1453 Ottoman Turks will attack Constantinople. Though Constantinople has stopped invaders before their Empire is in decline. The Turks will use Cannons, something Constantinople was not designed for. The Turks will win and create the largest empire in history. Istanbul (New name)
The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, at its height, will control Southeast Asia, North Africa, and a large part of Europe. The Ottomans were a Muslim Tribal group that originated from a nomadic group out of Central Asia “Osman” was a powerful leader who helped unite the tribes, and the Ottomans would take their name in his honor.
The Turks would capture Constantinople under the rule of Memhet II, also known as Memhet the Conqueror. Under future rulers the Turks would gain Greece, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Hungary, etc Controlled agricultural land, trade cities, a strong government, and the Holy cities of all three Monotheistic Religions.
Empire Structure Sultan: Absolute Ruler of Ottoman Empire – Sultan would pass rule to a male in the family, not always a son. New Sultans would often kill or imprison relatives to remove the competition Grand Viser: Chief Minister of the Government Divan: Council of Ministers and Military Leaders Provincial Governors Bureaucracy & Meritocracy
Many government officials were captives from the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire required devshirme: a tax calling for an allotment of Children. Many of the boys would be trained as Janissaries, or slave soldiers Janissaries were considered some of the finest fighters in the world.
Diverse Society Because of the size of the Empire the Ottomans had a diverse society. They were tolerant of the many peoples and religions. Different religious groups were organized into separate communities with the right to run their own areas.
Shi’a Muslims were less tolerated as they were viewed as a threat to control. Suleyman, a sultan, would create a strict legal code based off of Islamic Law. Suleyman’s Law code provided a uniform legal system for all peoples.
Decline Suleyman dies in 1566, and the Ottoman Empire begins to decline. The Ottomans experienced two major defeats to combined European forces The Policy of imprisoning family backfired. Sometimes these people did become Sultans. However they didn’t get educated properly while jailed, and mismanaged the empire.
Europe developed new trade routes that bypassed the Ottoman Empire, so they lost money New Silver from the Americas decreased the importance of Ottoman Silver The Empire would last until 1923, after World War I.
Mughal India (Empire) Also Muslim Turks who originated from Central Asia (same as Ottomans) The founder of the Mughal Empire was named Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan. Mughal is the Persian word for Mongol
Babur would conquer Northern India defeating an army of 100,000 men with just 12,000 of his own. Babur’s advantage was he had cannons and muskets. Babur’s son would lose most of the empire. When he died, his Son Akbar would take over and revive the Empire
Golden Age Akbar would take control of the Empire when he was 14. He would rule for over 40 years. His success was partly due to him dividing India into provinces. He reformed the tax system, and promoted tolerance of all peoples He was viewed an Indian, not a foreign invader.
Could be especially cruel when needed. He destroyed the town of a governor who opposed him. Akbar would encourage the arts throughout his rule, and would die in 1605 and be followed by numerous success One successor, Shah Jahan will be best known for Building the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife. Another ruler, Aurangzeh, would end tolerance of Hindus, and carry out a bloody military campaign to capture southern India.
Trade and Interactions Mughals relied on the diversity of India for economic success. Because of their location India was important in trade with China and the Spice Islands. The Mughals would use these trade routes to help spread Islam Increased trade would bring a greater European influence
Mughal Decline As European influence grew, the Mughal power declined. Mughal persecution of Hindus also lead to the unpopularity of the Empire among the people In the 1700s, The British seeing an opportunity took control of large portions of India, and would maintain control until after World War II
Group Work Spend some time reading over your assigned section. Write down on a sheet of paper the information you think is important for you to know, something you don’t know, or a fact that is just really interesting The Teacher (Me) will tell you when to get into your groups. One (1) writer will help the groups organize their list of the most important info for their section
Ming & Qing Dynasties In the mid 1300s the Mongols are still in charge of China. Popular opposition will lead to their overthrow, and the Ming Dynasty will take over. The translation of the word Ming is “Brilliant”
Old & New The Ming will revive the civil service system The Emperor will also enact a tax and land reform. This will cause an increase in trade throughout their Empire However, the Emperor, Zhu Yuanzhang, will be a despot. He will execute those who oppose him, and suspects everyone of wrong doing.
In 1403 his son, Yong Le would take control of the empire. He will rebuild the Great Wall, and move the capital to Beijing. He will be responsible for the construction of the Forbidden City.
Seafaring China Yong Le will also support China’s navy. He will sponsor the voyages of Admiral Zheng He, who will explore extensively between 1405 & 1433. These voyages will help to open China to the trading world, and they will adopt the nickname of the Middle Kingdom In the 1430s sea travel will end due to its expense.
Qing Dynasty The Ming Rule for about 300 years. They will grow weak due to corruption and rebellion. The Qing dynasty will take over which will be seen as a passing of the mandate of heaven Qing means pure The Qing are ethnically Manchus
Though Manchus are seen as foreigners they have long been influenced by the Chinese and are really very similar The Qing will balance harsh rule with that of acceptance. The nature of their rule will eventually win the respect of the Chinese. Excellent Emperors will also help the their Dynasty. Both rulers will be competent and well respected. They expand the empire and this again makes the Chinese like the Qing
Decline of the Qing Like other Chinese rulers the Qing would officially not recognize trade as important. They would restrict trade to the city of Canton (Guangzhou). Despite looking down on trade, they will trade for silver from the Americas. This trade allows the Chinese population to boom to 1/3 of the earths’ population
The growth was unsustainable. The Qing would become victim of food shortages and famine, and rebellions would break out. Ignoring technology left the Qing vulnerable to the more scientifically advanced European nations. The Qing dynasty will last until 1911, but because of their inability to adapt and change they will become increasingly victim to European influences.
Tokugawa Japan In the 1600s the Tokugawa family would unify Japan. Before Tokugawa rule, Japan had a feudal society: – Emperor: Top of the structure – Shogun: Military leaders who ruled on behalf of the emperor – Daimyo: Local lords who controlled large estates
In the late 1400s there would be a Civil War in Japan. Shoguns would lose control, Dynamos would fight with Samurai armies Known as Age of the Warring States Eventually, 2 powerful daimyos would start to put down their opponents. The Tokugawa would end the wars and set up a government that lasts for 250 years.
Tokugawa Rule To create stability the Tokugawa would have a strong central government. To prevent Daimyo from getting to powerful the Tokugawa would: – Create a secret police – Ban the use of firearms – Build new castles – Hold family members as hostages – Charge heavy taxes
Tokugawa Social System Four Social Classes: – Warrior Class: Samurai (5%) – Farmers: Considered the most productive members of society – Artisans – Merchants Rules for behavior and dress were created and followed by each class Social mobility was extremely rare
Chinese Influence Japanese social system reflects Confucian values Japanese writing system was borrowed and evolved from the Chinese system Adopted Buddhism Kabuki (performance) and Haiku (17 syllable poems) were both developed during the Tokugawa Era
A Policy of Isolation Shortly before the Tokugawa took control Europeans had arrived in Europe. Originally the Tokugawa were open to European influence However, when many Japanese began to convert to Catholicism the rulers became xenophobic (fear of Foreign things) The Tokugawa would expel the Christians Missionaries
The xenophobia would continue, and most Europeans will be banned from Japan by 1638. The Dutch were allowed to visit once or twice a year. Eventually the Tokugawa would close off all ports to foreign trade, and would remain isolated for about 200 years. This would be detrimental to science and technology.
In the 1800s American warships forced Japan to reopen to foreign trade. Shortly thereafter the Tokugawa rule came to an end.
Rise of Russia At one point and time the Mongols controlled Russia (yet another reason why people didn’t travel through Russia to China) The Mongols allowed Russian Princes to control their own cities in exchange for a tribute This allowed Ivan III, Ivan the Great, to take control in 1462
Ivan, seeing the Mongols were in decline, began to conquer lands and based his power in Moscow. Ivan began to call himself the Csar (Tsar) or the Russian Version of Caesar. Ivan saw Russia as the Third Great Roman Empire
Ivan IV (The Terrible) Ivan III grandson, Ivan IV took three steps to strengthen Russia – He conquered Mongol land to the South and East – Instituted a unified legal code to make Russia more efficient – He fought feudalism and took power away from the Russian Nobility Still, Ivan was seen as a cruel tyrant who was constantly worried someone would steal his power.
Time of Troubles After Ivan IV death his son took control. However he was a weak ruler, and Russia would enter a 15 year Civil War known as the Time of Troubles In 1613 Michael Romanov would become Tsar and begin to mend Russia’s divisions Under the Romanov’s Russia would continue to expand reaching the Pacific Ocean
Peter the Great Many Romanovs continued to modernize Russia. Peter I, the Great, longed to be like the rest of Europe and visited factories, hospitals, museums, and shipyards to get ideas. He built a new capital (St Petersburg), set up schools, established an academy of sciences, and even commanded all upper Russian government members to dress more “Westerly”
Catherine the Great Catherine II would continue the Enlightenment of Russia by supporting the arts and sciences. Both Catherine and Peter hoped to advance Russia, but crushed anyone who opposed them. They are sometimes called Enlightened Despots
End of the Monarchy Much of the Russian Population were serfs, or peasant farmers bound to their land. Despite the change in Russia nothing ever benefited them. Lead by Lenin and Marx there would be a peasant rebellion in 1917. The Romanov Family would be executed, and the Russian Monarchy would end.