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AMERICAN HISTORY.  Late 1800s—women were finding more opportunities for education and employment  Women wanted more involvement in the community  They.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN HISTORY.  Late 1800s—women were finding more opportunities for education and employment  Women wanted more involvement in the community  They."— Presentation transcript:


2  Late 1800s—women were finding more opportunities for education and employment  Women wanted more involvement in the community  They sought to use the talents and skills to make life better for others  Women were becoming a greater political force

3  HIGHER EDUCATION  1833—Oberlin College in Ohio begins admitting women in addition to men  1870—about 20% of all college students were women  1900—about 1/3 of all college students were women  Most women in college were members of the middle or upper classes

4  Many professional opportunities were still not available for women  The American Medical Association did not start admitting women until 1915  EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES  Late 1800s—women worked as teachers and nurses, bookkeepers, typists, secretaries, and shop clerks

5  Newspapers began hiring more women as artists and journalists  According to census figures:  --artists: 1870—4121900---11,207  --journalists: 1870—351900—2,193  Working class women and those without a high school education found jobs in industry  They tended to be paid less the men were

6  Women became the backbone of many reform movements  Women learned how to organize, persuade people, and publicize their causes  CHILDREN’S HEALTH AND WELFARE  Progressive reformers worked to end child labor, improve children’s health, and promote education

7  Lillian Wald, founder of the Henry Street Settlement in NYC, believed that government had a responsibility to tend to the well-being of children  She wanted an agency at the federal level  1912—Federal Children’s Bureau opens  PROHIBITION  Called for a ban on making, selling, and distributing alcoholic beverages

8  Reformers believed alcohol was often responsible for crime, poverty, and violence against women and children  Two major national organizations led the organized crusade against alcohol:  1) Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)  Frances Ward led the WCTU 1879-1898  2) Anti-Saloon League

9  Reformers also spread the word through Protestant churches  Billy Sunday, former baseball player turned Presbyterian evangelist, preached that saloons were “the parent of crimes and the mother of sins.”  1900—Evangelist Carry Nation carried a bible in one hand and a hatchet in another

10  She smashed up saloons in Kansas and urged others to do the same  1917—Congress proposes the XVIIIth Amendment  Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages  States ratified the amendment in 1919  So unpopular that it was repealed in 1933

11  CIVIL RIGHTS  African American women fought for the same rights as white women  Ending poverty, promoting child welfare, better wages, safer working conditions, fighting alcohol abuse  Most African American women found they were not welcome in white organizations so they formed their own

12  1896—National Association of Colored Women (NACW)  Members included the most prominent colored women of the time period  Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Margaret Murray Washington (Tuskegee Institute), Harriet Tubman (Underground Railroad)  1916—NACW had 100,000+ members  Campaigned against poverty, segregation, and lynching.

13  1848—Seneca Falls, NY Convention promoting women’s rights  72 years of organizing, campaigning, and persuading before getting the right to vote  THE XVth AMENDMENT  Women thought they should be given the right to vote along with African Americans

14  Abolitionist Horace Greeley urged them to “remember that this is the Negro hour and your first duty is to go through the state and plead his claims.”  Suffragists waited but not patiently  WOMEN ORGANIZE  1869—Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony formed the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA)

15  NWSA campaigned for a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote  Other issues included labor organizing  1872—Some NWSA members supported Victoria Woodhull, the first female presidential candidate  1869—American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA)—Henry Ward Beecher was president

16  AWSA focused exclusively on winning the right to vote on a state-by-state basis  AWSA aligned itself with the Republican Party  1869—Wyoming Territory became first in granting the vote to women  Utah followed a year later  10 other states followed suite

17  SUSAN B. ANTHONY TESTS THE LAW  Anthony worked tirelessly for suffrage with speeches and pamphlets  She testified before every Congress 1869-1906  1872—She and 3 of her sisters staged a dramatic protest  They registered to vote, and on Election Day they voted in Rochester, NY

18  Two weeks later, they were arrested for “knowingly, wrongfully and unlawfully” voting for a representative to the Congress of the United States  Before her trial she delivered an address in which she spelled out many reasons that justice required that women be given the right to vote (p. 533)

19  At her trial the judge did not let her testify on her own behalf, ruled her guilty, and fined her $100  Anthony refused to pay the fine hoping the judge would arrest her to create a case that could be appealed through the courts  The judge refused to imprison Anthony so no appeal

20  1875—US Supreme Court ruled that even though women were citizens, citizenship did not give them the right to vote. It was up to the states to grant or withhold voting  ANTI-SUFFRAGE ARGUMENTS  People opposed to suffrage used several arguments

21  1) interfered with duties at home  2) would destroy families  3) women did not have the education or experience  4) some said most women did not want to vote  Business interests also disapproved  Liquor businesses thought women would vote for prohibition

22  Others thought women would vote for more government regulation that would drive up business costs  TWO ORGANIZATIONS MERGE  1890—NWSA & AWSA merged  Now called the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)  Leader was Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1890-1892

23  Susan B. Anthony served as President 1892-1900  Anthony died in 1906  Her final public comment: “Failure is impossible”  Most early suffragists did not live to cast a vote  Only 1 signer of the Seneca Falls declaration (1848) was still alive in 1920, Charlotte Woodward, age 92  THE END

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