the Senate are not public. 33. The session of the Legislative Body commences each year upon 1 Frimaire, and continues only four months; it can be convoked in extraordinary session during the other eight months by the government. 41. The First Consul promulgates the laws; he appoints and dismisses at will the members of the Council of State, the ministers, the ambassadors and other foreign agents of high rank, the officers of the army and navy, the members of the local administrations, and the commissioners of the government before the tribunals. He appoints all criminal and civil judges other than the justices of the peace and the judges of cassation, without power to remove them. 42. In the other acts of the government, the Second and Third Consuls have a consultative voice: they sign the register of these acts in order to attest their presence; and if they wish, they there record their opinions; after that the decision of the First Consul suffices.

8 Civil Code

9 Code Napoleon Before the code was introduced in 1804, France was governed by confusing set of Feudal laws. Key ideas included religious freedoms, meritocracy within government jobs and ended privileges of birth. Laws written without religious bias and in French. Before the code was introduced in 1804, France was governed by confusing set of Feudal laws. Key ideas included religious freedoms, meritocracy within government jobs and ended privileges of birth. Laws written without religious bias and in French. Established supremacy of men over women. Divorce by mutual consent was abolished in 1804 and women had the same rights as a minor. Father absolute power in families, could imprison children under age of 16! Focused on removing Church control. Allowed religious freedoms for Protestant sects and Jews. Rationalised the laws of France and was adopted across the World. Established supremacy of men over women. Divorce by mutual consent was abolished in 1804 and women had the same rights as a minor. Father absolute power in families, could imprison children under age of 16! Focused on removing Church control. Allowed religious freedoms for Protestant sects and Jews. Rationalised the laws of France and was adopted across the World.

10 Other aspects… Slavery re-introduced in French colonies. Livret introduced to allow workmen to be supervised by the police. Also abolished and confirmed end of feudalism and allowed idea of partage, where the will was divided equally after death. Slavery re-introduced in French colonies. Livret introduced to allow workmen to be supervised by the police. Also abolished and confirmed end of feudalism and allowed idea of partage, where the will was divided equally after death.

11 1801 Concordat

12 Clever, clever Concordat Agreed in 1801 with Pope Pius VII, re-established Catholicism as religion of the majority. Restored Roman Catholic Church following the Terror. "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests. They can both contain them and use them." Napoleon saw relationship with the Church swing back in his favour. Agreed in 1801 with Pope Pius VII, re-established Catholicism as religion of the majority. Restored Roman Catholic Church following the Terror. "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests. They can both contain them and use them." Napoleon saw relationship with the Church swing back in his favour. Main terms of the Concordat of 1801 included: – Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but not the official state religion, thus maintaining religious freedom. – The Papacy had the right to depose bishops, but this made little difference, because the French government still nominated them. – The State would pay clerical salaries and the clergy swore an oath of allegiance to the State. – The Roman Catholic Church gave up all its claims to Church lands that were confiscated after Main terms of the Concordat of 1801 included: – Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but not the official state religion, thus maintaining religious freedom. – The Papacy had the right to depose bishops, but this made little difference, because the French government still nominated them. – The State would pay clerical salaries and the clergy swore an oath of allegiance to the State. – The Roman Catholic Church gave up all its claims to Church lands that were confiscated after 1790.

13 Religion under Napoleon Organic Articles were tacked on the end of the Concordat in These confirmed that the state of France controlled the Church officials. This move allowed Napoleon to gain Catholic French support, but control the Church as well. Organic Articles were tacked on the end of the Concordat in These confirmed that the state of France controlled the Church officials. This move allowed Napoleon to gain Catholic French support, but control the Church as well.

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15 Napoleonic changes to education Required change to provide officials, administrators and officers. Also binds a country together, shared history/aims etc. ‘Normal’ people largely ignored, Church provided moral education – not equal opportunity kinda guy. Secondary ed. restricted to sons of notables – taught in lycees, or military colleges. Government appointed teachers – all shared timetable and syllabus. Required change to provide officials, administrators and officers. Also binds a country together, shared history/aims etc. ‘Normal’ people largely ignored, Church provided moral education – not equal opportunity kinda guy. Secondary ed. restricted to sons of notables – taught in lycees, or military colleges. Government appointed teachers – all shared timetable and syllabus. “marriage is their destiny” – Napoleon’s approach to female education. Scientific education neglected. Imperial University set up in 1808 (Ministry of Education). University controlled appointments and tightly controlled all aspects. No freedom of choice allowed, total obedience required, lessons followed government’s aims “marriage is their destiny” – Napoleon’s approach to female education. Scientific education neglected. Imperial University set up in 1808 (Ministry of Education). University controlled appointments and tightly controlled all aspects. No freedom of choice allowed, total obedience required, lessons followed government’s aims

16 Economic Stability

17 Economic Reforms Absolute need for financial reform. Direct and indirect tax collection redefined, more organised and done under a centralised system. Land tax still main tax and land registers updated. Despite this taxes remained fairly constant at 250m Francs until Absolute need for financial reform. Direct and indirect tax collection redefined, more organised and done under a centralised system. Land tax still main tax and land registers updated. Despite this taxes remained fairly constant at 250m Francs until Indirect taxes more successful, especially with Central Excise Office in Tobacco, alcohol, gold, silver and playing cards saw tax placed on them. Salt was added in Revenue increased 400% between Public banking started. Minister of Finance Gaudin a strong appointment. Indirect taxes more successful, especially with Central Excise Office in Tobacco, alcohol, gold, silver and playing cards saw tax placed on them. Salt was added in Revenue increased 400% between Public banking started. Minister of Finance Gaudin a strong appointment.

18 Bank of France Established 1800, BofF was a private bank with shareholders, but was allowed to issue paper notes. Early freedoms failed (risky silver import deal with Mexico) and Napoleon introduced stricter control. Established 1800, BofF was a private bank with shareholders, but was allowed to issue paper notes. Early freedoms failed (risky silver import deal with Mexico) and Napoleon introduced stricter control Napoleon introduced the franc de germinal. This was tied to the price of gold, which gave stability to the currency. Stayed the basis of the currency for 120 years! 1803 Napoleon introduced the franc de germinal. This was tied to the price of gold, which gave stability to the currency. Stayed the basis of the currency for 120 years!

19 Control and the Police My thighs really are not this big, it’s a bad drawing. Police force used to consolidate and centralise power. Major changes to legal system: – Judges appointed by government for life and kept loyal through purges. – Criminal codes updated, hard labour, loss of right hand and branding brought in. Brutal. My thighs really are not this big, it’s a bad drawing. Police force used to consolidate and centralise power. Major changes to legal system: – Judges appointed by government for life and kept loyal through purges. – Criminal codes updated, hard labour, loss of right hand and branding brought in. Brutal.

20 Police continued continually in perpetuity… Impact of Changes 1810 arbitary imprisonment without trial brought in again (lettre de cachet). House arrest often used instead. More prisons built and in ,000 inmates interned, three times as many as in Clever Napoleon arbitary imprisonment without trial brought in again (lettre de cachet). House arrest often used instead. More prisons built and in ,000 inmates interned, three times as many as in Clever Napoleon. General Police Minister of Police = Joseph Fouche. Monitored public opinion in Paris. – Used censorship – Spied on threats – Searched for army deserters – Raided houses of draft dodgers Fouche a plotter and always suspected. Not very nice and ruthless. Minister of Police = Joseph Fouche. Monitored public opinion in Paris. – Used censorship – Spied on threats – Searched for army deserters – Raided houses of draft dodgers Fouche a plotter and always suspected. Not very nice and ruthless.

21 As I was saying… Gendarmes Set up to help police, approximately 18,000 in France by Reports submitted to Napoleon daily. Information could be used to bribe and blackmail individuals. Napoleon set up a prefect of Police for Paris to run parallel to Fouche – lack of trust. Set up to help police, approximately 18,000 in France by Reports submitted to Napoleon daily. Information could be used to bribe and blackmail individuals. Napoleon set up a prefect of Police for Paris to run parallel to Fouche – lack of trust. Prefects Established in 1800 and placed into each department with sub- prefects in arrondissements (sub-divisions of departments). Answerable to Napoleon – bureaucratic repression. Monitored public opinion and could order house arrest. Established in 1800 and placed into each department with sub- prefects in arrondissements (sub-divisions of departments). Answerable to Napoleon – bureaucratic repression. Monitored public opinion and could order house arrest.

22 Success of repression Any threats removed under house arrest. Opposition to conscription was weaker, 90% of people required turned up pre-1808, less after defeats began. Livret and police stopped workers strikes, striking was banned and the livret maintained good behaviour and stopped movement of labour. HUGE SUCCESS MAN – WRAPPED UP OPPOSITION Any threats removed under house arrest. Opposition to conscription was weaker, 90% of people required turned up pre-1808, less after defeats began. Livret and police stopped workers strikes, striking was banned and the livret maintained good behaviour and stopped movement of labour. HUGE SUCCESS MAN – WRAPPED UP OPPOSITION

23 Patronage and Bribery

24 Legion of Honour A reward to commend civilians and soldiers and from this wish was instituted a Légion d'Honneur, a body of men that was not an order of chivalry, as Napoleon knew that France did not want a new nobility system, but a recognition of merit. The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously: – 5,000 francs to a grand officier, – 2,000 francs to a commandeur, – 1,000 francs to an officier, – And 250 francs to a légionnaire. A reward to commend civilians and soldiers and from this wish was instituted a Légion d'Honneur, a body of men that was not an order of chivalry, as Napoleon knew that France did not want a new nobility system, but a recognition of merit. The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously: – 5,000 francs to a grand officier, – 2,000 francs to a commandeur, – 1,000 francs to an officier, – And 250 francs to a légionnaire.

25 Imperial Nobility Set up in 1808 – rewarded for services of state or military, created title of Chevaliers. 3,500 titles granted by Civilians rewarded with large land grants called senatoreries and annual grants of 25,000 francs. Recognised bribery and patronage not enough on its own, hence fear, intimidation and repression. Clever. Set up in 1808 – rewarded for services of state or military, created title of Chevaliers. 3,500 titles granted by Civilians rewarded with large land grants called senatoreries and annual grants of 25,000 francs. Recognised bribery and patronage not enough on its own, hence fear, intimidation and repression. Clever.

26 Censorship and Propaganda

27 Role of Censorship Napoleon recognised the role and importance of the written word (comes back to haunt Louis-Phillipe). Press was mouthpiece of regime. Parisian journals decrease from 73 to 13 in January Provincial papers reduced to 1 per departement in 1810 and official news could only come from Le Moniteur. Napoleon recognised the role and importance of the written word (comes back to haunt Louis-Phillipe). Press was mouthpiece of regime. Parisian journals decrease from 73 to 13 in January Provincial papers reduced to 1 per departement in 1810 and official news could only come from Le Moniteur censors were appointed to each paper and by 1811 only one paper per department. Books and plays reported on and by 1810 half of publishers in Paris were shut down. Going against censorship could be published by death. “The great Napoleon is a great chameleon” enough for a poet to be consigned to a mental asylum. Crazy. Man censors were appointed to each paper and by 1811 only one paper per department. Books and plays reported on and by 1810 half of publishers in Paris were shut down. Going against censorship could be published by death. “The great Napoleon is a great chameleon” enough for a poet to be consigned to a mental asylum. Crazy. Man.

28 Role of Propaganda Take your pick… Positive spin on the people with terms like ‘citizen soldiers’. Militiary achievements exaggerated, i.e. Battle of Marengo shown in an heroic light through artwork. Bulletins from the front lines sent home to exaggerate military successes. Take your pick… Positive spin on the people with terms like ‘citizen soldiers’. Militiary achievements exaggerated, i.e. Battle of Marengo shown in an heroic light through artwork. Bulletins from the front lines sent home to exaggerate military successes. Art used to sell Napoleonic image. Louvre art gallery showcased works and renamed Musee Napoleon. Prints of Italian campaign commissioned. Artists David, Ingres and Gros used as state propagandists to show Napoleon in classical poses. Art used to sell Napoleonic image. Louvre art gallery showcased works and renamed Musee Napoleon. Prints of Italian campaign commissioned. Artists David, Ingres and Gros used as state propagandists to show Napoleon in classical poses.

29 Assess the view that Napoleon was nothing more than a dictator. [50] Due in next week as we need to crack the hell on man. So stop moaning.


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