Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

EARLY FEDERAL ERA POLITICS 1792 - 1800 FEDERALISTS VERSUS DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "EARLY FEDERAL ERA POLITICS 1792 - 1800 FEDERALISTS VERSUS DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA."— Presentation transcript:

1 EARLY FEDERAL ERA POLITICS FEDERALISTS VERSUS DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA THANKS TO SUSAN POJER FOR ELECTION CHARTS AND MAPS

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS : NARROW: WHY DID THE TWO-PARTY SYSTEM DEVELOP? WHAT ISSUES DIVIDED THE FEDERALISTS AND DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS BROAD; HOW AND WHEN DID U.S. IDENTITY (NATIONALISM) ARISE? WHAT CAUSED THE CIVIL WAR?

3  BACKGROUND/ REVIEW  CONSTITUTION DID NOT CONTEMPLATE POLITICAL PARTIES. EXAMPLE: ARTICLE II PROCEDURE FOR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS: 1 ST PLACE IN ELECTORAL COLLEGE = PRESIDENT 1 ST PLACE IN ELECTORAL COLLEGE = PRESIDENT 2 ND PLACE = VICE PRESIDENT 2 ND PLACE = VICE PRESIDENT IF TIE  HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES DECIDES IF TIE  HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES DECIDES  IN THE FEDERALIST HAMILTON AND MADISON REPEATEDLY SAID THERE’D BE NO PROBLEMS WITH “FACTIONS” BECAUSE U.S. = LARGE REPUBLIC (LOL!)

4  ALWAYS IN THE BACKGROUND: SECTIONAL (N/S) DIFFERENCES AND DISPUTE OVER FEDERALISM – STATE SOVEREIGNTY  ONLY EASY PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN U.S. HISTORY = 1788 – GEORGE WASHINTON ELECTED FIRST PRESIDENT, JOHN ADAMS = VICE PRESIDENT

5

6 WASHINGTON’S CABINET SECRETARY OF STATE- THOMAS JEFFERSON SECRETARY OF STATE- THOMAS JEFFERSON SECRETARY OF WAR- HENRY KNOX SECRETARY OF WAR- HENRY KNOX ATTORNEY GENERAL- EDMUND RANDOLPH ATTORNEY GENERAL- EDMUND RANDOLPH POSTMASTER GENERAL- SAMUEL OSGOOD POSTMASTER GENERAL- SAMUEL OSGOOD SECRETARY OF TREASURY- ALEXANDER HAMILTON SECRETARY OF TREASURY- ALEXANDER HAMILTON

7 HAMILTON VERSUS JEFFERSON NORTH VERSUS SOUTH

8 WHAT DID JEFFERSON AND HAMILTON ALMOST IMMEDIATELY DISAGREE OVER?  WHAT DID JEFFERSON AND HAMILTON ALMOST IMMEDIATELY DISAGREE OVER?  THE BANK OF THE UNITED STATES  HAMILTON PROPOSED THE BANK : CHARTERED BY CONGRESS BUT PRIVATE - $10 MILLION IN STOCK CHARTERED BY CONGRESS BUT PRIVATE - $10 MILLION IN STOCK $ 8 MILLION - PRIVATE INVESTORS (IN SPECIE), $2 MILLION -- U.S., BORROWED FROM THE BANK $ 8 MILLION - PRIVATE INVESTORS (IN SPECIE), $2 MILLION -- U.S., BORROWED FROM THE BANK RUN MINT – UNIFORM CURRENCY RUN MINT – UNIFORM CURRENCY COLLECT TAXES COLLECT TAXES BORROW FOR AND LEND TO U.S. BORROW FOR AND LEND TO U.S.

9 BANK WOULD ASSUME ALL REVOLUTIONARY WAR DEBT (FEDERAL, STATE) -- FUNDING AT PAR = BANK WOULD BUY AT FACE VALUE BANK WOULD ASSUME ALL REVOLUTIONARY WAR DEBT (FEDERAL, STATE) -- FUNDING AT PAR = BANK WOULD BUY AT FACE VALUE  HAMILTON TIPPED OFF NEW YORK FINANCIERS – BOUGHT UP STATE WAR DEBT AT DISCOUNTS – A MESSAGE THAT U.S WOULD FAVOR INDUSTRY AND FINANCE BANK NEEDED $100 MILLION FOR ASSUMPTION OF WAR DEBT – HOW DID HAMILTON PROPOSE TO RAISE THAT $$? BANK NEEDED $100 MILLION FOR ASSUMPTION OF WAR DEBT – HOW DID HAMILTON PROPOSE TO RAISE THAT $$?  EXCISE TAX ON WHISKEY AND TARIFFS ON IMPORTS  HAMILTON ALSO SAID THESE TAXES WOULD BE A “DISCIPLINE” ON PEOPLE TO SHOW POWER OF FED. GOV’T

10  HAMILTON’S AND JEFFERSON’S ARGUMENTS ON THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE BANK (PHD 7-4) – LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION VERSUS STRICT CONSTRUCTION  HAMILTON – LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION OF COMMERCE AND NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSES  JEFFERSON – STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH  WASHINGTON SIDED WITH HAMILTON  COMPROMISE OF 1790: JEFFERSON AND MADISON AGREED SOUTHERN STATES WOULD VOTE FOR BANK, HAMILTON AGREED CAPITOL WOULD BE IN THE SOUTH (WASHINGTON, D.C. LATER CARVED OUT OF VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND) 

11 THE FIRST BANK OF THE UNITED STATES, PHILADELPHIA. CHARTERED BY CONGRESS, 1790, ESTABLISHED BANK, ASSUMPTION, EXCISE TAX, TARIFFS = MAJOR POWER GRAB BY FEDERAL GOV’T, INCURSION ON STATES’ RIGHTS

12  THE OTHER MAJOR DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN HAMILTON AND JEFFERSON: “OPPOSING VISIONS FOR THE NEW NATION “, PHD 7-5  HAMILTON’S REPORT ON MANUFACTURERS (1791) U.S. SHOULD BE A GREAT INDUSTRIAL NATION.  CONGRESS SHOULD ENCOURAGE MFGR. – TARIFFS, SUBSIDIES, IMMIGRATION POLICY GREAT FALLS OF PATERSON, N.J. (ACROSS FROM NYC) – HAMILTON KNEW U.S. HAD THE ENERGY SOURCES AND NATURAL RESOURCES TO BECOME GREATEST INDUSTRIAL NATION AND BELIEVED THAT WOULD MAKE U.S. MORE POWERFUL THAN PLANTATION AGRICULTURE

13  JEFFERSON (NOTES ON THE STATE OF VIRGINIA) – U.S. SHOULD BE AN AGRICULTURAL NATION, AVOID INDUSTRY: “YEOMAN FARMERS” ARE THE BACKBONE OF DEMOCRACY [RECALL, JEFFERSON WAS A RICH PLANTATION OWNER!] -- PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR WAGES BECOME “SUBSERVIENT” “YEOMAN FARMERS” ARE THE BACKBONE OF DEMOCRACY [RECALL, JEFFERSON WAS A RICH PLANTATION OWNER!] -- PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR WAGES BECOME “SUBSERVIENT” “THOSE WHO LABOUR IN THE EARTH ARE THE CHOSEN OF GOD [RECALL, JEFFERSON WAS A DEIST!] “THOSE WHO LABOUR IN THE EARTH ARE THE CHOSEN OF GOD [RECALL, JEFFERSON WAS A DEIST!] “THE MOBS OF GREAT CITIES ADD JUST SO MUCH TO THE SUPPORT OF PURE GOVERNMENT AS SORES TO TO THE STRENGTH OF THE HUMAN BODY [LOVER OF DEMOCRACY!] “THE MOBS OF GREAT CITIES ADD JUST SO MUCH TO THE SUPPORT OF PURE GOVERNMENT AS SORES TO TO THE STRENGTH OF THE HUMAN BODY [LOVER OF DEMOCRACY!]

14 HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC POLICIES CLEARLY WORKED – BUT BY 1792 THERE WAS AN OPPOSITION PARTY ! HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES REJECTED HAMILTON’S REPORT ON MFG. WERE THE DEM-REPS CONCERNED ABOUT THE NATION, OR ABOUT POWER?

15 1792 Election Results (16 states in the Union) George WashingtonVirginiaFederalist % John AdamsMassachusetts Federalist % George ClintonNew YorkDemocratic- Republican % Thomas JeffersonVirginiaDemocratic- Republican 43.0% Aaron BurrNew YorkFederalist10.7% Electoral Votes Not Cast % Total Number of Electors132 Total Electoral Votes Cast264 Number of Votes for a Majority 67

16 1792 Election Results (16 states in the Union) George WashingtonVirginiaFederalist % John AdamsMassachusetts Federalist % George ClintonNew YorkDemocratic- Republican % Thomas JeffersonVirginiaDemocratic- Republican 43.0% Aaron BurrNew YorkFederalist10.7% Electoral Votes Not Cast % Total Number of Electors132 Total Electoral Votes Cast264 Number of Votes for a Majority 67

17 1792 Election Results

18 CHALLENGES (AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLITICAL DISPUTES) DURING SECOND WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION 1. LAYING DOWN THE LAW AND SHOWING THE POWER OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: THE WHISKEY REBELLION ( )  THE EXCISE TAX ON WHISKEY HIT WESTERN FARMERS HARDEST RICH COMMERCIAL DISTILLERS (LIKE GEORGE WASHINGTON) COULD PAY FLAT FEE = LESS PER GALLON THE MORE WHISKEY THEY MADE RICH COMMERCIAL DISTILLERS (LIKE GEORGE WASHINGTON) COULD PAY FLAT FEE = LESS PER GALLON THE MORE WHISKEY THEY MADE

19 POOR WESTERN FARMERS WHO RAN THEIR OWN LITTLE STILLS PAID PER GALLON = MORE POOR WESTERN FARMERS WHO RAN THEIR OWN LITTLE STILLS PAID PER GALLON = MORE  “HARD LIQUOR IS A NECESSITY OF LIFE IN THE SOUTH. ” ANDREW JACKSON. * TRUE – NOT JUST TO DRINK, AS MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE OTHER PROBLEMS FOR WESTERN FARMERS: SPAIN CLOSED OFF MISSISSIPPI RIVER; NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR OTHER PROBLEMS FOR WESTERN FARMERS: SPAIN CLOSED OFF MISSISSIPPI RIVER; NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR  – INCIDENTS ON FRONTIER, ESP. WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA (OHIO VALLEY) – HARASSING, TARRING AND FEATHERING FEDERAL REVENUE AGENTS (REVENUERS – “REVENOORS”)

20  HAMILTON PUBLISHED ESSAYS UNDER PSEUDONYM “TULLY” BLAMING UNREST ON DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS  BUT HE MIGHT HAVE PROVOKED ARMED REBELLION – SENT OUT WRITS REQUIRING FRONTIER DISTILLERS TO COME TO PHILADELPHIA FOR TRIALS  JULY 1794 – ARMED REVOLT IN W. PA. BY ABOUT 500 FARMERS – TRYING TO ARREST FEDERAL REVENUE AGENTS, BURNING HOUSES ETC.

21  GAVE WASHINGTON AND HAMILTON THE (WELCOME) OPPORTUNITY TO CALL OUT MILITIAS, DRAFT ≈ 30,000 FEDERAL TROOPS MARCH TO W. PA. TO PUT DOWN REBELLION  FEWER THAN 5 KILLED – BUT MAJOR DEMONSTRATION OF POWER OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (AND FODDER FOR JEFFERSON, TOO!)

22 2.FOREIGN AFFAIRS – THE PROBLEM OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION & YET ANOTHER ANGLO-FRENCH WAR  FRENCH REVOLUTION “REIGN OF TERROR” – HOT TOPIC IN U.S. – DEMOCRACY GONE WILD – COULD IT HAPPEN HERE? FODDER FOR FEDERALISTS.  THE U.S. DILEMMA – MAYBE OUR REVOLUTIONARY WAR TREATY / ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE (1778_ REQUIRED US TO SIDE WITH FRANCE (COMMERCIALLY) – BUT WE RELIED ON EXPORTS TO AND SOME EXPORTS FROM BRITAIN BRITAIN HAD THE BRITISH NAVY – STOPPED OUR SHIPS, IMPRESSED SAILORS, ETC. -- AND STILL HAD FORTS IN WESTERN U.S. BRITAIN HAD THE BRITISH NAVY – STOPPED OUR SHIPS, IMPRESSED SAILORS, ETC. -- AND STILL HAD FORTS IN WESTERN U.S.

23  DOMESTIC POLITICAL DISPUTE: JEFFERSON: TRADE CONCESSIONS TO FRANCE IF BRITAIN REFUSED TO ACCEPT U.S. SOVEREIGNTY JEFFERSON: TRADE CONCESSIONS TO FRANCE IF BRITAIN REFUSED TO ACCEPT U.S. SOVEREIGNTY HAMILTON: TREATY WITH BRITAIN. U.S. COULDN’T TAKE ON BRITAIN HAMILTON: TREATY WITH BRITAIN. U.S. COULDN’T TAKE ON BRITAIN  CITIZEN GENÉT AFFAIR – FRENCH MINISTER TO U.S. ORGANIZED U.S. PRIVATEERS TO ATTACK BRITISH SHIPS -- DANGER!!  APRIL 22, 1793 – WASHINGTON ISSUED PROCLAMATION OF NEUTRALITY DIDN’T WORK – BRITAIN CLOSED OFF WEST INDIES TO U.S. SHIPS  HAMILTON GOT HIS WAY! DIDN’T WORK – BRITAIN CLOSED OFF WEST INDIES TO U.S. SHIPS  HAMILTON GOT HIS WAY!

24  JAY’S TREATY (HAMILTON). SIGNED 1794, RATIFIED 1796) BRITAIN AGREED TO TURN OVER FORTS IN U.S. TERRITORY BRITAIN AGREED TO TURN OVER FORTS IN U.S. TERRITORY U.S. AGREED TO GRANT BRITAIN MOST-FAVORED NATION TRADE STATUS U.S. AGREED TO GRANT BRITAIN MOST-FAVORED NATION TRADE STATUS U.S. GOT RIGHT TO EXPORT MFG. GOODS TO WEST INDIES AND INDIA (GREAT FOR NORTH) -- IN EXCHANGE FOR LIMITING COTTON EXPORTS TO BRITAN (BAD FOR SOUTH) U.S. GOT RIGHT TO EXPORT MFG. GOODS TO WEST INDIES AND INDIA (GREAT FOR NORTH) -- IN EXCHANGE FOR LIMITING COTTON EXPORTS TO BRITAN (BAD FOR SOUTH) ALSO BRITAIN DID NOT AGREE TO COMPENSATION FOR SLAVES IT FREED DURING REVOLUTION ALSO BRITAIN DID NOT AGREE TO COMPENSATION FOR SLAVES IT FREED DURING REVOLUTION

25 PINCKNEY’S TREATY AKA TREATY OF SAN LORENZO (1796) – JAY’S TREATY SCARED SPAIN INTO THINKING U.S. AND BRITAIN WOULD ALLY TO DRIVE SPAIN OUT OF NORTH AMERICA  PINCKNEY’S TREATY AKA TREATY OF SAN LORENZO (1796) – JAY’S TREATY SCARED SPAIN INTO THINKING U.S. AND BRITAIN WOULD ALLY TO DRIVE SPAIN OUT OF NORTH AMERICA  SPAIN AGREED TO OPEN MISSISSIPPI – GAVE U.S. RIGHT OF DEPOSIT AT NEW ORLEANS (DUTY-FREE LADING)  SPAIN CEDED “WEST FLORIDA” TO U.S. CHARLES PINCKNEY

26 3. NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR AKA “LITTLE TURTLE’S WAR” (THIS HAS FOREIGN RELATIONS ELEMENT, TOO) NORTHWEST ORDINANCE PROMISED NOT TO TAKE INDIAN LANDS (LOL). BRITISH TROOPS IN U.S. TERRITORY AIDED MIAMI NDIAN RESISTANCE TO U.S.

27 A LESSON ABOUT HISTORIOGRAPHY:  WAR ACTUALLY BEGAN IN 1790 – WASHINGTON ORDERED WAR AGAINST MIAMIS  1791 – 1792 – U.S. TROOPS UNDER GENERAL JOSHUA HARMAR AND GENERAL ARTHUR ST. CLAIR SUFFER CRUSHING DEFEATS – HUNDREDS OF SOLDIERS KILLED THOSE BATTLES HAVE NO NAMES: AS IF THEY NEVER HAPPENED (NO MENTION IN U.S. HISTORY TEXTBOOKS UNTIL RECENTLY)

28  IT WAS A CRISIS IN WASHINGTON’S SECOND ADMINISTRATION – U.S. HAD TO WIN WAR – KICK BRITISH OUT OF OUR TERRITORY  THE BATTLE THE U.S. WON HAS A NAME = “BATTLE OF FALLEN TIMBERS” (1794) U.S. TROOPS UNDER GENERAL “MAD ANTHONY” WAYNE DEFEATED MIAMIS AND ALLIES WAYNE – DEVELOPED MORE “PROFESSIONAL, “ DISCIPLINED TROOPS

29  TREATY OF GREENVILLE (1795): FOR ≈ $20,000 WORTH OF BLANKETS, POTS AND PANS, ETC. INDIANS CEDE MOST OF OHIO, ILLIINOIS (ALL U.S. WANTED AT THE MOMENT IN THE END, IT BECAME JUST ANOTHER BROKEN TREATY, BUT...

30  TREATY OF GREENVILLE IS SIGNICANT BECAUSE IT CREATED INDIAN ANNUITY SYSTEM – ANNUAL PAYMENTS OF $ AND CALICO CLOTH TO TREATY INDIANS  INCREASED FEDERAL CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES (THE KIND OF THING COLLEGE BOARD THINKS IS IMPORTANT!)  ALSO, ALL BRITISH TROOPS OUT OF U.S. TERRITORY (FOR A WHILE) – JAY’S TREATY  MEANWHILE, JEFFERSON: DON’T FIGHT INDIANS! TEACH THEM TO FARM AND THEY’LL BE GOOD CITIZENS [N.B. – NO PROBLEMS W/ INDIANS IN VIRGINIA!]

31 ELECTION OF 1796 – ADAMS V. JEFFERSON ONCE FRIENDS AND ALLIES DURING REVOLUTION – NOW BITTER POLITICAL ENEMIES HAMILTON SCHEMED TO GET PINCKNEY RATHER THAN ADAMS ELECTED – BACKFIRED  PRESIDENT AND V.P. OF DIFFERENT PARTIES

32 1796 Election Results (16 states in the Union) John Adams MassachusettsFederalist1751.4% Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic- Republican % Thomas Pinckney South Carolina Federalist5942.8% Aaron Burr New York Democratic- Republican % Samuel Adams MassachusettsFederalist1510.9% Oliver Ellsworth ConnecticutFederalist118.0% George Clinton New York Democratic- Republican 75.1% Other % Total Number of Electors 138 Total Electoral Votes Cast 276 Number of Votes for a Majority 70

33 1796 ELECTION RESULTS – NOTICE ANYTHING?

34 WASHINGTON’S “FAREWELL ADDRESS” (PHD 7-8)(1796) ADVOCATED ISOLATIONISM (NO “FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS” TO AVOID FACTIONALISM AND FOREIGN INFLUENCE FREQUENTLY CITED BY MODERN REPUBLICANS

35 JOHN ADAMS SECOND PRESIDENT (1797 – 1801)SECOND PRESIDENT (1797 – 1801) PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS BY WAGING THE QUASI-WAR WITH FRANCEPROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS BY WAGING THE QUASI-WAR WITH FRANCE TRIED TO WALK MIDDLE COURSE BETWEEN “HIGH FEDERALISTS” AND DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS, ESP. ON FOREIGN POLICYTRIED TO WALK MIDDLE COURSE BETWEEN “HIGH FEDERALISTS” AND DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS, ESP. ON FOREIGN POLICY DISCREDITED BY ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTSDISCREDITED BY ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS THE FIRST ONE-TERM PRESIDENTTHE FIRST ONE-TERM PRESIDENT

36  THE “QUASI-WAR” WITH FRANCE (1798 – 1800)  CAUSES: FRENCH RETALIATION FOR JAY’S TREATY – SEIZED OVER 300 U.S. SHIPS (U.S. STILL HAD NO NAVY!) FRENCH RETALIATION FOR JAY’S TREATY – SEIZED OVER 300 U.S. SHIPS (U.S. STILL HAD NO NAVY!) ADAMS SENT DELEGATION TO FRANCE TO NEGOTIATE – JOHN MARSHALL, ELBRIDGE GERRY AND CHARLES PINCKNEY ADAMS SENT DELEGATION TO FRANCE TO NEGOTIATE – JOHN MARSHALL, ELBRIDGE GERRY AND CHARLES PINCKNEY

37 THE “XYZ” AFFAIR: 3 FRENCH AGENTS (X. Y AND Z) DEMANDED $12 MILLION LOAN TO FRANCE AND $250,000 “TRIBUTE” TO FRENCH MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS CHARLES TALLEYRAND – OTHERWISE NO NEGOTIATIONS THE “XYZ” AFFAIR: 3 FRENCH AGENTS (X. Y AND Z) DEMANDED $12 MILLION LOAN TO FRANCE AND $250,000 “TRIBUTE” TO FRENCH MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS CHARLES TALLEYRAND – OTHERWISE NO NEGOTIATIONS  “MILLIONS FOR DEFENSE, NOT ONE PENNY FOR TRIBUTE” – UTTERED BY FEDERALIST FROM S. CAROLINA, IT BECOMES MANTRA FOR DEMOCRATIC- REPUBLICANS  NO TREATY, QUASI WAR TALLEYRAND

38 THE XYZ AFFAIR A BRITISH CARTOON SHOWS THE UNITED STATES (YOUNG LADY IN FEATHERED INDIAN HEADDRESS) BEING ACCOSTED BY IMPERTINENT AND AVARICIOUS DIPLOMATS REPRESENTING REVOLUTIONARY FRANCE.

39 BEGINNINGS OF NAVY (AND MARINES)  NAVY ACT OF 1794 DEPARTMENT OF NAVY CREATED (UNDER WAR DEPARTMENT) DEPARTMENT OF NAVY CREATED (UNDER WAR DEPARTMENT) AUTHORIZED 6 FRIGATES FOR DEFENSE OF SHIPPING IN MEDITERRANEAN (BARBARY PIRATE PROBLEM) AUTHORIZED 6 FRIGATES FOR DEFENSE OF SHIPPING IN MEDITERRANEAN (BARBARY PIRATE PROBLEM) BY 1797 – THREE 44-GUN FRIGATES: U.S.S. CONSTITUTION; U.S.S. CONSTELLATION; U.S.S. UNITED STATES, MORE PLANNED BY 1797 – THREE 44-GUN FRIGATES: U.S.S. CONSTITUTION; U.S.S. CONSTELLATION; U.S.S. UNITED STATES, MORE PLANNED MARINE CORPS – MARINES ON EVERY FRIGATE (BRITISH NAVY MODEL) MARINE CORPS – MARINES ON EVERY FRIGATE (BRITISH NAVY MODEL) 1799 – CONGRESS APPROPRIATES $$$ FOR MORE FRIGATES 1799 – CONGRESS APPROPRIATES $$$ FOR MORE FRIGATES

40 U.S.S. CONSTELLATION

41 THE BIRTH OF THE U.S. MARINE CORPS, 1798

42  QUASI-WAR (UNDECLARED WAR) AGAINST FRANCE, 1797 – 1800 = NAVAL WAR (MOSTLY IN WEST INDIES)

43  WAR OVERVIEW: BRITAIN HAD MOST OF FRENCH NAVY BOTTLED UP IN EUROPE – ALLOWED U.S. TO USE W. INDIES PORTS BRITAIN HAD MOST OF FRENCH NAVY BOTTLED UP IN EUROPE – ALLOWED U.S. TO USE W. INDIES PORTS INCONCLUSIVE : INCONCLUSIVE :  FRENCH CAPTURED ONE U.S. FRIGATE (U.S.S. RETALIATION), U.S. CAPTURED ONE FRENCH FRIGATE  EACH CAPTURED MANY MERCHANTMEN  PROBABLY FRANCE CAPTURED MORE ≈ 2,000

44  DOMESTICALLY – WAR = MAJOR POLITICAL ISSUE. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS OBJECT TO UNDECLARED WAR -- STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF ART. I OF CONSTITUTION: ONLY CONGRESS HAS THE POWER TO DECLARE WAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS OBJECT TO UNDECLARED WAR -- STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF ART. I OF CONSTITUTION: ONLY CONGRESS HAS THE POWER TO DECLARE WAR FAVOR FRANCE OVER BRITAIN FAVOR FRANCE OVER BRITAIN COMPLAIN ADAMS IS MISMANAGING WAR COMPLAIN ADAMS IS MISMANAGING WAR AND U.S. WASN’T “WINNING”  WAR UNPOPULAR = MORE SUPPORT FOR D-Rs  AND U.S. WASN’T “WINNING”  WAR UNPOPULAR = MORE SUPPORT FOR D-Rs 

45  ADAMS AND FEDERALISTS IN CONGRESS USE “NATIONAL SECURITY” AS EXCUSE TO PASS ALIEN ACTS AND SEDITION ACT DOES THIS SOUND FAMILIAR? 9-11 ATTACK  HOMELAND SECURITY ACT AND P.A.T.R.I.O.T. ACT (+ WARRANTLESS WIRETAPS, “WITCHUNT” AGAINST MUSLIM AMERICANS, ETC.)  ALIEN ACTS (JUNE ‘78) – USED AGAINST FRENCH AMERICANS: NATURALIZATION ACT (14 YEARS RESIDENCY REQ. TO BECOME CITIZEN) + NATURALIZATION ACT (14 YEARS RESIDENCY REQ. TO BECOME CITIZEN) + ALIEN ACT (PRESIDENT COULD IMPRISON/ EXPEL “ENEMY ALIENS”) ALIEN ACT (PRESIDENT COULD IMPRISON/ EXPEL “ENEMY ALIENS”)

46  SEDITION ACT(JULY ‘78) – USED AGAINST DEMOCRATIC –REPUBLICANS MADE IT A CRIME (SEDITIOUS LIBEL) TO CRITICIZE THE GOVERNMENT OR FEDERAL OFFICERS – “"FALSE, SCANDALOUS, AND MALICIOUS” STATEMENTS” MADE IT A CRIME (SEDITIOUS LIBEL) TO CRITICIZE THE GOVERNMENT OR FEDERAL OFFICERS – “"FALSE, SCANDALOUS, AND MALICIOUS” STATEMENTS”  IRONY – REMEMBER THE TRIAL OF JOHN PETER ZENGER! LED TO TRIALS, FINES AND IMPRISONMENT OF DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS, INCLUDING MATTHEW LYON, MEMBER OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FROM VERMONT ($1, MONTHS IN PRISON) LED TO TRIALS, FINES AND IMPRISONMENT OF DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS, INCLUDING MATTHEW LYON, MEMBER OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FROM VERMONT ($1, MONTHS IN PRISON)

47 CARTOON DEPICTING FISTFIGHT IN HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BETWEEN MATTHEW (“THE SPITTING”) LYON(D-R) & ROGER GRISWOLD (F)  DEM-REPS ABLE TO MOBILIZE CONSIDERABLE OPPOSITION TO FEDERALISTS DUE TO A & S ACTS

48  THE KENTUCKY AND VIRGINIA RESOLVES (JEFFERSON/ MADISON, 1798 & 1799) – PHD 7-10 BASED ON COMPACT THEORY - CONSTITUTION IS A COMPACT (CONTRACT) AMONG SOVEREIGN STATES  BASED ON COMPACT THEORY - CONSTITUTION IS A COMPACT (CONTRACT) AMONG SOVEREIGN STATES  NULLIFICATION THEORY  NULLIFICATION THEORY – EACH SOVEREIGN STATE HAS RIGHT TO NULLIFY FEDERAL LAWS STATE DEEMS UNCONSTITITUTIONAL)

49  THE RESOLVES WERE A PLOY TO JUMP-START JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENTIAL 1800 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN – BUT PLAYING WITH FIRE:  COMPACT THEORY = IMPLICIT SECESSION THREAT – THEORETICAL BASIS FOR IT   RESOLVES PROVIDE BASIS FOR NULLIFICATION CRISIS OF

50 NEGATIVE CAMPAIGNING, 18 TH - C. STYLE! NEGATIVE CAMPAIGNING, 18 TH - C. STYLE! BRANDING JEFFERSON AS A DANGEROUS RADICAL – “MAD TOM” FEDERALIST CARTOON DEPICTS THOMAS JEFFERSON AN ENEMY OF RELIGION, LAWFUL GOVERNMENT, AND THE CONSTITUTION, WHO WANTED TO IMPORT FRENCH REVOLUTION/ REIGN OF TERROR TO AMERICA.

51 FEDERALIST CARTOON HIGHLIGHTS THE RUMORS THAT THE VIRGINIA POLITICIAN KEPT A BLACK MISTRESS. I IN THE LATE 20 TH CENTURY, DNA EVIDENCE PROV ED THAT JEFFERSON DID INDEED FATHER CHILDREN WITH SALLY HEMINGS, HIS SLAVE AND ALSO HIS WIFE’S HALF-SISTER. HIS WILL MANUMITTED SOME OF HIS SLAVES – BUT NOT SALLY!

52  CONVENTION OF 1800 (SEPTEMBER 30) AKA TREATY OF MONTFORTAINE  ENDED UNPOPULAR QUASI WAR – TOO LATE TO HELP ADAMS IN ELECTION  DISSOLVED ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE – END OF U.S. ALLIANCES UNTIL LATE 19 TH C. (INFLUENCE OF WASHINGTON AND ADAMS)  DISSOLVED PRIOR TRADE PACTS  NO CLAIMS AGAINST FRANCE FOR MERCHANTMEN, CARGO SEIZED  PETITIONS TO CONGRESS AND SUITS AGAINST U.S. THROUGH 1919  BUT NOT LOSING QUASI WAR  EMERGENCE OF U.S. NATIONALISM

53 THE ELECTION OF 1800 JOHN ADAMS (LEFT) AND THOMAS JEFFERSON (RIGHT) SQUARED OFF FOR THE PRESIDENCY FOR A SECOND TIME IN IT WAS THE FIRST AND ONLY INSTANCE IN AMERICAN HISTORY WHEN A SITTING PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT RAN AGAINST EACH OTHER.

54 1800 Election Results (16 states in the Union) Thomas JeffersonVirginia Democratic- Republican % Aaron BurrNew York Democratic- Republican % John AdamsMassachusettsFederalist6547.1% Charles PinckneySouth CarolinaFederalist6446.4% John JayNew YorkFederalist 1 0.7% Total Number of Electors138 Total Electoral Votes Cast276 Number of Votes for a Majority 70 A TIE! WHAT HAPPENED NEXT?

55 1800 Election Results AdamsJefferson

56 1800 ELECTION RESULTS DECIDED BY HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIIVES!  1 vote for each State  36 BALLOTS REQUIRED! 1800 ELECTION RESULTS DECIDED BY HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIIVES!  1 vote for each State  36 BALLOTS REQUIRED! Thomas JeffersonVirginiaDemocratic-Republican1062.5% Aaron BurrNew YorkDemocratic-Republican 425.0% Blank %

57 PRESIDENT JEFFERSON AND VICE PRESIDENT BURR -- VERY BITTER ENEMIES RECALL THAT BURR RAN AS A FEDERALIST IN ‘92. HE WAS REGARDED AS AN “INTRIGUER” (G. WASHINGTON)

58 DESPITE EXTREME BITTERNESS OF PARTISAN POLITICS 1796 – 1800 – WHEN ADAMS AND FEDERALISTS IN CONGRESS LOST ELECTION THEY STEPPED DOWN!  DESPITE EXTREME BITTERNESS OF PARTISAN POLITICS 1796 – 1800 – WHEN ADAMS AND FEDERALISTS IN CONGRESS LOST ELECTION THEY STEPPED DOWN!  IMPORTANT NEW PRECEDENT – PEACEFUL TRANSITION OF POLITICAL POWER  CONCEPTS OF TWO-PARTY SYSTEM AND “LOYAL OPPOSITION” EMERGE  NEW SPIRIT OF NATIONALISM – MAYBE THIS COUNTRY WILL LAST!

59 “REMEMBER THE LADIES”  “REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD”  A TERM COINED BY 20 TH CENTURY FEMINIST HISTORIANS TO REFER TO LATE 18 TH – EARLY 19 TH C. IDEA THAT: WOMEN SHOULD BE EDUCATED SO THEY COULD TRAIN CHLDREN TO BE GOOD CITIZENS IN THE REPUBLIC WOMEN SHOULD BE EDUCATED SO THEY COULD TRAIN CHLDREN TO BE GOOD CITIZENS IN THE REPUBLIC ADVOCATED BY PROTESTANT MINISTERS AND SOME EDUCATED WOMEN (ABIGAIL ADAMS, CATHERINE MARIA SEDGEWICK, ETC.) ADVOCATED BY PROTESTANT MINISTERS AND SOME EDUCATED WOMEN (ABIGAIL ADAMS, CATHERINE MARIA SEDGEWICK, ETC.) LED TO WOMEN’S COLLEGES AND SEMINARIES (MT. HOLYOKE, 1837) IN NORTH EAST LED TO WOMEN’S COLLEGES AND SEMINARIES (MT. HOLYOKE, 1837) IN NORTH EAST

60  WOMENS’ EDUCATION  TEMPERANCE AND ABOLITIONIST WOMENS’ MOVEMENTS  SENECA FALLS CONVENTION (BIRTH OF WOMENS’ SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT)  CONCEPT OF REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD DID NOT INCLUDE SLAVES, FACTORY GIRLS, ETC! JAMES PEALE, THE ARTIST AND HIS FAMILY (1795)

61 FOOTNOTE: THE CAPITAL MOVES SOUTH (COMPROMISE OF 1790). CONSTRUCTION OF WASHINGTON D.C. BEGAN 1792 (WITH SLAVE LABOR) ABOVE, OPENING OF CAPITOL – 1800

62  LEGACY OF FRENCH REVOLUTION IN U.S. THE WIDE AVENUES OF D.C. (PENNSYLVANIA AVE. ABOVE) – DESIGNED TO PREVENT BARRICADES AND MAKE SURE CAISSONS COULD GET THROUGH – UNLIKE PARIS! RIGHT, PIERRE CHARLES L’ENFANT, ARCHITECT AND CIVIL ENGINEER WHO DESIGNED D.C.


Download ppt "EARLY FEDERAL ERA POLITICS 1792 - 1800 FEDERALISTS VERSUS DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google