Presentation on theme: "Imperialism and America Section 1. Background Information The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 defined United States foreign policy in the Americas for the rest."— Presentation transcript:
Background Information The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 defined United States foreign policy in the Americas for the rest of the nineteenth century and beyond. It declared that the United States had an interest in the Western Hemisphere and that European powers must not meddle in the affairs of any developing nations there. The United States was a young nation in 1823 and did not really have the power to back up the Monroe Doctrine. The idea of manifest destiny gained popularity in the 1830s and 1840s. Many Americans came to believe that it was their nation's "manifest destiny" to possess all of the North American continent. Later in the century, this idea gave way to dreams of expanding America's influence around the world.
Roots of American Imperialism ECONOMIC ROOTS: By the late 19 th century, the growing industrial economy of the United States was producing many more goods than the nation itself could use. This overabundance of industrial goods led the United States to look for new markets abroad. POLITICAL AND MILITARY ROOTS: European nations such as England, Spain, France, Russia, Portugal, Germany, and Belgium had already carved up Africa and large parts of Asia into colonies and "spheres of influence" by the late 1900s. To remain competitive, the United States reacted to European imperialism by looking for a way to secure its own economic future through a policy of expansionism.
RACISTS ROOTS: Belief in the racial and cultural superiority of Anglo-Saxons. This belief led many Americans to claim that the U.S. had a responsibility to expand and spread Christianity and “civilization.”
Alfred T. Mahan What did Mahan urge the US to do to protect its interests?
1. Develop a modern navy to protect U.S. shipping 2. Establish naval bases in Caribbean 3. Construct a canal across country of Panama 4. acquire Hawaii and other Pacific Islands
United States Takes Hawaii The Economy: Sugar plantations- Americans owned about 2/3 of sugar plantations and brought in labor from Japan, China, and Portugal. 1875- U.S. and Hawaii signed treaty allowing sale of Hawaiian sugar tax free in the U.S. 1877-American businessmen force King of Hawaii to change the Hawaiian constitution to give only wealthy landowners the right to vote. Also U.S. forces Hawaii to allow the U.S. navy to build a base at Pearl Harbor.
Queen Lil of Hawaii: she wants to restore power to the Hawaiian people
The Queen Disposed John L. Stevens-U.S. ambassador who helps businessmen prevent Queen Lil from carrying out her plans by organizing a revolution. U.S.S. Boston-Stevens orders marines to come ashore to “protect American lives and property.” Volunteer troops take over government building and imprison Queen Lil in the palace. Stanford B. Dole-becomes president of temporary government Stevens appeals to Washington to annex Hawaii, but President Cleveland refuses until a majority of Hawaiians want annexation. President McKinley favors annexation and makes Hawaii a U.S. territory on August 12, 1898.
Spanish-American War Section 2 Background Information Cuba-controlled by Spain. U.S. has been interested in controlling Cuba for years. Cuba had a long history of rebellion (1868-1878), but failed to gain independence. American businessmen invested money in sugar plantations and the U.S. soon became Cuba’s main market. Jose Marti-Cuban poet living in exile in NY. Organized resistance against Spain using guerilla warfare and destroying American property (sugar plantations)
The Butcher Valeriano Weyler- “the Butcher” sent by Spain to Cuba to put down the rebellion. Put rural people in concentration camps to try and prevent guerrilla war.
Causes of the Spanish-American War Yellow Journalism-Hearst and Pulitzer attracted readers by using exaggerated accounts of true events happening in Cuba. “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.” --William Randolph Hearst
Causes of Spanish-American War De Lome Letter-letter written by Enrique Dupuy de Lome, Spanish Minister to the U.S. Called President McKinley “weak” and “a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.” American public to some extent did agree with letter, but did not approve of criticism of president.
Causes of Spanish-American War USS Maine Explodes-sent to Cuba to protect American lives and property. February 15, 1898 ship explodes killing 260. No one knows for sure what caused the explosion. At time thought it was to be a mine, but later studies found it was probable that an internal explosion caused the ship to explode.
War Breaks Out April 20, 1898 U.S. declares war on Spain The Philippines : -First battle of war takes place in Manila Bay where the U.S. Navy defeats the Spanish Navy. -U.S. led by Naval Commander Charles Dewey and his victory allowed U.S. troops to march toward Manila. U.S. troops will join Emilio Aguinaldo (rebel leader) and defeat the Spanish in August. Cuba : -U.S. blockades Cuba while troops get ready to move inland. -Most of U.S. Army is inexperienced. Had inadequate supplies (food and guns) and lacked good leaders.
War Breaks Out -Rough Riders: Volunteer cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt and Leonard Wood; existed for 133 days. Involved in battle–Kettle Hill—but on foot, not horses. Given credit for second battle—San Juan Hill—even though had little to do with it. -Spain tried to break through blockade but were defeat by U.S Navy. Spain surrenders on July 25, 1989.
Treaty of Paris, 1898 Signed on August 12 and ended a war that had lasted 16 weeks. 5,400 soldiers died but only 379 from the war, rest due to disease or other causes. December 10, 1898 Spain and U.S. agreed: 1.Cuba becomes independent 2.Spain gives Puerto Rico and Guam to U.S. 3.U.S. would pay Spain $20 million for Philippines Islands This would cause a big discussion in the U.S. Arguments were over annexation of Philippines, but issue was imperialism. Some felt by not giving new territories, deny them self-government. Issue was solved when Senate approved treaty in February, 1898.
Puerto Rico 1898-1916 Cuba 1898-1903 Philippines 1898-1945 China 1900 Relationshi p to U.S. ? Protectorat e-country whose affairs are partially controlled by stronger power Protectorat e Protectorat e or colony “Trading Partner”; wanted access to ports Why did U.S. try to control its affairs? Location was important Protect U.S. business interests Provide raw materials & new markets Establish and protect new markets What laws and policies affected it relationship w/ U.S? Treaty of Paris; Foraker Act; imperialist policies Platt Amendmen t Treaty of Paris; removal policy; imperialist Open Door
Violent events affected its relationship w/ U.S.? Spanish- American War Spanish- American War; 3 uprisings that led to US military occupation; Guantanam o Bay Spanish- American war; Philippine- American War Boxer Rebellion
3 foundations for American foreign policy 1.Americans thought growth of U.S. economy depended on exports. 2.U.S. had right to intervene to keep foreign markets open. 3.Feared closing of an area to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S survival
America as a World Power Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Diplomacy: Treaty of Portsmouth- Roosevelt negotiates peace treaty between Russia and Japan; U.S. reputation increases and U.S. enters into agreements with Japan
Panama Canal Background Information: All of Mahan’s goals had been achieved EXCEPT for building a canal through Central America Why is the canal so important?? 2 possible routes for the canal: 1. Nicaragua- less problems b/c crossed large lake 2. Panama-province of Columbia; route was shorter but filled with mountains and swamps
Panama Canal Background Information: Negotiations broke down between U.S. and Columbia; Philippe Bunau- Varilla (chief engineer/investor in New Panama Canal Co.) led a rebellion for Panamanian independence. U.S. helped negotiate treaty gaining independence for Panama and control of 10 mile wide canal zone.
Roosevelt Corollary Background Information: Roosevelt feared European countries interfering in the Western Hemisphere; Latin American (LA) countries borrowed money from Europe and U.S. feared LA countries would not be able to repay loans and Europe would be drawn into Western Hemisphere. Roosevelt based LA policy on African policy: “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.”
Roosevelt Corollary Based on Monroe Doctrine but went step further Disorder in LA might “force the United States… to the exercise of an international police power” in order to protect U.S. economic interests. Example: 1911 rebellion in Nicaragua left country bankrupt; President Taft ordered American bankers to loan money to Nicaragua to pay back debts. U.S. would get money back by collecting custom duties. U.S. also gained control of public RR system; people revolt against Nicaraguan president and U.S. sends in Marines to put down rebellion; U.S. successful and leaves some troops there until 1933.
Dollar Diplomacy Roosevelt and Taft administrations Using nation’s economic power to exert influence over other countries Use U.S. government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American businessmen
Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy U.S. has a moral responsibility to deny any LA govt that it viewed to be oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests. Put pressure on nations in Western Hemisphere to set up democratic goverments. Tested immediately by the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico ruled as a dictator who supported foreign (U.S.) investment. Wealthy supported him, poor hated him. Poor revolt in 1910 and Diaz is forced to leave Mexico City. Francisco Madero (leader of revolutionaries) becomes President in 1911. Was a wealthy land owner and could not meet demands of the upper and lower classes.
Mexican Revolution General Victoriano Heurta takes over in 1913 and executes Madero. American businessmen want Wilson to recognize Heurta’s government, but Wilson refuses to move from his “missionary diplomacy.” Wilson is going to “watch and wait” to see if an opportunity will come to move against Heurta. April 1914: Mexican officials arrest U.S. sailors in Tampico; Mexicans quickly release sailors and apologize, but Wilson uses it as excuse to send troops to Mexico.
Mexican Revolution Incident brings U.S. and Mexico closer to war. Argentina, Brazil, and Chile (A, B, C countries) mediate the conflict. Say: Huerta step down and U.S. with draw w/out paying Mexico for damages. Mexico refuses and Wilson will not recognize power that has come to reign due to violence. Huerta’s government comes to end and Venustiano Carranza comes to power in 1915 and Wilson recognizes his government.
Pershing and Villa Problems in Mexico continue with Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Emiliano Zapata