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Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763–

3 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution THEME: Compared with its 17 th Century counterpart, 18 th Century colonial society became moore complex and hierarchical, more ethnically and religiously diverse, and more economically and politically developed. Colonial culture, while still limited, took on distinc American qualities in such areas as evangelical religion, education, freedom of the press and self-government.

4 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands 1. Regarding government, the Scots-Irish colonists A. showed remarkable willingness to follow authority B. supported only Britain C. cherished no love for the British or any other government D. stated a preference for Catholic authority 2. Culture in colonial America A. involved heavy investment in art B. Was generally ignored and unappreciated C. Showed its native creativity in architecture D. Was always important to colonists Match each individual on the left with his or her talent 3. Jonathan EdwardsA. poet 4. Benjamin FranklinB. scientist 5. Phillis WheatleyC. theologian 6. Charles Wilson PealeD. portrait artist E. politician

5 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands “What then is the American, this new man?” - Michel-Guillaume de Crévecoeur

6 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

7 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Ethnically Diverse No titled nobility Social Mobility Skilled Artisans/Middle Class Limited Franchise Nationalism Pauperized Underclass Social Stratification Christian Hierarchical European

8 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Signs of Unquiet War profiteering concentrates wealth 2 nd & 3 rd, etc. generations running out of land/room Planters gaining wealth, small farmers squeezed Fewer farmers, more wage-laborers Jailbirds/deportees More Slaves and fears of revolt Increased Smuggling (react. to Molasses Act, 1733) Frontiersmen alienated from governing elites Corrupt royal appointees (countered by “the purse”)

9 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Structure of Colonial Society 1760s an optimistic post-war period Striking ethnic and racial diversity 60% of population under twenty-one years old Relatively high per-capita GDP

10 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Structure of Colonial Society Wealth unevenly distributed –South has richest individuals, and 90% of non-free colonial population –Middle colonies –New England lags behind because of lack of export products

11 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Breakdown of Political Trust 1760—George III ascends throne –Despite limited ability, wants to take more active role in government –Upsets Whigs by ignoring their role –High turnover among top ministers

12 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Breakdown of Political Trust Hard for Parliament to get adequate information on colonies Parliamentary sovereignty – English officials assume that Parliament must have ultimate authority

13 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands No Taxation without Representation: The American Perspective Colonists try to reserve internal colonial authority for their own legislatures Colonists assume their legislatures equal in some ways to Parliament Americans not represented at all in Parliament

14 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands No Taxation without Representation: The American Perspective British officials espouse “virtual representation” Colonists insist only colonial assemblies should represent Americans

15 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Ideas About Power and Virtue John Locke and “Commonwealthmen" shape colonial political thought –Rebellion against arbitrary government justified Power must be countered by virtue Bad government reflects sin and corruption Newspapers ensure wide dissemination of political confrontations

16 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Ideas About Power and Virtue Colonists see British officials as sinful and corrupt Newspapers ensure wide dissemination of political confrontations

17 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Eroding the Bonds of Empire I Large, expensive debt and army left in America from Seven Years’ War Colonists doubt the army’s value Pontiac’s War –Exposes the British army’s weakness –Reveals the desperate situation of Native Americans after withdrawal of French –Frontier racism: Paxton Boys

18 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Eroding the Bonds of Empire II: Proclamation of 1763 Colonists determined to settle trans- Appalachian West Proclamation of 1763 bans settlement in trans-Appalachian West Colonists see post-war army as there to enforce proclamation

19 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Paying Off the National Debt Prime Minister George Grenville attempts to reduce England’s war debt Revenue Act of 1764 (the Sugar Act) Merchants and gentry protest; most colonists ignore

20 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Sugar Act of 1764 – control trade b/w colonies and West Indies Stamp Act of 1765A DIRECT TAX Quartering Act of 1765 – troops from Fr&Ind War Townsend Acts of INDIRECT duty tax, esp.on tea March 5, 1770 – “Boston Massacre” “Intolerable Acts” of 1774 – targeted Boston April 1775, Lexington and Concord Impending Storm

21 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Stamp Act protest A Boston crowd burns bundles of the special watermarked paper intended for use as stamps. (Library of Congress) Stamp Act protest Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. STAMP ACT PROTESTS IN MARYLAND

22 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Colonial Products and Trade

23 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Popular Protest 1765—Stamp Act requires that colonists purchase stamps to validate documents Patrick Henry and the Virginia Resolves unite the gentry and the mass of the population in protest Stamp Act Congress petitions the king and Parliament for repeal Sons of Liberty protest includes riots, mob violence, and boycotts

24 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Failed Attempts to Save the Empire 1766—Rockingham ministry favors repeal of Stamp Act Repeal tied to Declaratory Act of 1766 – Parliament sovereign over America “in all cases whatsoever” Controversy estranges colonists from English officials

25 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Fueling the Crisis: The Townshend Duties Charles Townshend: chancellor of the exchequer 1767—Townshend Duties tax American imports of paper, lead, glass, and tea American Board of Customs Commissioners created to collect duties

26 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands NOTEWORTHY: The Townshend Act only collected £259 for the Crown, while it cost the Crown £170,000 to enforce it. Britain suspended all the taxes, except for the tax on tea.

27 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Fueling the Crisis: Response to the Townshend Duties Sons of Liberty organize boycott of English goods Circular letter from Massachusetts House of Representatives urges protest Ninety-two Massachusetts representatives defy government order to rescind letter

28 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Fatal Show of Force English government moves 4000 troops to Boston Troops clash with Boston’s population March 5, 1770—English soldiers fire on civilian crowd, kill five Americans –Incident labeled the “Boston Massacre” –Victims seen as martyrs –Paul Revere engraving a best seller Townsend Duties repealed 1770, except tea

29 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Boston Massacre Shortly after this incident, one Bostonian observed that "unless there is some great alteration in the state of things, the era of the independence of the colonies is much nearer than I once thought it, or now wish it." (Library of Congress) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

30 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Colonial Resistance Stamp Act Congress of 1765 – attempt at colonial unity 1772 – Sam Adams forms first Committee of Correspondence “non-importation” and “tar and feathers” Dec. 16, 1773 – Boston Tea Party First Continental Congress called in 1774-complete boycott April 1775 Colonial Militia fight at Lexington & Concord

31 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Last Days of the Old Order, 1770–1773 Customs collectors antagonize colonists, even wealthy members of the elite, such as John Hancock Radicals like Samuel Adams protest tea tax as violation of American rights Committees of correspondence build up alternative political structure

32 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Final Provocation: The Boston Tea Party 1773—Parliament passes Tea Act – Designed to help the East India Company by making the sale of its tea cheaper in America Americans interpret this as a subtle ploy to get them to consume taxed tea December 1773—Boston protestors dump the tea into the harbor

33 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Edenton Ladies' Tea Party In October 1774, fifty-one women gathered at Edenton, North Carolina, and declared it their "duty" to support the boycotting of all British imports. Nevertheless, the British man who drew this cartoon chose to satirize the event as an unruly "tea party." (Library of Congress) The Edenton Ladies' Tea Party Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

34 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands TEA ACT PROTEST IN MARYLAND Burning of the Peggy Stuart 1774 Primary Document Maryland Gazette

35 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Boston Tea Party In this 1775 drawing of the Boston Tea Party, bare-chested Americans, their hair pulled back Indian-fashion, pour tea into the harbor. The British lion appears as the figurehead of the tea ship, in case the true object of the protest was in doubt. The artist also added a large crowd of colonists content to watch rather than do anything to prevent this destruction of private property. (Library of Congress) Boston Tea Party Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

36 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Final Provocation: The Coercive Acts Port of Boston closed until tea paid for Massachusetts government re-structured – Upper house made appointive body – Town meetings permitted only once a year Accused officials to be tried in England, not America Army authorized to quarter troops wherever needed

37 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Final Provocation: The Québec Act Québec Act establishes authoritarian government for Canada Gives control over settlement north of Ohio River to Québec government Colonists interpret act as final proof of Parliamentary plot to enslave America Provides unifying threat to colonies

38 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Growing Conflict

39 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Growing Conflict

40 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

41 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Steps Toward Independence September 1774—First Continental Congress in response to Coercive Acts Congress commends “Suffolk Resolves” urging forcible resistance Intercolonial “Association” halts commerce with Britain until Coercive Acts repealed

42 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Shots Heard Around the World April 19, 1775—skirmish breaks out in Lexington, Massachusetts Fighting spreads along road between Lexington, Concord, and Boston English retreat to Boston with heavy losses June 17, 1775—colonists inflict heavy losses on British in Battle of Bunker Hill

43 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Map: The War in the North The War in the North The early phase of the Revolutionary War was dominated by British troop movements in the Boston area, the redcoats' evacuation to Nova Scotia in the spring of 1776, and the subsequent British invasion of New York and New Jersey. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

44 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands A View of the Town of Concord, 1775 In 1775 an unknown artist painted the redcoats entering Concord. The fighting at North Bridge, which occurred just a few hours after this triumphal entry, signaled the start of open warfare between Britain and the colonies. (Courtesy of Concord Museum, Concord, Massachusetts) A View of the Town of Concord, 1775 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

45 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Beginning “The World Over Again”: Early War Effort British colonial governments collapse Second Continental Congress—action and inaction –June, 1775—Congress appoints George Washington commander-in-chief –Congress issues paper money to pay war debts –Debates whether to declare independence

46 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

47 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Battle of Breeds Hill (AKA Bunker Hill)

48 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands CASUALTIES: British: out of 2,200 troops, 268 British soldiers and officers KIA, 828 WIA. Americans: 115 KIA, 305 WIA (NPS)

49 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Advantage? Disadvantage? GREAT BRITAIN Pop. of 7.5 million Prof. Army of 50,000 Hessian mercenaries Royal treasury Royal navy Divided parliament Long lines of supply Poor generalship More cannon, arms, &powder Many Colonials remain loyal Emancipated slaves join GB COLONIALS Pop. Of 2.5 million Small, untrained militia No centralized govt. No treasury No navy Angry France, Irish problem for GB Defending homes Washington, Franklin Few armories, little powder

50 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Beginning “The World Over Again”: Early War Effort British action that makes compromise unlikely: –December 1775 Prohibitory Act—British blockade colonists’ trade –German mercenaries hired to put down rebellion –Virginia Governor Dunmore urges slaves to take up arms against their masters

51 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Beginning “The World Over Again”: Decision for Independence January, 1776—Thomas Paine’s Common Sense –Convinces ordinary colonists to sever ties with Britain –Europe, not England, “is the parent country of America”

52 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands George Washington's copy of Common Sense That America's patriot leaders read Thomas Paine's inflammatory Common Sense soon after it was published in early 1776 is indicated by this first edition, owned by George Washington himself. (Boston Athenaeum) George Washington's copy of Common Sense Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

53 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Ideas of Revolution “ Common Sense” by Thomas Paine Originally an anonymous work Firmly introduces call for independence Calls for an end to monarchy and the beginning of a republic Declaration of Independence Continental Congress appoints a committee to prepare a declaration Thomas Jefferson chosen to express declaration Draws on philosophy of the Enlightenment Ideas of John Locke, “natural rights” Right to resist tyranny

54 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Second Continental Congress Independence vs. John Adams Appoints General Washington head of Continental Congress Prints currency Sends Benjamin Franklin to France Battle of Bunker Hill Reconciliation William Franklin John Dickinson “Olive Branch Petition”  Rejected by George III, who ordered a blockade of the colonies

55 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Beginning “The World Over Again”: Decision for Independence Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence Acceptance –July 2, 1776—Independence voted by Congress –July 4—Declaration of Independence issued

56 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Declaration of Independence It should be noted… 1.Power is derived from the consent of the governed = people 2.King’s power is not a “divine right.” Rather, the people have unalienable rights. 3.Original draft was rejected by South Carolina and Georgia because it attacked the slave trade. 4.The call for Equality was not originally meant to include women or minorities. 5.Second Continental Congress called for independence on July 2, 1776, and adopted the Declaration on July 4 th.

57 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Road to Independence  1775 – Second Continental Congress appoints G. Washington commander of Boston troops  Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture Ft. Ticonderoga and Croup Point un upper NY June 1775, Battle of Bunker Hill Aug. 1775, George III declares colonies treasonous, hires Hessians Oct, 1775 Falmouth burned by British Oct 1775 American invasion of Canada fails Jan 1776 Norfolk burned by British March 1776 British Evacuate Boston 1776 Common Sense published, end of “shilly-shallying”

58 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Fighting for Independence British confident of victory –Larger population, more resources –Naval supremacy Britain’s tasks – Supply troops an ocean away in hostile territory – Crush the popular spirit of independence British underestimate Americans’ commitment to their political ideology

59 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The American Revolution, 1775–1781

60 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Map: The War in the North The War in the North The early phase of the Revolutionary War was dominated by British troop movements in the Boston area, the redcoats' evacuation to Nova Scotia in the spring of 1776, and the subsequent British invasion of New York and New Jersey. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

61 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

62 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands STOP

63 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Loyalists vs. Patriots Maybe 1/3 of colonists were loyalists Loyalists were stronger in the South Loyalists included members of King’s govt. in colonies, such as judges, governors, etc. AND many ordinary colonists. Perhaps 1/3 to 1/2 of the colonists were patriots = calling for independence. Patriots tended to come from those who wanted more economic independence. *Many Americans tried to stay neutral, esp. Quakers. African-Americans fought on both sides. Native Americans tended to side with the British.

64 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

65 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Fall of New York and Valley Forge July 1776, Washington, with a weak and disorganized force of 23,000, forced to retreat from NY after fleet of 500+ ships and over 32,000 British soldiers and Hessian and Prussian mercenaries lands on Long Island and is flanked repeatedly: *Battle of Long Island *Battle of Brooklyn *Battle of Kips Bay *Battle of Fort Lee *Battle of Fort Washington (Victories at Trenton and Princeton) *Battle for Philadelphia Retreat to Valley Forge–only 8,000 troops remain with Washington *all terrible losses for Americans

66 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

67 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

68 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The contribution and sacrifice of the Maryland Line at the Battle of Long Island during the American Revolution On August 27, 1776, some four hundred Maryland troops led a rear-guard action to check the British advance and protect the retreat of Washington's greatly outnumbered army. The Marylanders launched six counter attacks at the Cortelyou House. During the last attack, Cornwallis' troops were reinforced and the Marylanders were swept back to the Gowanus Canal. After the battle, 256 Marylanders were buried in a mass grave that is located a few blocks from the park. It is for this heroic action that Maryland became known as the Old Line State. “Good God, what brave fellows I must this day lose.” –George Washington. ONLY 9 men, including the leader of the MD forces, Mordecai Gist, survived.

69 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Building a Professional Army Washington rejects guerrilla warfare strategy Continental army to be a fighting force and symbol of the republican cause Militia’s role: compel support for Revolution

70 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Building a Professional Army African Americans in the Revolution –New England militias attract slaves with promises of emancipation –Southern slaves more likely to side with British

71 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Testing the American Will General Howe replaces General Gage for British Summer 1776—fighting shifts to New York American army routed on Long Island New York City captured Washington forced to retreat through New Jersey British think rebels will soon capitulate

72 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands “Times That Try Men’s Souls” General Howe issues pardon for all who swear loyalty to Britain –3000 accept December 25, 1776—Washington captures 900 Hessians in Trenton January 3, 1777—Washington captures Princeton

73 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands “Times That Try Men’s Souls” Victories re-kindle wartime patriotism British consolidate forces; leave much of New Jersey in patriot control

74 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Washington and Lafayette at Winter Quarters: Washington retreats to Valley Forge, NJ, with only a few thousand men and they suffer a terrible winter with few supplies. LOW POINT FOR THE AMERICANS. However, the troops that remain are committed and trained by von Steuben. While British officers enjoyed the social life of Philadelphia, General Washington, his officers, and his men suffered from inadequate food, supplies, firewood, and shelter in their winter encampment, a situation due, in part, to the corruption and greed of military suppliers and the incompetence of the quartermaster corps. (Stock Montage ) Washington and Lafayette at Winter Quarters

75 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Trenton and Princeton Washington begins to win: Uses ruses and surprise attacks/Guerilla tactics Trenton – captures Hessians on Dec. 26,1776 Princeton – Defeat British forces near Princeton THIS IS THE TURNING OF THE TIDE FOR THE PATRIOTS NOTE: NJ campaign is to protect Philadelphia, site of the Continental Congress. Howe makes strategic blunder of not destroying Washington’s forces after NY and dividing his forces to capture RI.

76 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands

77 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Battle of Trenton, Christmas 1776

78 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Battle of Princeton by James Peale At the Battle of Princeton in early 1777, American forces under George Washington cemented the victory they had won a few days earlier at Trenton. This view was painted in 1787 by James Peale, who fought in the battle. (Princeton University Library) Battle of Princeton by James Peale Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

79 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands FALL OF 1777 After the fall of New York, British Gen. Burgoyne pushes south, planning to meet Gen Clinton at Albany, to cut the rebel colonies in half. Burgoyne Clinton

80 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands BATTLE OF SARATOGA Benedict Arnold vs. Burgoyne KEY IDEA: Control the water, Control the land BRITISH OBJECTIVE: Divide the colonies by controlling Lake Champlain and the Hudson REBEL STRATEGY: Delay the British link-up, using winter as an ally. TURNING POINT: British defeat at Saratoga RESULT: Americans lost the battle for Canada, but helped win the war by delaying the British, brings France in on side of the Americans!! HISTORICAL PARALLEL: Braddock’s defeat in the F&I war NOTE: Arnold latter betrays the cause, jealous and petulant

81 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands 7 th October th October 1777

82 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands A Marriage of Convenience Democratic America & Aristocratic France (Ben Franklin plays matchmaker) Alliance between France and Americans, 1778 TIPPING POINT: Balance of Power is against GB Howe must retreat to NY and w/d from Philly. France menaces British lines of supply.

83 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The French Alliance French help colonists to get back at Britain for defeat in Seven Years’ War Effects of Saratoga –Convinces France that colonists are serious enough to become formal allies –British sue for peace to prevent Franco- American alliance

84 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The French Alliance British offer repeal of all laws since 1763, respect for colonial taxation rights February 1778—Alliance with France concluded

85 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Franco- American Alliance France gives: France gets: Americans get:

86 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Franco- American Alliance France gives: gunpowder, munitions, (90% of American gunpowder in first 2+ years comes from France!!) France gets: an ally in the New World and a weakened Britain, protection (?) for her sugar colonies in the West Indies, possibly New France back as well Americans get: 1. A wider war: France, Spain, Holland enter the fight against Britain, fighting in North America, South America, Asia, Caribbean, and on the high seas. 2. most of its supplies, training, and naval support

87 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Map: Campaign of 1777 Campaign of 1777 The crucial campaign of 1777 was fought on two fronts: along the upper Hudson and Mohawk River valleys, and in the vicinity of Philadelphia. The rebels won in the north; the British triumphed--at least nominally--in the south. The capture of Philadelphia, however, did the redcoats little good, and they abandoned the city the following year. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

88 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Victory in a Year of Defeat British strategy –Cut off New England from other colonies –Lure Continental army into decisive battle The plan for cutting off New England –Burgoyne’s army moves in from Canada –Howe’s army moves up from New York –They meet in Albany

89 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Victory in a Year of Defeat Burgoyne defeated at Saratoga Howe takes Philadelphia instead Washington’s army winters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania

90 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Final Campaign British believe Loyalists stronger in southern colonies, so fighting shifts there Spring 1780—English capture Savannah and Charleston August 1780—American army routed at Camden, South Carolina Continental army rallies under Nathaniel Greene

91 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Map: The Second Southern Campaign, The Second Southern Campaign, This map of the second attempt by Britain to crush the rebellion in the South shows the many battles waged in the Lower South before Cornwallis's encampment at Yorktown and his surrender there. This decisive southern campaign involved all the military resources of the combatants, including British, loyalist, French, and American ground forces and British and French naval fleets. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

92 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Map: The War in the South The War in the South: British forces, led by Cornwallis, try to use Loyalist support in South to capture the South. Georgia falls in , South Carolina falls in Battles at King’s Mountain and Cowpens turn tide to Americans favor. Nathanael Greene commands Americans in a hit and run, guerrilla campaign.

93 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Loyalist Dilemma More than 100,000 Loyalists leave U.S. at war’s end Loyalists share basic ideology with Patriots Loyalists see rebellion as endangering “life, liberty, and property” Loyalists treated poorly by both sides –British never fully trust Loyalists –Patriots seize property, imprison, execute some

94 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Loyalist Strongholds

95 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Final Campaign Cornwallis moves British into Virginia, 1781 October 19, 1781—Cornwallis surrenders to Washington’s combined French and American forces

96 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Surrender of the British at Yorktown Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Surrender of the British at Yorktown, October 19, French naval power combined with American military savvy to produce the decisive defeat of the British. French provide all of the naval power and half of the troops (Library of Congress)

97 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Battle of Yorktown, Oct. 17, 1781

98 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Winning the Peace American negotiators are John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams They play France against England to get best terms

99 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Winning the Peace Peace Treaty of 1783 – U.S. independence recognized – U.S. gets all territory east of Mississippi River, between Canada and Florida – U.S. secures fishing rights in North Atlantic – U.S. will help British merchants and Loyalists collect debts

100 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Yarr!! Piracy and the Revolution With no real navy, the Congress enlists the aid of privateers to raid British shipping. + provides gold and captured goods for the cause -graft and corruption, i.e. Benedict Arnold John Paul Jones commands a small fleet of enterprising ships. (French and Spanish navies do most of the fighting.)

101 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands War in the old Northwest Joseph Brant leads the Mohawks and others to help the British attack colonists on the frontier. Why? George Rogers Clark leads colonial forces to seize key forts, cutting British supplies and communications to the interior. Tribes allied with the British are forced to sign the Treaty of Ft. Stanwix, ceding lands to the new US.

102 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Map: The War in the West, The War in the West, Carolina militiamen drove attacking Cherokees far back into the Appalachians in George Roger Clark's victory at Vincennes in 1779 gave the United States effective control of the Ohio valley. In retaliation for their raids on New York and Pennsylvania, John Sullivan inflicted widespread starvation on the Iroquois by burning their villages and winter food supplies in Peace negotiated with Treaty of St. Stanwix, Indians cede most of their lands.

103 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Map: Cession of Tribal Lands, Cession of Tribal Lands, The land claims of the United States meant little as long as Indian nations still controlled vast territories within the new country's formal boundaries. A series of treaties in the 1780s and 1790s opened some lands to white settlement. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

104 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Preserving Independence The American Revolution begins construction of new form of government Question remains: a government of the elite or a government of the people?


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