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The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome Prologue Section 1.

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1 The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome Prologue Section 1

2 Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Government- system for controlling the society Monarchy- king or monarch; rule is hereditary Aristocracy- ruled by a small group of noble, land- owning families Oligarchy- government ruled by a few people based upon wealth or ability Democracy- “rule of the people” ▫Adult male citizens participated in governmental decisions and three nobles were elected to the assembly and later the council of advisors ▫Around 600 BC economic problems eventually forced farmers into slavery

3 Important People in Athens Reforms of Solon (594 BC) ▫Outlawed debt slavery and canceled farmers debts ▫Created the Council of 400- prepared business ▫Any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers  Citizen= free adult males; 1/10 population Cleisthenes Enacts More Reforms ▫Reorganized the assembly for rich and poor ▫Council of 500- proposed laws and counseled the assembly  Citizens= 1/5 population Pericles Strengthens Democracy ▫Increased paid public officials ▫Direct Democracy- citizens rule and make laws directly

4 Greek Philosophers Use Reason 1. The universe is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute and changing laws 2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason SPA ▫Socrates- Socratic Method ▫Plato- The Republic; rule by philosopher-kings ▫Aristotle- Politics; live in a state

5 Legacy of Greece Natural Laws- use of reason and intelligence to discover Direct Democracy Three Branches of Government

6 Rome Develops a Republic Republic- power rests with citizens who have the right to elect the leaders who make governmental decisions; “indirect democracy” Patricians vs. Plebeians ▫Plebeians could vote but not hold government positions

7 Roman Government Twelve Tables ▫Written law code to protect plebeians ▫All free citizens had the right to protection under law and laws would be fairly administered Republican Government ▫Dictator- times of crisis ▫Two Consuls ▫Senate- Patricians ▫Two assembles- Plebeians

8 Roman Law All citizens had the right to equal treatment under the law Innocent until proven guilty Burden of proof rested in the accuser Unfair laws could be set aside Justinian Law Code- “a government of laws, not of men”

9 Legacy of Rome Republic Individual is a citizen in a state not a subject Written law code

10 Judeo-Christian Tradition Prologue Section 2

11 Judaism Hebrews were monotheists who believed in one god Practiced Judaism People had dignity simply by being a child of God and each person was responsible for the choices they made; emphasis on the worth of the individual

12 Jewish Law Teaches Morality Moses forms a covenant with God ▫Ten Commandments- code of morality and ethics; rules of social and religious behavior Prophets taught that people should oppose injustice and oppression and the community should assist the unfortunate

13 Christianity The Teachings of Christianity ▫Love for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and themselves ▫Jesus was thought as the “king of the Jews” and was crucified  Christianity – Teaching of Jesus Christ

14 Christianity (cont.) The Spread of Christianity ▫Apostle Paul spread Christianity and stressed the importance of equality for all human beings  Religion would welcome any converts Rome Spreads Judeo-Christian Ideas ▫Jewish Diaspora- spread their beliefs that all people had the right to be treated with justice and dignity ▫Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire

15 Islam Monotheistic religion based of the teachings of Muhammad ▫Qur’an was a collection of teaching from god delivered to Muhammad ▫Emphasized dignity of all human beings and he brotherhood of all people Muslims were required to offer charity to those in need

16 Legacy of Monotheistic Religions the duty of the individual and the community to combat oppression worth of the individual equality of people before God

17 Renaissance Roman Catholic Church- During the middle ages it controlled all political, social, and religious aspects of life Renaissance- renewed interest in classical Greek culture; fueled by the invention of the printing press ▫Prepared men for public service instead of service for the church ▫Encouraged human potential and achievement ▫Individualism

18 Reformation Reformation- religious reform movement in the 19 th century led by the Protestants ▫Martin Luther- criticized the Church of selling pardons  Salvation came through faith in God not good works  Protestantism  Interpret the bible by themselves  People could find individual paths to God; didn’t need church  Questioned political authority

19 Legacy of the Renaissance and Reformation By challenging authority the Reformation indirectly contributed to the growth of democracy ▫Introduced individuals to reading Emphasis on the Individual

20 Democracy Develops in England Prologue Section 3

21 Reforms in Medieval England William, duke of Normandy in France, invades England and defeats the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings (1066) ▫Ended Feudalism ▫Began Centralized Government ▫Development of Democracy Henry II ▫Created a Jury Trial instead of feudal courts  Royal judge would visit each country ▫Common Law- reflected customs and principles established over time

22 Reforms in Medieval England King John ▫Fought an unsuccessful and costly war against the France; he tried to raise taxes to pay for the war ▫In 1215 angry nobles forced him to sign the Magna Carta (Great Chapter)  Limited the power of the king by having them govern according to law and guaranteed individual rights and liberties  Due Process of Law- “judgment by his peers;” king could not punish subjects

23 Model Parliament Model Parliament (Edward I needed taxes) ▫Parliament- England’s national legislature  House of Lords- nobles and bishops  House of Commons- knights and burgesses  Limited power of monarch and established representation Parliament Grows Stronger ▫Eventually The House of Commons grew equal to the House of Lords and Parliament could vote on taxes, pass laws, and advise royal policies ▫Divine Right of Kings- king’s power came from God  Stuart Family and James I  Conflict with Puritans  Star Chamber- royal court  Money

24 Parliament Overthrows the King Charles I asks for money and signs the Petition of Right  No taxing without Parliament’s consent  Couldn’t imprison citizens illegally  Couldn’t house troops  Couldn’t maintain military government in peacetime  In 1642 English civil war broke out; royalists vs. antiroyalists Oliver Cromwell won control; antiroyalists Establishment of Constitutional Monarchy ▫Cromwell established the Commonwealth of England but eventually turned it into a Protectorate “military dictatorship” ▫Restoration- parliament restored the monarchy under Charles Stuart II  Habeas Corpus- prevents police from detaining a person wrongfully

25 Glorious Revolution (1689) William and Mary invade England and start the Glorious Revolution ▫Parliament limited the power of the king and could control the succession to the throne ▫Established a Constitutional Monarchy-powers of the ruler are restricted by the constitution ▫Bill of Rights- formal summary of rights and liberties believed to be essential to people  Protected free speech  Could not tax or raise an army during peace time Excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment were forbidden

26 The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolution Prologue Section 4

27 Enlightenment Thinkers Enlightenment- intellectual movement that tried to use the principles of reason and the methods of science to all aspects of society ▫Influenced by the Scientific Revolution Thomas Hobbes ▫Leviation; people were by nature selfish and ambitious and needed an absolute monarchy ▫Social Contract-people submitted to the authoritarian ruler to prevent disorder John Locke ▫Problem was that the king failed to protect the rights of the people ▫Natural Rights- right to life, liberty, and property  People had an absolute right to rebel if the government did not protect these rights; self-government

28 Enlightenment Thinkers Voltaire ▫Favor of tolerance, freedom of religion, and free speech’ Jean-Jacques Rousseau ▫The Social Contract- an agreement among free individuals to create a government that would respond to the people will ▫Government from the consent of the governed Baron de Montesquieu ▫Separation of Powers- divided into three branches  Legislature- make laws  Executive- enforce laws  Courts (Judicial)- interpret laws

29 The Beginnings of Democracy in America French and Indian War- battle b/w France and Britain for North America  Seven Years War in Europe ▫After the victory Britain felt the colonies should help pay the cost of the war; tax them ▫Stamp Act of no taxation without representation ▫No western movement for colonists American Revolution ▫Battle of Lexington and Concord- April 17 th, 1775 ▫Declaration of Independence- July 4 th, 1776 ▫End of Revolution ▫Articles of Confederation- weak central government

30 Enlightenment shapes the Constitution Representative Government- citizens elect representatives to make laws and policies for them (Rousseau) Federal System- powers of government were divided among federal, or central, government and the states, or local, governments Separation of Powers- executive, legislative, and judicial (Montesquieu) and checks and balances

31 The French Revolution Causes: ▫Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette took the throne with debts building up in 1774 ▫Inequality among clergy and nobility vs. commoners; only the poor paid taxes ▫Enlightenment Ideas and the American Revolution Early Reforms of the Revolution ▫Estates-General was broken up and commoners formed the National Assembly ▫Storming of Bastille- prison ▫Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Dec. of Ind.)  Rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression Reign of Terror ▫Radicals that killed or imprisoned opponents


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