Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Why People Work. 1. Warm-up Questions 2. Passage Learning 3. Main Idea of Each Paragraph."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 1 Why People Work
1. Warm-up Questions 2. Passage Learning 3. Main Idea of Each Paragraph
1. In your opinions why do people work? 2. Do you think work is only a means of earning a life? 3. How do you feel when you have finished a difficult task? Why do you feel like that?
Jobs and work do much more than most of us realize to provide happiness and contentment. We're all used to thinking that work provides the material things of life--the goods and services that make possible our version of modern civilization. But we are much less conscious of the extent to which work provides the more intangible, but more crucial, psychological well-being that can make the difference between a full and an empty life.But we are much less conscious of the extent to which work provides the more intangible, but more crucial, psychological well-being “that is omitted
Why is it that most of us don't put work and human satisfaction together, except when it comes to the end product of work: automobiles and houses and good food? It's always useful to blame someone else, and the Greeks of the ancient world deserve some blame here. At that time work wasdeservewas restricted to restricted to slaves and to those few free citizens who had not yet accumulated adequate independent resources. The "real" citizensaccumulatedadequate of Greece--whom Plato and others talked about--expected to spend their time in free discussion and contemplation.
Historically, work has been associated with slavery and sin, compulsion and punishment. And in our own day we are used to hearing the traditional complaints: "I can't wait for my vacation." "I wish I could stay home today." "My boss treats me poorly." "I've got too much work to do and not enough time to do it." Against this backdrop, it may well come as a surprise to learn that not only psychologists but other behavioral scientists have come to accept the positive contribution of work to the individual's happiness and sense of personal achievement. Work is more than a necessity for most human beings; it is the focus of their lives, the source of their identity and creativity.complaintsfocusthe source of their identity and creativity.
For large numbers of people, the absence of work is debilitating. Retirement often brings many problems surrounding the "What do I do with myself?." question, even though there may be no financial cares. Large numbers of people regularly get headaches and other psychosomatic illnesses on weekends when they don't have their jobs to go to, and must take care of themselves. It has been observed that unemployment, quite aside from exerting financial pressures, brings enormous psychological discomfort and that many individuals deteriorate rapidly when jobless. aside from exerting
But why? Why should work be such a significant source of human satisfaction? A good share of the answer rests in the kind of pride that is stimulated by the job, by the activity of accomplishing. After all, large numbers of people continue working when there is no financial or other compulsion. They are independently wealthy; no one would be surprised if they spent their time at leisure. But pride something inside drives them to work: the unique satisfactions they derive from it.derive
Pride in Accomplishment The human being longs for a sense of being accomplished, of being able to do things, with his hand, with his mind, with his will. Each of us wants to feel he or she has the ability to do something that is meaningful and that stands outside of us as a tribute to our inherent abilities. This extension of ourselves--in what our hands and minds can do--fills out our personality and expands our ego.longs for that stands outside of us as a tribute to our inherent abilitiesThis extension of ourselves--in what our hands and minds can do--fills out our personality and expands our ego.
It is easiest to see this in the craftsman who lovingly shapes some base material into an object that may be either useful or beautiful or both. You can see the carpenter or bricklayer stand aside and admire the product of his personal skill. Inferior in value or quality
We've watched programmers and engineers work fifteen and eighteen hours at a stretch, seven days a week, when a job really got tough and they knew that a crucial deadline had to be met, or when a major project would fail unless some tough problems were solved. They received a substantial personal payoff from their efforts in the knowledge that they could tackle tough, almost insurmountable problems, yet overcome them. They enjoyed "making it," winning despite difficult odds; proving their capacities against the outsider: nature, a competitor, a complex problem; mastering something new every day.deadline substantialtackle They enjoyed "making it," winning despite difficult odds; proving their capacities against the outsider: nature, a competitor, a complex problem; mastering something new every day. without stopping
Even on simple jobs one can observe pride at work. Cleaning men will tell you that while the job looks uncomplicated, there are countless subtleties one needs to know: whose desk can be dusted and whose can't; how to get the most out of cleaning compounds; the best sequence to handle a variety of jobs; even how to sweep a great deal without getting tired. Machine operators often make comments like this:Even on simple jobs one can observe pride at work. sequence
"See this machine? Anyone looking at it thinks you can master it in an hour or two. But every machine has a personality of its own. I know just how fast I can run it on every different kind of material we get around here; what it will take and what it won't take; how to coax it along; how much oil; what every sound means that it makes. You know it actually takes a year before you know everything about a piece of equipment like this-so you feel it is just part of you, of your arms and legs and head."
Some are deceived into thinking that people like to store up energy, to rest and save themselves as much as possible. Just the opposite. It is energy expenditure that is satisfying. Expending energy, in a sense, creates its own replacement there is nodeceivedExpending energy, in a sense, creates its own replacement there is no reservoir such that the more you use the less you havereservoir such that the more you use the less you have. The measure of your capability is in being active and being able to control that activity so that it results in a tangible accomplishment you can claim as your own.The measure of your capability is in being active and being able to control that activity so that it results in a tangible accomplishment you can claim as your own
Just watch an employee who must deal with countless other people because his or her job is at some central point in a communications network: a salesman at a busy counter, a stockbroker on the phone, a customer representative. They will tell how much skill and experience it takes to field countless questions and handle a mass of diverse personalities every hour of the day. Not everyone can interact, with such persistence and over long hours, but those who do pride themselves on a distinctive ability, that contributes mightily to the running of the organization. representative
But we are much less conscious of the extent to which work provides the more intangible, but more crucial, psychological well-being Meaning: But we are much less aware of what important things work provides us with, psychologically …
conscious 1 [not before noun] noticing or realizing something; aware : conscious of (doing) sth: I was very conscious of the fact that I had to make a good impression. | conscious that: I was conscious that she was ill at ease. 2 awake and able to understand what is happening around you: The driver was still conscious when the ambulance reached the scene of the accident.
3 a conscious effort/decision/attempt etc an effort etc that is deliberate and intended: Vivien had made a conscious effort to be friendly. 4 safety-conscious/fashion-conscious etc thinking a lot about safety, fashion etc
deserve 1 to have earned something by good or bad actions or behaviour: You've been working all morning - I think you deserve a rest. deserve to do sth: The team deserves to win. deserve it: Yeah, I hit him but he deserved it. get what you deserve (=be punished or have something unpleasant happen in a way that you deserve)
2 deserve consideration/attention etc if a suggestion, idea, or plan deserves consideration etc, it is good or sensible enough to be considered: These proposals deserve serious consideration. 3 deserve a medal (spoken) used to say that you admire the way someone dealt with a situation or problem: You deserve a medal for putting up with Phil for so long!
earn ， deserve ， merit ， rate ， win The central meaning shared by these verbs is “to gain as a result of one's behavior or effort”: 这些 动词共同的中心意义是 “ 因某人的行为或努力而获 得 ” ： earns a large salary; 挣高工资； deserves our congratulations; 赢得我们的祝贺； a suggestion that merits consideration; 应给予考 虑的建议； an event that didn't even rate a mention in the news; 在新闻中甚至不值一提的小事； a candidate who won wide support. 赢得广泛支持 的候选人
restrict 1 to limit or control the size, amount, or range of something: The new law restricts the sale of hand guns. | restrict sth to: The speaker restricted her remarks to (=only talked about) the health care proposals. 2 to limit someone's actions or movements: The cramped living conditions severely restricted the children's opportunities for play.
3 restrict yourself to to allow yourself to have only a particular amount of something, or do only a particular type of activity: I'm restricting myself to two cigarettes a day. | Journalists should restrict themselves to reporting the facts. limit ， restrict ， confine 1 These verbs mean to establish or keep within specified bounds. 这些动词指建立或保持在一 定范围内。
2 Limit refers principally to the establishment of a maximum, as of quantity, degree, or time, beyond which a person or thing cannot or may not go: Limit 主要指在数量、程度或时间上确 定最大值，人或事物不可能或不可以超越它： The Constitution limits the President's term of office to four years. 宪法规定总统的任期四年。 3 Restrict 指保持在规定的范围内， 如选择或 行动： The sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted to those over 21. 酒精饮料只能出售给 21 岁以上 的成年人。
4 Confine suggests limits that imprison, restrain, or impede: Confine 暗示束缚性、限 制性的或阻挠性的限制： All prisoners will be confined to their cells. 所有的囚犯必须关在牢房里。 Interest in Asia is no longer confined to scholars. 对亚洲感兴趣的人已不单限于学者了。
accumulate 1 [transitive] to gradually get more and more money, possessions, knowledge etc over a period of time: He accumulated a fortune through hard working. 2 [intransitive] to gradually increase in numbers or amount until there is a large quantity in one place: Leaves had accumulated around the fallen trunks.
gather ， collect ， assemble ， accumulate 1 These verbs mean to bring or come together in a group or mass. 这些动词的意思是：使或聚集成 为一组或一堆。 2 Gather is the most general term and therefore the most widely applicable: Gather 是最概括的说法，因此也是应用最广泛的： I gathered sticks as kindling for the fire. 我收集了一些棍子作为引火物。 Clouds gather before a thunderstorm. 在风暴来临之前云层聚集。
3 Collect is often interchangeable with gather: Collect 通常可与 gather 互换： Tears collected (or gathered ) in her eyes. 眼 泪在（或 gather ） 她眼中。 Frequently, however, collect refers to the careful selection of like or related things that become part of an organized whole: 但是通常 collect 指的是仔细选择相似或有联系 的东西， 以变成有组织的整体的一部分： collects antiques; 收集古物； collected stamps. 集邮。
4 Assemble in all of its senses implies that the persons or things involved have a definite and usually close relationship. With respect to persons the term suggests convening out of common interest or purpose: Assemble 所有的意义都表明所涉及的人或物有确 定的通常是紧密的联系。这个词表示涉及的人是出 于共同的兴趣或目的而聚集： Assembling an able staff was more difficult than raising the funds to finance the venture. 召集一个有能力的小组要比筹资支持这次冒险更困 难。 The new legislature will assemble in January. 立法 院将于一月召集会议。
With respect to things assemble implies gathering and fitting together components, as of a structure or machine: 涉及到事物， assemble 表示收集并把各成分安装在一起， 作为一构造或机器： The curator is devoting time and energy to assembling an interesting exhibit of Stone Age artifacts. 保管员正在花费时间和精力组织一次有趣的石 器时代艺术品展览。
5 Accumulate applies to the increase of like or related things over an extended period: Accumulate 指相似或有联系的事物在一较长时 期内的增长： They gradually accumulated enough capital to be financially secure after retirement. 他们逐渐聚集了足够的资金，以确保退休之后 有经济上的保证。 Old newspapers and magazines are accumulating in the basement. 旧报纸和旧杂志堆放在地下室中。
His wages are adequate to support three people. 这句话说的是：他的工资够养活 3 个人 的。即这些钱养活 3 个人够得上一般生活水平， 并不苛刻。可见其差异非常细微。词义差别越 细微，表意越准确。例如： “ 我为他干了 3 小时 的活，他付给我 20 英镑。我觉得那 20 英镑的工 钱是足够了的 ” 。这两句话在英译时，其中的 “ 足 够的 ” 必须用 adequate ，因为这里说的 “ 足够 ” 包 含了 “ 公平、合理 ” 的意思。故这两句可译为： I worked for him three hours, and he paid me 20 pounds. I think the 20 pounds are adequate for my work.
complain (to sb) (about /at sth) ： say that one is dissatisfied, unhappy 投诉； 抱怨；诉苦 complain of sth: report (a pain,etc) 诉说（病痛等）；主诉 For example: She complained to me about his rudeness. The patient is complaining of acute earache.
the source of their identity and creativity. Meaning: People get their identity and creativity from work. A man is known for and by the work he does. Work can inspire one’s creativity.
focus v. 1 [intransitive, transitive] to pay special attention to a particular person or thing instead of others [+ on]: Modern medicine has tended to focus too much on developing highly complicated surgical techniques. | focus attention on: The recent wave of bombings has focussed public attention on the region.
2 [transitive] to change the position of the lens on a camera, telescope, etc, so that you can see something clearly : focus sth on: He focused his binoculars on the building opposite. 3 [transitive] if your eyes focus, or if you focus your eyes, you gradually become able to see something clearly
n. 1 [singular] the subject or situation that people pay special attention to [+ of]: The focus of the conference shifted from population growth to the education of women. | the focus is on sth: The focus of recent legislation has been on environmental issues. | the focus of attention: The war in Bosnia had now become the focus of worldwide media attention.
2 [uncountable] special attention that is given to one particular subject or situation [+ on]: grammar based teaching, with its focus on accuracy rather than fluency | bring/throw sth into focus (=make people notice something and pay special attention to it): The case has brought the problem of child abuse sharply into focus. 3 in focus/out of focus if a photograph or an instrument such as a telescope is in focus, the edges of the things you are looking at can be seen clearly, if it is out of focus they cannot be seen clearly
aside from especially American English a) except for: Aside from that one little problem, the day was perfect. b) in addition to: Aside from physical problems, these patients also show a lot of hostility.
exert verb [transitive] 1 exert pressure/control/influence to use your power, influence etc in order to have a particular effect: Photography has exerted a profound influence on art in this century. 2 exert yourself to make a strong physical or mental effort: He won both games without even seeming to exert himself.
pride n. 1 a feeling of satisfaction and pleasure in what you have done, or in what someone connected with you has done : show/feel/take pride in (doing) sth: The employees all show great pride in their company. | She takes pride in doing a job well. | show/feel/take (a) pride in sth: Scott takes a great pride in his appearance. | a glow of pride (=pride that is very clearly shown) | with pride: They talked about their son with obvious pride.
2 a feeling that you like and respect yourself and that you deserve to be respected by other people : hurt sb's pride: Don't offer her money, you'll hurt her pride. | give sb their pride back: Getting a job gave Sam his pride back. 3 a feeling that you are better than other people because you are cleverer, more important etc: His pride would not allow him to ask for help.
4 sb's pride and joy someone or something that someone is very proud of, and that is important to them: The garden is my father's pride and joy. 5 the pride of a) the thing or person that the people in a particular place are most proud of: Wigan's rugby (football AmE) team was the pride of the town. b) the best thing in a group: This Japanese sword is the pride of my collection.
6 have/take pride of place to have the most important position in a group: A huge birthday cake took pride of place on the table. 7 swallow your pride/put your pride in your pocket to forget your feelings of pride and do something that seems necessary, although you do not want to do it: Jerry swallowed his pride and apologized. v. pride yourself on sth to be especially proud of something that you do well, or of a quality that you have: The school prides itself on its academic record
derive v. 1 to get something, usually a pleasant feeling, from something or someone : derive sth from: He derived some comfort from the fact that he wasn't the only one to fail the exam. 2 to develop or come from something else [+ from]: This word is derived from Latin. 3 technical to get a chemical substance from another substance
long v. to want something very much, especially when it seems unlikely to happen soon : long to do/have sth: I long to see her again. long for sth: Patsy longed for some excitement, something new. long for sb to do sth: I was longing for him to go. longed-for: the birth of a longed-for daughter
that stands outside of us as a tribute to our inherent abilities Meaning: something that is physically separate from our bodies that displays what we are capable of achieving.
This extension of ourselves--in what our hands and minds can do--fills out our personality and expands our ego. Meaning: The problems we solve and the things we create are extensions of ourselves. They make us more complete and build our self- esteem.
deadline n. [countable] a date or time by which you have to do or complete something: The deadline is May 27th. work to a deadline (=plan your work so that it can be finished by the deadline) meet a deadline (=finish by the deadline): The deadlines are very short and difficult to meet. tight deadline (=a deadline that is difficult)
substantial adj. 1 large enough in amount or number to be noticeable or to have an important effect: The document requires substantial changes. | We have the support of a substantial number of parents. 2 large enough to be satisfactory: a substantial salary | a substantial breakfast 3formal having a lot of influence or power, usually because of wealth: a very substantial family in the wool trade
t ackle v. 1 to make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem: It took twelve fire engines to tackle the blaze. 2 to talk to someone in order to deal with a difficult problem : tackle sb about sth: When I tackled Didi about it, she admitted he'd tried to do too much. 3 to fight against another person, organization etc: I certainly couldn't tackle both of them on my own.
They enjoyed … something new every day. Meaning: The enjoyed succeeding when the chances of success were not good; showing that they could not be beaten by nature, another man, or a difficult problem; successfully learning or doing something new every day.
make it (informal ) a) to arrive somewhere in time for something: If we run, we should make it. [+ to]: I just made it to the bathroom before throwing up. b) to be successful in a particular activity or profession: I never thought Clare would make it as an actress. | make it big (=be very successful): They've made it big in show business.
c) spoken to be able to go to an event, meeting etc that has been arranged: I'm really sorry, but I won't be able to make it on Sunday after all. | We didn't make it to the party in the end. d) to live through an illness or after an accident, or manage to deal with a very difficult experience: Frank was very ill, and the doctors didn't think he'd make it. [+ through]: I don't know how I'm going to make it through the day.
odds n. [plural] probability, how likely it is that something will or will not happen, especially when this can be stated in numbers: If you are male, the odds are about 1 in 12 of being colour-blind. | the odds are (that) (=it is likely): Invest now - the odds are that the share prices will rise after the budget. | odds in favour of: The odds are in favour of a Russian victory. | odds against: The odds against you getting killed in a plane crash are around a million to one.
Even on simple jobs one can observe pride at work. Meaning: Even workers who have simple jobs can take pride in their work and do it well.
sequence n. 1 a series of related events, actions etc which have a fixed order and usually lead to a particular result : sequence of events: the sequence of events leading up to the war 2 [countable, uncountable] the order that events or actions happen in, or are supposed to happen in : in/out of sequence (=in or out of order): Please check that the page numbers are in sequence.
series sequence succession chain 都含 “ 依次排列的一连串事物等 ” 的意思。 1 series 指 “ 一连串彼此有联系的人物或事件 ”, 如 : a series of TV plays 电视连续剧。 2 sequence 指 “ 在次序、字母顺序、观念、事物 或因果等方面紧密联系而不可分的系列 ”, 如 : the sequence of events 一系列事件。
3 succession 指 “ 在时间或次序上相连续 的事物 ”, 如 : a succession of errors 接二连三的错误。 4 chain 指 “ 连结在一起的一系列事物 ”, 如 : a chain of ideas 一连串想法
deceive v. 1 to make someone believe something that is not true in order to get what you want: You deceived me, and I can't forgive you. | deceive sb into doing sth: They deceived the old man into signing the papers. 2 deceive yourself to pretend to yourself that something is not true, because the truth is unpleasant: I thought she loved me, but really I was deceiving myself.
3 are my eyes deceiving me? (spoken) used when you see someone or something that you are very surprised to see: Are my eyes deceiving me, or is that a genuine Persian carpet. Saying: He that once deceives is ever suspected. [ 谚 ] 骗人一次, 受疑一世。
Expending energy, in a sense, creates its own replacement there is no reservoir such that the more you use the less you have. Meaning: Energy is not something that can be stored for later use; using some now does not mean you will have less later.
in a sense/in one sense/in some senses etc in one particular way, but without considering all the other facts or possibilities: In some senses this may be true, but it's not really relevant. | In a sense, I think he likes being responsible for everything. in no sense used to emphasize that something is definitely not true: In no sense does this excuse their actions
reservoir n. 1 natural or artificial lake used as a source or store of water for a town, etc 2 ~ of sth (fig) large supply or collection of sth :a reservoir of knowledge
The measure of … as your own Meaning: In order to demonstrate how capable you are, you must produce results; in order to produce results, you must be active and be able to control your activity.
representative adj. 1 like other members of the same group; typical [+ of]: Are your opinions representative of the views of all the students? 2 a representative system of government allows everyone to express their opinions by voting for representatives: Change is needed if we are to have a fully representative democracy.
n. 1 a person who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else [+ of]: an elected representative of the people 2 Representative a member of the House of Representatives, the Lower House of Congress in the United States
Par. 1: Most people do not realize work can also provide happiness and contentment besides material things. Par. 2: The author raises the question-why is it so? Par.3: Part of the answer can be traced back the ancient Greeks, who associated work with slavery. Par.4: Some people have begun to accept the positive contribution of work to human beings.
Par. 5: For many people, the absence of work is debilitating. Par. 6: The reason why work is the source of human satisfaction rests in the pride it stimulates. Par. 7: The human being longs for a sense of accomplishment. Par. 8: Craftsmen admire the product of their personal skill. Par. 9: Work can provide the enjoyment of tackling tough problems.
Par. 10: Pride drives cleaning men to do a good job. Par.11: Machine operators pride themselves on being skillful. Par.12: Energy expenditure results in one’s accomplishment. Par.13: Employees who must interact with many different groups of people take pride in their ability which keeps the organization running smoothly