Presentation on theme: "A New Spirit of Change Chapter 14 Review. Emigration to the U.S. from Europe 1820-1860 Percent of Total Immigrants."— Presentation transcript:
A New Spirit of Change Chapter 14 Review
Emigration to the U.S. from Europe Percent of Total Immigrants
Scandinavians Settled in northern Midwest where land and weather were similar to homelands Escaping poverty at home
Germans Escaping warfare in Central Europe Largest Immigrant Group during 1800s Settled primarily in Midwest (and some in Texas)
Irish Fleeing hunger (caused by Potato Famine), poverty, & persecution Settled in East Coast cities
NATIVISTS Faced newcomers with prejudice and violence Formed “Know-Nothing” Party which was anti- immigrant & anti-catholic … called themselves the “American Party” No Irish Need Apply
Washington Irving Legend of Sleepy Hollow Rip van Winkle Wrote some of the 1 st novels describing America Usually set in the New York countryside
James Fenimore Cooper Leatherstocking Tales … 5 books including Last of the Mohicans Featured nature & life on the frontier
Francis Parkman Noah Webster The Oregon Trail Histories of America and the frontier Created an American dictionary Focused on “Americanisms” … English words used only in the U.S. Centre Colour Gaol Civilisation Catalogue Kerb
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Paul Revere’s Ride Hiawatha Celebrated America’s Past by retelling history through poetry
Albert Bierstadt … Hudson River School Landscape Painter Produced huge paintings conveying majesty of the West
Asher Durand … Hudson River School Landscape Painter Founder of Hudson River School Influenced by Emerson and Thoreau Painted “feeling” rather than reality
Thomas Cole … Hudson River School Landscape Painter Most famous of the Hudson River School artists Painted series … like Voyage of Life and Course of Empire The Savage State
Thomas Cole … The Pastoral State
Thomas Cole … Consummation of Empire
Thomas Cole … Destruction
Thomas Cole … Desolation
John James Audubon Nature artist Best known for his sketches of birds
David Drake … a.k.a. “Dave the Potter” Created Pottery Slave working in a South Carolina factory Created more than 40,000 many weighing more than 40 pounds each & able to hold 50 gallons only a few still survive … valued at $30-40,000 each Boldly wrote “Dave” on his pots and frequently inscribed them with verses I wonder where is all my relations Friendship to all and every nation
Ralph Waldo Emerson Wrote essays emphasizing need for Americans to be self-reliant—independent from European culture Encouraged Americans to learn about life from nature and self-examination Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail.
Henry David Thoreau Walden Civil Disobedience Suggested that people should live by their own standards With Emerson, founded the philosophy of Transcendentalism … Spiritual world more important than physical world Truth can be discovered by feeling and intuition Go confidently in the direction of your dreams! Live the life you've imagined.
Walt Whitman Patriotic Poet … wrote poems praising ordinary Americans Best known for his Lincoln poems Leaves of Grass “I Hear America Singing” “Oh Captain, My Captain”
Emily Dickinson Shaped American poetry by experimenting with language (with Whitman) Poems focused on subjects of God, Nature, Love, and Death Hope is the thing with feathers, that perches in the soul, and sings the tune without words, and never stops at all.
Edgar Allen Poe The Raven The Tell-Tale Heart Annabel Lee Author of stories that dealt with the workings of the mind
Nathaniel Hawthorne Wrote stories set in Puritan New England Like Poe, had a dark view of human nature The Scarlet Letter House of the Seven Gables
Herman Melville Melville’s stories, like Moby Dick, were drawn from his experiences at sea. “Call me Ishmael.”
Peter Cartwright & Charles G. Finney Preachers of the 2 nd Great Awakening Renewal of religious faith in America Stressed equality and the importance of helping others Main Idea: Reform Yourself … then Reform Society
Reform Movements Temperance Workers’ Rights Education Utopia Movements Abolition Feminism Prison Reform Care for the Mentally Ill /
Mary C. Vaughan & Neal Dow Campaign to limit alcohol consumption Closely associated with Feminist Movement 14 states banned sale of alcohol … eventually led to 18 th Amendment Temperance
Harriet Hanson Led strikers against mill owners 10-hour work day began in 1840 Workers’ Rights
Horace Mann … “The Father of Education” By 1850, most of the North had free public elementary schools Also, many private colleges opened across the North Most schools still would not admit women Education In a Republic, ignorance is a crime. Referred to education as “The Great Equalizer”
Elizabeth Blackwell In 1849, became 1 st woman in U.S. to earn a medical degree Education If society will not admit of woman’s free development, then society must be remodeled. Feminism
Alexander Twilight & John Russwurm 1 st African-Americans to receive college degrees Russwurm began 1 st African- American newspaper Russwurm became a leader of the “Back-to-Africa” movement and moved to Liberia, believing that blacks had no future in the U.S. Education Abolition
Dorothea Dix Convinced many Northern states to build hospitals to treat the mentally ill, rather than to imprison them Worked to separate children from adult inmates, and to focus efforts on rehabilitation rather than simple punishment In a world where there is so much to be done, I felt strongly impressed that there must be something for me to do. Prison Reform Care for the Mentally Ill /
Thomas Gallaudet Samuel Gridley Howe Began first school in America for the deaf (his son started the 1st deaf college) Worked to improve education for the blind … using a new method developed in France by Louis Braille Education
Penny Papers Informed—or inflamed— voters, leading to political and social change Education Spread information about reform movements and society
Sarah Hale Advocate of women’s education who published magazines for women Promoted idea of women’s “Proper Sphere” Opposed feminism because it “took women from the empire of the home” Education No need have we of power or splendor, wide hall or lordly dome; the good, the true, the tender,these form the wealth of home. Men’s Sphere – business, politics Women’s Sphere – home, “human ties”
“Mother” Ann Lee Some groups decided Society was beyond redemption — so they chose to separate and to create their own “Utopia” … a perfect society “Mother” Ann founded the Shakers — believed in sharing all worldly goods, equality among genders and races, and refused to fight for any reason The gospel is the greatest treasure that souls can possess; go home and be faithful; put your hands to work, and give your hearts to God. If you have anything to spare, give it to the poor. Utopia Movements
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Free African- American poet who traveled the North lecturing against slavery and for women’s rights Abolition Feminism The sale began—young girls were there, Defenseless in their wretchedness, Whose stifled sobs of deep despair Revealed their anguish and distress. -"The Slave Auction"
David Walker Free African-American who published a call for slaves to revolt … then had copies smuggled into the South and distributed it to slaves and free blacks Southerners responded with stricter slave codes, and by offering a reward ($3,000) for his head (or $10,000 if brought to the South alive) Mysteriously found dead in his home shortly thereafter Abolition Somebody must die in this cause. I may be doomed to the stake and the fire, or to the scaffold tree, but it is not in me to falter if I can promote the work of emancipation.
William Lloyd Garrison Published The Liberator, the nation’s leading abolitionist newspaper Spoke out eloquently and passionately against slavery and for the rights of America's black inhabitants Abolition Feminism I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation.... I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD.
Abolition Grimké Sisters Theodore Weld Sarah and Angelina Southern women who lectured across the North on the evils of slavery (Angelina married Theodore Weld) Preacher who spoke out against slavery and was effective at recruiting others into the abolitionist movement
John Quincy Adams Fought Congress’s “Gag Rule” and argued for abolition Introduced amendment to abolish slavery Successfully argued before the U.S. Supreme Court for freedom for the Amistad slaves If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader. Abolition
Frederick Douglass Escaped slave who became a powerful abolitionist speaker in the U.S. and Britain Published his autobiography and an abolitionist newspaper Abolition Those who profess to favor freedom and yet criticize agitation, are people who want crops without plowing; they want rain without thunder and lightning; they want the ocean without the roar of its waves. The struggle may be a moral one, or it may be a physical one, or it may be both. But it must be a struggle. Power concedes nothing without a demand; it never has and it never will.
Sojourner Truth Escaped slave who spoke to huge crowds in North advocating both Abolition and Rights for Women Abolition Feminism I am glad to see that men are getting their rights, but I want women to get theirs, and while the water is stirring I will step into the pool.
Henry “Box” Brown Slave who escaped by mailing himself to the North Worked on Underground Railroad to help escapees Abolition
Harriet Tubman Most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad Made 19 trips into the South to free 300+ slaves, including her entire family Abolition Feminism I had reasoned this out in my mind, there was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott Organized the Seneca Falls Convention, which began the women’s rights movement in America Advocated women’s suffrage, believing that political power would lead to social equality Abolition Feminism
Maria Mitchell Founder of Association for the Advancement of Women Astronomer who was the 1 st woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Feminism Study as if you were going to live forever; live as if you were going to die tomorrow.
Susan B. Anthony Built the Feminist Movement into a national organization Campaigned for laws to give married women property rights Campaigned for women’s suffrage … achieved in 1920 with 19 th Amendment Abolition Feminism Temperance It was we, the people; not we, the white male citizens; nor yet we, the male citizens; but we, the whole people, who formed the Union.