2 The Old Regime (3)Old Regime – social political system which existed in most of Europe during the 18th centuryCountries were ruled by absolutism – meaning the monarch had absolute control over the governmentClasses of people – privileged and unprivilegedUnprivileged people – paid taxes and treated badlyPrivileged people – did not pay taxes and treated well
3 Society under the Old Regime In France, people were divided into three estatesFirst EstateHigh-ranking members of the ChurchPrivileged classSecond EstateNobilityThird EstateEveryone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy bourgeoisie merchants in the citiesUnprivileged class
4 The Three Estates Estate Population Privileges Exemptions Burdens FirstCirca 130,000High-ranking clergyCollected the titheCensorship of the pressControl of educationKept records of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Catholic faith held honored position of being the state religion (practiced by monarch and nobility)Owned 10% of the landPaid no taxesSubject to Church law rather than civil lawMoral obligation (rather than legal obligation) to assist the poor and needySupport the monarchy and Old RegimeSecondCirca 350,000NoblesCollected taxes in the form of feudal duesMonopolized military and state appointmentsOwned 25-30% of the landThirdCirca 25,000,000Everyone else: artisans, bourgeoisie, city workers, merchants, peasants, etc., along with many parish priestsNonePaid all taxesTithe (Church tax)Octrot (tax on goods brought into cities)Corvée (forced road work)Capitation (poll tax)Vingtiéme (income tax)Gabelle (salt tax)Taille (land tax)Feudal dues for use of local manor’s winepress, oven, etc.
5 What the King Did(2) Controlled justice by appointing judges Controlled the militaryCould imprison anyone at any time for no reasonLevied all taxes and decided how to spend the moneyMade all lawsMade decisions regarding war and peace
6 Economic Conditions under the Old Regime (3) France’s economy was based primarily on agriculturePeasant farmers of France had the burden of taxationPoor harvests meant that peasants had trouble paying their regular taxesCouldn’t afford to have their taxes raised
7 France Is Bankrupt (4)The king (Louis XVI) wasted money on himself and residences like VersaillesQueen Marie Antoinette was seen as a wasteful spenderDeficit spending – a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenuesPrivileged classes wouldn’t pay taxes, like the nobles.
8 Long-term Causes of the French Revolution(6) Everything previously discussedPoor harvests which left peasant farmers with little money for taxesAlsoInfluence of other successful revolutionsAmerican Revolution ( )
9 Short-term Causes of the French Revolution(6) BankruptcyCaused by crazy spendingFinancial ministers proposed changesBut were rejectedAssembly of Notables voted down taxation for the nobility in 1787Great FearWorst famine in memoryHungry peasants feared that nobles at Estates-General were seeking greater privilegesAttacks on nobles occurred throughout the country in 1789Estates-GeneralLouis XVI had no choice but to call for a meeting of the Estates-General to find a solution to the bankruptcy problemAll three estatesHad not met since 1614Set in motion a series of events which resulted in the end of the monarchy and a completely new socio-political system for France-
11 Meeting of the Estates-General(5): May 5, 1789 Voting was made by the estateEach estate had one voteFirst and Second Estates could operate as a block to stop the Third Estate from having its wayFirst Estate + Second Estate - vs. - Third EstateRepresentatives from the Third Estate demanded that voting be by populationThis would give the Third Estate a great advantageDeadlock resulted
12 First Estate = 1 Vote or 130,000 Votes Second Estate = 1 Vote or 110,000 VotesThird Estate = 1 Vote or 25,000,000 Votes
13 Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting. Tennis Court OathOn June 23, 1789 He ordered the three estates to meet together as the National Assembly and vote, by population, on a constitution for France.The Third Estate went to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay together and create a written constitution for France.Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting.The Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly.
15 Four Phases (Periods) of the French Revolution National Assembly ( )Legislative Assembly ( )Convention ( )Directory ( )
16 National Assembly ( )Louis XVI didn’t actually want a written constitutionWhen news of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reached Paris on July 14, 1789, people stormed the Bastille
17 Uprising in Paris (7) People of Paris seized weapons from the Bastille July 14, 1789Parisians organized their own government which they called the CommuneSmall groups competed to control the city of ParisUprising spread throughout FranceNobles were attackedMany nobles fled the country – became known as émigrésLouis XVI was forced to fly the new flag of France
19 Goodbye, Versailles!Parisian Commune feared that Louis XVI would have foreign troops invade France to put down the rebellionA group of women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789Forced royal family to relocate to Paris along with National AssemblyRoyal family spent next several years in the Tuileries Palace as virtual prisoners
21 Changes under the National Assembly No more special privilegesConstitution of 1791Declaration of the Rights of ManEquality before the law (for men)Many nobles left France and became known as émigrésTaxes leveled based on the ability to pay
23 End of Special Privileges Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to peasantsCivil Constitution of the Clergy required that Church officials be elected by the people, and paid by the government2/3 of Church officials fled the country rather than follow thisAll special privileges of the First and Second Estates were gone
24 Constitution of 1791 Democratic features Undemocratic features France became a limited monarchyKing became basically the head of stateAll laws were created by the Legislative AssemblyFeudalism was goneUndemocratic featuresVoting was limited to taxpayersOffices were reserved for property ownersThis new government became known as the Legislative Assembly
25 Opposition to the New Government European monarchs feared that revolution would spread to their own countriesFrance was invaded by Austrian and Prussian troopsIn this, the Commune took control of ParisCommune was led by Danton, a member of the Jacobin political partyVoters began electing representatives for a new convention which would write a republican constitution for FranceMeanwhile, thousands of nobles were executed under the suspicion that they were conspirators in the invasion
26 Convention ( )On September 22, 1792, the Convention met for the first timeEstablished the First French RepublicWoohoo.
27 Abolishment of the Monarchy The Convention abolished the monarchyAs long as the royal family lived, the monarchy could be restoredLouis XVI was beheaded on January 21, 1793Marie Antoinette was beheaded on October 16, 1793Daughter Marie-Thérèse was allowed to go to Vienna in 1795She could not become queen because of Salic law, which did not allow females to succeed to the throneSon Louis-Charles, a.k.a. Louis XVII (lived ) was beaten and mistreated until he died in prison
30 Reign of Terror (8) September 5, 1793-July 27, 1794 Despite military successes, the Convention continued to face problemsPolitical parties came to dominate French politicsCommittee of Public SafetyThose accused of treason were tried by the Committee’s Revolutionary TribunalApproximately 15,000 people died on the guillotineGuillotine became known as the “National Razor”
32 End of the Reign of Terror(8) Members of the Girondist political party tried to end the Reign of Terror initiated by the Jacobin political partyCaused many Girondists to be tried and executed for treasonEventually, even Georges Danton wanted to end the executionsThis resulted in Danton being tried and executed for treasonMaximilien Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public SafetyHe continued the executionsConvention came to blame Robespierre for the Reign of TerrorThermidorean ReactionJuly 27, 1794 – ended the Reign of TerrorConvention sent Robespierre and other members of the Committee of Public Safety to the guillotineRobespierre was guillotined on July 28, 1794
33 Constitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795) (7) With the foreign invaders vanquished and the Reign of Terror at an end, the Convention was finally able to make its new constitutionConstitution of the Year III of the Republic (1795) created the Directory
34 Government under the Directory 5 directors appointed by the LegislatureExecutiveLower house (500 members) proposed lawsUpper house (250 members) voted on these laws2/3 of the Legislature would initially be filled by members of the ConventionLegislatureGirondists (middle-class party) had defeated the Jacobins (working- and peasant-class party)Girondists’ constitution stated that suffrage (the right to vote), as well as the right to hold office, were limited to property ownersQualifications
35 Other things Passed by the Convention Adopted the metric systemDealt the final blow to feudalism by abolishing primogeniture (the system whereby the oldest son inherited all of his father’s estate)Made a system of lawsEnded slavery in France’s coloniesEstablished a nationwide system of public education
36 Directory ( )The Directory suffered from corruption and poor controllment.The people of France grew poorer and more frustrated with their government.National pride was made by military successes.Military leader – Napoleon Bonaparte : ENDED THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
37 3. What is deficit spending? Review Questions1. What was the Old Regime?2. Describe the size, privileges, exemptions, and burdens of the three estates.3. What is deficit spending?4. What were the underlying (long-term) causes of the French Revolution?5. What were the immediate (short-term) causes of the French Revolution?6. Explain the debate over voting which occurred in the Estates-General.
38 Works Cited1."French Revolution - Information, Facts, and Links." Enotes.com. Enotes.com, n.d. Web. 06 Dec2."French Revolution Essay | French Revolution." BookRags. BookRags, n.d. Web. 06 Dec3."French Revolution." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 06 Dec4."Interesting Facts & Information: Tourism, Travel, Culture, Language, Business, People. Â» Blog Archive Â» French Revolution Summary." Interesting Facts Information Tourism Travel Culture Language Business People RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec5."Interesting Facts & Information: Tourism, Travel, Culture, Language, Business, People. Â» Blog Archive Â» French Revolution Timeline." Interesting Facts Information Tourism Travel Culture Language Business People RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec6."Principal Dates and Time Line of the French Revolution." Principal Dates and Time Line of the French Revolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec7."Principal Dates and Time Line of the French Revolution." Principal Dates and Time Line of the French Revolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec8."Reign of Terror." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2012