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When birds fly in the right formation, they need only exert half the effort. Even in Nature, teamwork results in collective laziness. www.despair.com.

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Presentation on theme: "When birds fly in the right formation, they need only exert half the effort. Even in Nature, teamwork results in collective laziness. www.despair.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 When birds fly in the right formation, they need only exert half the effort. Even in Nature, teamwork results in collective laziness.

2 1700 France England Dutch Republic Austria 1650 Louis XIII dies & Mazarin’s Regency begins (1643) Mazarin dies & Louis XIV begins his active reign (1661) Glorious Revolution (1688) Eng. Civ. Wars begin (1642) Cromwell’s dictatorship ( ) Plague hits London (1665) 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) James II Begins reign (1685) Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes (1685) Louis XIV dies (1715) 1st Anglo Dutch- Naval War (1652-4) 2nd Anglo-Dutch Naval War (1665-7) 3rd Anglo- Dutch Naval War (1672-4) Dutch War ) Turks besiege Vienna & start of War of Holy League vs. Turks (1683) Fronde ( ) Stuart monarchy restored (1661) London Fire (1666) Russia Peter the Great dies (1725) War of Sp. Succession ( ) Great N.War vs. Sweden ( ) “Time of Troubles” ( ) Prussia Fred-Wm The Great Elector Starts his reign (1640) Fred-Wm the Great Elector Dies (1688) N. War b/w Sweden, Prussia & Poland ( ) Peter I’s Great Embassy (1697) Eng. Civ. Wars end (1648) War of Sp. Succession ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of Holy League ends (1699) 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) Dutch indep. (1648) William III Marries Mary Stuart (1674)

3 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) English Civil Wars (1642-8) (FC.96B) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” Concessions to Parl.  Peace until Irish revolt (1641)  Fight over control of army needed to suppress the revolt

4 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Eng. an island  ?

5 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  ?

6 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army

7 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army

8 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army

9 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88)

10 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Elizabeth I’s relig. settlement, treatment of Parliament, & way of meeting expenses (FC. 87)

11 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Kings who succeeded Elizabeth?

12 James I ( ), Mary, Queen of Scots’ son who also ruled as James VI of Scotland. As a result of this union, the term Great Britain starts to be used to describe England.

13 James, known as the “most learned fool in Christendom”, liked to lecture Parliament at length on the virtues of absolutism.

14 James I, shown here in his hunting outfit Remember kids, I may like all that frilly Catholic stuff like bishops & fancy ritual, but technically I’m still a Protestant. Mr. B gets really mad if you say I’m Catholic. By the same token, the Puritans get really mad when I claim to be Protestant. What’s a king to do? I guess I’ll go hunting.

15 Van Dyck’s triple portrait of Charles I ( ). Charles’ absolutist philosophy, insensitivity to public opinion, and indecisiveness created the perfect combination of characteristics needed to get himself overthrown by revolution. It didn’t help that there were three of him. “Sure dad steered the ship of state towards the rocks, but we get to wreck it.”--Charles I.1-3

16 Van Dyck’s most famous portrait of Charles I ( ). Van Dyck was an especially popular portrait artist, largely because, instead of using the usual 6:1 ratio of body to head size, he used a 7:1 ratio. This made his subjects, such as Charles, appear taller and more regal. In reality, Charles was supposedly somewhat short & dumpy.

17 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. ?

18 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Two houses of Parliament?

19 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. Who was in them? House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament

20 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. Religion? House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles.

21 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. What was Puritanism? House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles.

22 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. Type of Govt? House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles. *Puritans: English Calvinists

23 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. Type of economy? House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles. *Puritans: English Calvinists

24 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. Type of Religion? House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles. *Puritans: English Calvinists King favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Econ.

25 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. What was Anglicanism? House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles. *Puritans: English Calvinists King favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Econ.

26 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles. *Puritans: English Calvinists King favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Econ. **Anglican Church (AKA Church of England) which is Protestant in theology but has Catholic ritual and a hierarchy of bishops. Type of govt?

27 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles. *Puritans: English Calvinists King favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Econ. **Anglican Church (AKA Church of England) which is Protestant in theology but has Catholic ritual and a hierarchy of bishops. Type of economy?

28 House of Commons favors Puritan Church* Constitutional Monarchy Free trade Capitalist econ. House of Lords favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Ec. Parliament Puritan* Gentry (Lower nobles & rich M.C.) Anglican** Upper nobles. *Puritans: English Calvinists King favors Anglican Church** Absolute Monarchy Medieval Monopolist Econ. **Anglican Church (AKA Church of England) which is Protestant in theology but has Catholic ritual and a hierarchy of bishops.

29 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court What did James & Charles clash with Parliament over?

30 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court A cup & ball festival, the sort of fun the king would like to see the Puritans indulge in on Sundays.

31 Uh oh. It looks like Ollie’s gonna blow his top.

32 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court What else?

33 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court

34

35 Charles’ wife, Henrietta, who was French and Catholic, exerted some influence on her indecisive husband which led to some decisions that helped drive England toward Civil War.

36

37 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Arrest procedure?

38 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Taxes?

39 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Army’s homes?

40 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court

41 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Ship’s tax?

42 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Feudal customs?

43 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court

44 STUPID OUTDATED LAWS FOR YOU TO ENJOY

45 In Marshalltown, Iowa, horses are forbidden to eat fire hydrants.

46 STUPID OUTDATED LAWS FOR YOU TO ENJOY In Marshalltown, Iowa, horses are forbidden to eat fire hydrants. Hunting camels or plowing fields with an elephant is prohibited in Arizona

47 STUPID OUTDATED LAWS FOR YOU TO ENJOY In Marshalltown, Iowa, horses are forbidden to eat fire hydrants. Hunting camels or plowing fields with an elephant is prohibited in Arizona In Devon, Connecticut, it is unlawful to walk backwards after sunset.

48 STUPID OUTDATED LAWS FOR YOU TO ENJOY In Marshalltown, Iowa, horses are forbidden to eat fire hydrants. Hunting camels or plowing fields with an elephant is prohibited in Arizona In Devon, Connecticut, it is unlawful to walk backwards after sunset. In Denver it is unlawful to lend your vacuum cleaner to your next-door neighbor.

49 STUPID OUTDATED LAWS FOR YOU TO ENJOY In Marshalltown, Iowa, horses are forbidden to eat fire hydrants. Hunting camels or plowing fields with an elephant is prohibited in Arizona In Devon, Connecticut, it is unlawful to walk backwards after sunset. In Denver it is unlawful to lend your vacuum cleaner to your next-door neighbor. In Ohio, if you ignore an orator on Decoration day to such an extent as to publicly play croquet or pitch horseshoes within one mile of the speaker's stand, you can be fined $25.00.

50 STUPID OUTDATED LAWS FOR YOU TO ENJOY In Marshalltown, Iowa, horses are forbidden to eat fire hydrants. Hunting camels or plowing fields with an elephant is prohibited in Arizona In Devon, Connecticut, it is unlawful to walk backwards after sunset. In Denver it is unlawful to lend your vacuum cleaner to your next-door neighbor. In Ohio, if you ignore an orator on Decoration day to such an extent as to publicly play croquet or pitch horseshoes within one mile of the speaker's stand, you can be fined $ It is illegal for a man to give his sweetheart a box of candy weighing less than fifty pounds in Idaho

51 STUPID OUTDATED LAWS FOR YOU TO ENJOY In Marshalltown, Iowa, horses are forbidden to eat fire hydrants. Hunting camels or plowing fields with an elephant is prohibited in Arizona In Devon, Connecticut, it is unlawful to walk backwards after sunset. In Denver it is unlawful to lend your vacuum cleaner to your next-door neighbor. In Ohio, if you ignore an orator on Decoration day to such an extent as to publicly play croquet or pitch horseshoes within one mile of the speaker's stand, you can be fined $ It is illegal for a man to give his sweetheart a box of candy weighing less than fifty pounds in Idaho In Urbana, Illinois, it’s illegal to bring monsters inside the city limits or urinate in your neighbor’s mouth.

52 STUPID OUTDATED LAWS FOR YOU TO ENJOY In Marshalltown, Iowa, horses are forbidden to eat fire hydrants. Hunting camels or plowing fields with an elephant is prohibited in Arizona In Devon, Connecticut, it is unlawful to walk backwards after sunset. In Denver it is unlawful to lend your vacuum cleaner to your next-door neighbor. In Ohio, if you ignore an orator on Decoration day to such an extent as to publicly play croquet or pitch horseshoes within one mile of the speaker's stand, you can be fined $ It is illegal for a man to give his sweetheart a box of candy weighing less than fifty pounds in Idaho In Urbana, Illinois, it’s illegal to bring monsters inside the city limits or urinate in your neighbor’s mouth. In Santa Clara, California it is forbidden to dedicate parking spaces to the patron saint of television.

53 Monsters you shouldn’t bring into town Below right: the legendary Sasquatch looking for his nemesis, Jack Link. Left: The Hodag of Rhinelander, Wisconsin, a 200-pound, seven-foot-long, lizard-like beast covered with horns that is supposedly a resurrection of the restless spirit of dead lumber oxen. The Hodag was first seen by Eugene Shepard in 1893, in the woods outside of Rhinelander. When he failed in an attempt to capture it, he blew it up with dynamite. His second attempt in 1896, with a backup crew of lumberjacks, was more successful. He cornered a Hodag in its den and knocked it out with a chloroform sponge on a pole. An early specimen of the Hodag is on display at the Logging Museum.

54 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Sold?

55 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court

56 Monopolies in 17th century England “It is difficult for us to picture to ourselves the life of a man living in a house built with monopoly bricks, with windows (if any) of monopoly glass; heated by monopoly coal (in Ireland monopoly timber), burning in a grate made of monopoly iron. His walls were lined with monopoly tapestries. He slept on Monopoly feathers, did his hair with monopoly combs. He washed himself with monopoly soap, his clothes in monopoly starch. He dressed in monopoly lace, monopoly linen, monopoly leather, monopoly gold thread. His hat was of monopoly beaver, with a monopoly band. His clothes were held up by monopoly belts, monopoly buttons, monopoly pins. They were dyed with monopoly dyes. He ate monopoly butter, monopoly currants, monopoly red herrings, monopoly salmon and monopoly lobsters. His food was seasoned with monopoly salt, monopoly pepper, monopoly vinegar. Out of monopoly glasses he drank monopoly wines and monopoly spirits; out of pewter mugs made from monopoly tin; he drank monopoly beer made from monopoly hops, kept in monopoly barrels or monopoly bottles, sold in monopoly-licensed ale-houses. He smoked monopoly tobacco in monopoly pipes, played with monopoly dice or monopoly cards, or on monopoly lute-strings He wrote with monopoly pens, on monopoly writing-paper; read (through monopoly spectacles, by the light of monopoly candles) monopoly printed books, including monopoly Bibles and monopoly Latin grammars, printed on paper made from monopoly-collected rags, bound in sheepskin dressed in monopoly alum. He shot with monopoly gunpowder made from monopoly saltpeter. He traveled in monopoly sedan chairs or monopoly hackney coaches, drawn by horses fed on monopoly hay. He tipped with monopoly farthings. At sea he was lighted by monopoly lighthouses. When he made his will, he went to a monopolist. (In Ireland one could not be born, married, or die without 6d to a monopolist.) Peddlers were licensed by a monopolist. Mice were caught in monopoly mousetraps. Not all these patents existed at once, but all come from the first four decades of the seventeenth century. In 1621 there were alleged to be 700 of them.”-- Christopher Hill, A Century of Revolution

57 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Economic, religious, & political divide?

58 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court

59 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court

60 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles gets by until he tries to?

61 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637)

62

63 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” What does he have to do to raise money?

64 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” Charles calls Parliament. How does that go?

65 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  How does he do after that?

66 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  Called?

67 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament”

68 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” Concessions to Parl.  Peace until Irish revolt (1641)  Fight over control of army needed to suppress the revolt Concessions to Parl.  Peace until ?

69 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” Concessions to Parl.  Peace until Irish revolt (1641)  Fight over control of army needed to suppress the revolt Concessions to Parl.  Peace until Irish revolt (1641)  Fight over?

70 FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” Concessions to Parl.  Peace until Irish revolt (1641)  Fight over control of army needed to suppress the revolt

71

72 *** FC.96A THE ROAD TO THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR ( ) English Civil Wars (1642-8) (FC.96B) Rel. wars in Eur.  Desire for peace  Abs. Mon’s (FC. 87) Magna Charta  More democratic traditions (FC. 69) Eng. an island  More trade & few wars  Strong MC & less need for army Elizabeth I’s moderate relig. settlement, moderate treatment of Parliament, & selling of royal estates t meet expenses (FC. 87) Inflation (FC. 88) Inflation (FC. 88) Extending ship’s tax inland to all England Reviving old feudal dues & fees Selling monopolies  Raises prices Charles survives w/o Parliament ( ) by: Growing rift between 2 factions: “Modern” capitalist-minded & Puritan Parliament“Medieval” monopoly-minded Anglican court Petition of Right (1628) where Parliament forces Charles to agree not to: Imprison subjects w/o due process Levy taxes w/o Parl’s consent Quarter troops in subjects homes Clashes b/w absolutist-minded James I ( ) & Charles I ( ) vs. largely Puritan & middle class parliament over: RELIG.: Cath-style ritual, dogma & hierarchy of clergy under king MONEY: Rising customs duties & demands for $ for lavish court Charles gets by until he tries to impose his prayer book on Scotland  Scots, rebel (1637) Charles calls & then dismisses the “Short Parliament” after 3 wks of arguing over $ & relig.  When Scots occupy N. Eng., he calls Parliament again  “Long Parliament” Concessions to Parl.  Peace until Irish revolt (1641)  Fight over control of army needed to suppress the revolt


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