2 Emigration to the U.S. from Europe Percent of Total Immigrants
3 Scandinavians Escaping poverty at home Settled in northern Midwest where land and weather were similar to homelands
4 Germans Escaping warfare in Central Europe Largest Immigrant Group during 1800sSettled primarily in Midwest(and some in Texas)
5 Irish Fleeing hunger (caused by Potato Famine), poverty, & persecution Settled in East Coast cities
6 NATIVISTS Faced newcomers with prejudice and violence Formed “Know-Nothing” Party which was anti-immigrant & anti-catholic … called themselves the “American Party”No Irish Need Apply
7 Washington Irving Legend of Sleepy Hollow Rip van Winkle Wrote some of the 1st novels describing AmericaUsually set in the New York countryside
8 James Fenimore CooperLeatherstocking Tales … 5 books including Last of the MohicansFeatured nature & life on the frontier
9 Francis Parkman Noah Webster The Oregon TrailHistories of America and the frontierCreated an American dictionaryFocused on “Americanisms” … English words used only in the U.S.KerbCivilisationGaolCentreCatalogueColour
10 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Paul Revere’s RideHiawathaCelebrated America’s Past by retelling history through poetry
11 Albert Bierstadt … Hudson River School Landscape Painter Produced huge paintings conveying majesty of the West
12 Asher Durand … Hudson River School Landscape Painter Founder of Hudson River SchoolInfluenced by Emerson and ThoreauPainted “feeling” rather than reality
13 Thomas Cole … Hudson River School Landscape Painter Most famous of the Hudson River School artistsPainted series … like Voyage of Life and Course of EmpireThe Savage State
18 John James AudubonNature artistBest known for his sketches of birds
19 David Drake … a.k.a. “Dave the Potter” Created PotterySlave working in a South Carolina factoryCreated more than 40,000many weighing more than 40 pounds each & able to hold 50 gallonsonly a few still survive … valued at $30-40,000 eachBoldly wrote “Dave” on his pots and frequently inscribed them with versesI wonder where isall my relationsFriendship to alland every nation
20 Ralph Waldo EmersonDo not go where the path may lead,go instead where there is no pathand leave a trail.Wrote essays emphasizing need for Americans to be self-reliant—independent from European cultureEncouraged Americans to learn about life from nature and self-examination
21 Henry David Thoreau Walden Civil Disobedience Suggested that people should live by their own standardsWith Emerson, founded the philosophy of Transcendentalism …Spiritual world more important than physical worldTruth can be discovered by feeling and intuitionGo confidently in the direction of your dreams!Live the life you've imagined.
22 Walt Whitman Patriotic Poet … wrote poems praising ordinary Americans Best known for his Lincoln poemsLeaves of Grass“I Hear America Singing”“Oh Captain, My Captain”
23 Emily DickinsonShaped American poetry by experimenting with language (with Whitman)Poems focused on subjects of God, Nature, Love, and DeathHope is the thing with feathers,that perches in the soul,and sings the tune without words,and never stops at all.
24 Edgar Allen Poe The Raven The Tell-Tale Heart Annabel Lee Author of stories that dealt with the workings of the mind
25 Nathaniel Hawthorne A Wrote stories set in Puritan New England Like Poe, had a dark view of human natureThe Scarlet LetterHouse of the Seven Gables
26 Herman MelvilleMelville’s stories, like Moby Dick, were drawn from his experiences at sea.“Call me Ishmael.”
27 Peter Cartwright & Charles G. Finney Preachers of the 2nd Great AwakeningRenewal of religious faith in AmericaStressed equality and the importance of helping othersMain Idea: Reform Yourself … then Reform Society
28 Care for the Mentally Ill Reform MovementsEducationTemperanceWorkers’RightsUtopia MovementsFeminismPrison ReformCare for the Mentally Ill/Abolition
29 Mary C. Vaughan & Neal Dow TemperanceCampaign to limit alcohol consumptionClosely associated with Feminist Movement14 states banned sale of alcohol … eventually led to 18th Amendment
30 Harriet Hanson Led strikers against mill owners 10-hour work day began in 1840Workers’ Rights
31 Horace Mann … “The Father of Education” Referred to education as “The Great Equalizer”By 1850, most of the North had free public elementary schoolsAlso, many private colleges opened across the NorthMost schools still would not admit womenIn a Republic, ignorance is a crime.
32 Elizabeth BlackwellEducationIn 1849, became 1st woman in U.S. to earn a medical degreeFeminismIf society will not admit of woman’s free development, then society must be remodeled.
33 Alexander Twilight & John Russwurm Education1st African-Americans to receive college degreesRusswurm began 1st African-American newspaperRusswurm became a leader of the “Back-to-Africa” movement and moved to Liberia, believing that blacks had no future in the U.S.Abolition
34 Care for the Mentally Ill Dorothea DixPrison ReformCare for the Mentally Ill/Convinced many Northern states to build hospitals to treat the mentally ill, rather than to imprison themWorked to separate children from adult inmates, and to focus efforts on rehabilitation rather than simple punishmentIn a world where there is so much to be done, I felt strongly impressed that there must be something for me to do.
35 Thomas Gallaudet Samuel Gridley Howe Worked to improve education for the blind … using a new method developed in France by Louis BrailleBegan first school in America for the deaf(his son started the 1st deaf college)Education
36 Penny Papers Spread information about reform movements and society EducationSpread information about reform movements and societyInformed—or inflamed—voters, leading to political and social change
37 Sarah HaleEducationAdvocate of women’s education who published magazines for womenPromoted idea of women’s “Proper Sphere”Opposed feminism because it “took women from the empire of the home”Men’s Sphere – business, politicsWomen’s Sphere – home, “human ties”No need have we of power or splendor, wide hall or lordly dome; the good, the true, the tender,these form the wealth of home.
38 “Mother” Ann LeeUtopia MovementsSome groups decided Society was beyond redemption — so they chose to separate and to create their own “Utopia” … a perfect society“Mother” Ann founded the Shakers — believed in sharing all worldly goods, equality among genders and races, and refused to fight for any reasonThe gospel is the greatest treasure that souls can possess; go home and be faithful; put your hands to work, and give your hearts to God. If you have anything to spare, give it to the poor.
39 Frances Ellen Watkins Harper AbolitionFree African-American poet who traveled the North lecturing against slavery and for women’s rightsFeminismThe sale began—young girls were there, Defenseless in their wretchedness, Whose stifled sobs of deep despair Revealed their anguish and distress.-"The Slave Auction"
40 David WalkerAbolitionFree African-American who published a call for slaves to revolt … then had copies smuggled into the South and distributed it to slaves and free blacksSoutherners responded with stricter slave codes, and by offering a reward ($3,000) for his head (or $10,000 if brought to the South alive)Mysteriously found dead in his home shortly thereafterSomebody must die in this cause. I may be doomed to the stake and the fire, or to the scaffold tree, but it is not in me to falter if I can promote the work of emancipation.
41 William Lloyd Garrison AbolitionI do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD.Published The Liberator, the nation’s leading abolitionist newspaperSpoke out eloquently and passionately against slavery and for the rights of America's black inhabitantsFeminism
42 Grimké Sisters Theodore Weld Sarah and Angelina AbolitionGrimké Sisters Theodore Weld Sarah and AngelinaSouthern women who lectured across the North on the evils of slavery(Angelina married Theodore Weld)Preacher who spoke out against slavery and was effective at recruiting others into the abolitionist movement
43 John Quincy AdamsAbolitionFought Congress’s “Gag Rule” and argued for abolitionIntroduced amendment to abolish slaverySuccessfully argued before the U.S. Supreme Court for freedom for the Amistad slavesIf your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.
44 Frederick DouglassAbolitionEscaped slave who became a powerful abolitionist speaker in the U.S. and BritainPublished his autobiography and an abolitionist newspaperThose who profess to favor freedom and yet criticize agitation, are people who want crops without plowing; they want rain without thunder and lightning; they want the ocean without the roar of its waves.The struggle may be a moral one, or it may be a physical one, or it may be both. But it must be a struggle.Power concedes nothing without a demand; it never has and it never will.
45 Sojourner TruthAbolitionFeminismEscaped slave who spoke to huge crowds in North advocating both Abolition and Rights for WomenI am glad to see that men are getting their rights, but I want women to get theirs, and while the water is stirring I will step into the pool.
46 Henry “Box” Brown Slave who escaped by mailing himself to the North AbolitionSlave who escaped by mailing himself to the NorthWorked on Underground Railroad to help escapees
47 Harriet Tubman Most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad AbolitionMost famous conductor of the Underground RailroadMade 19 trips into the South to free 300+ slaves, including her entire familyFeminismI had reasoned this out in my mind, there was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other.
48 Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott FeminismOrganized the Seneca Falls Convention, which began the women’s rights movement in AmericaAdvocated women’s suffrage, believing that political power would lead to social equalityAbolition
49 Maria Mitchell Founder of Association for the Advancement of Women FeminismFounder of Association for the Advancement of WomenAstronomer who was the 1st woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and SciencesStudy as if you were going to live forever; live as if you were going to die tomorrow.
50 AbolitionSusan B. AnthonyFeminismBuilt the Feminist Movement into a national organizationCampaigned for laws to give married women property rightsCampaigned for women’s suffrage …achieved in with 19th AmendmentTemperanceIt was we, the people; not we, the white male citizens; nor yet we, the male citizens; but we, the whole people, who formed the Union.