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Chapter 20: Enlightenment and Revolution in England

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1 Chapter 20: Enlightenment and Revolution in England
20.1 Civil War and Revolution

2 I. Charles I and Parliament
Charles I (son of James I) believed in Divine Right Battles of funding Petition of Right- presented by Parliament King can not tax without permission of Parl. Could not declare martial law Could not board soldiers in private homes during peacetime Could not imprison without a specific charge Charles dismissed for 11 yrs Revolt in Scotland Charles calls Parliament into session

3 II. The Long Parliament Meet on and off for 20 yrs
Passed law- Parliament must meet at least once every 3 yrs Parliament controls taxes Tried to change Anglican Church- too Radical Irish Rebellion- Irish Catholics vs. English rule Led to Civil War- Charles I and House of Commons

4 III. English Civil War Kings supporters: Anglicans, Catholics, nobles- royalist or Cavaliers Parliament supporters: Puritans, Non-Anglican Protestants- Roundheads Cromwell vs. Charles I- New Model Army defeats Charles Cromwell controlled Parliament- Rump Parliament- abolished monarchy

5 IV. Cromwell’s Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell- Honest devout Puritan Lord protector from Military dictator Republic- established constitution Unpopular but brutally effective Navigation Act of war with Dutch

6 V. End of Revolution Republican government failed
Cromwell’s son Richard loses army’s support Parliament invited Charles II to return to English throne

7 Fun Facts September When Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, some of his supporters had Cromwell's body dug up and hanged(!) from a gallows as a traitor. His remains were later buried at the foot of the gibbet. Oliver Cromwell had five sons and four daughters with a woman he married out of convenience.

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