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A New Spirit of Change Chapter 14 Review.

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Presentation on theme: "A New Spirit of Change Chapter 14 Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 A New Spirit of Change Chapter 14 Review

2 Emigration to the U.S. from Europe
Percent of Total Immigrants

3 Scandinavians Escaping poverty at home
Settled in northern Midwest where land and weather were similar to homelands

4 Germans Escaping warfare in Central Europe
Largest Immigrant Group during 1800s Settled primarily in Midwest (and some in Texas)

5 Irish Fleeing hunger (caused by Potato Famine), poverty, & persecution
Settled in East Coast cities

6 NATIVISTS Faced newcomers with prejudice and violence
Formed “Know-Nothing” Party which was anti-immigrant & anti-catholic … called themselves the “American Party” No Irish Need Apply

7 Washington Irving Legend of Sleepy Hollow Rip van Winkle
Wrote some of the 1st novels describing America Usually set in the New York countryside

8 James Fenimore Cooper Leatherstocking Tales … 5 books including Last of the Mohicans Featured nature & life on the frontier

9 Francis Parkman Noah Webster
The Oregon Trail Histories of America and the frontier Created an American dictionary Focused on “Americanisms” … English words used only in the U.S. Kerb Civilisation Gaol Centre Catalogue Colour

10 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Paul Revere’s Ride Hiawatha Celebrated America’s Past by retelling history through poetry

11 Albert Bierstadt … Hudson River School Landscape Painter
Produced huge paintings conveying majesty of the West

12 Asher Durand … Hudson River School Landscape Painter
Founder of Hudson River School Influenced by Emerson and Thoreau Painted “feeling” rather than reality

13 Thomas Cole … Hudson River School Landscape Painter
Most famous of the Hudson River School artists Painted series … like Voyage of Life and Course of Empire The Savage State

14 Thomas Cole … The Pastoral State

15 Thomas Cole … Consummation of Empire

16 Thomas Cole … Destruction

17 Thomas Cole … Desolation

18 John James Audubon Nature artist Best known for his sketches of birds

19 David Drake … a.k.a. “Dave the Potter”
Created Pottery Slave working in a South Carolina factory Created more than 40,000 many weighing more than 40 pounds each & able to hold 50 gallons only a few still survive … valued at $30-40,000 each Boldly wrote “Dave” on his pots and frequently inscribed them with verses I wonder where is all my relations Friendship to all and every nation

20 Ralph Waldo Emerson Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail. Wrote essays emphasizing need for Americans to be self-reliant—independent from European culture Encouraged Americans to learn about life from nature and self-examination

21 Henry David Thoreau Walden Civil Disobedience
Suggested that people should live by their own standards With Emerson, founded the philosophy of Transcendentalism … Spiritual world more important than physical world Truth can be discovered by feeling and intuition Go confidently in the direction of your dreams! Live the life you've imagined.

22 Walt Whitman Patriotic Poet … wrote poems praising ordinary Americans
Best known for his Lincoln poems Leaves of Grass “I Hear America Singing” “Oh Captain, My Captain”

23 Emily Dickinson Shaped American poetry by experimenting with language (with Whitman) Poems focused on subjects of God, Nature, Love, and Death Hope is the thing with feathers, that perches in the soul, and sings the tune without words, and never stops at all.

24 Edgar Allen Poe The Raven The Tell-Tale Heart Annabel Lee
Author of stories that dealt with the workings of the mind

25 Nathaniel Hawthorne A Wrote stories set in Puritan New England
Like Poe, had a dark view of human nature The Scarlet Letter House of the Seven Gables

26 Herman Melville Melville’s stories, like Moby Dick, were drawn from his experiences at sea. “Call me Ishmael.”

27 Peter Cartwright & Charles G. Finney
Preachers of the 2nd Great Awakening Renewal of religious faith in America Stressed equality and the importance of helping others Main Idea: Reform Yourself … then Reform Society

28 Care for the Mentally Ill
Reform Movements Education Temperance Workers’Rights Utopia Movements Feminism Prison Reform Care for the Mentally Ill / Abolition

29 Mary C. Vaughan & Neal Dow
Temperance Campaign to limit alcohol consumption Closely associated with Feminist Movement 14 states banned sale of alcohol … eventually led to 18th Amendment

30 Harriet Hanson Led strikers against mill owners
10-hour work day began in 1840 Workers’ Rights

31 Horace Mann … “The Father of Education”
Referred to education as “The Great Equalizer” By 1850, most of the North had free public elementary schools Also, many private colleges opened across the North Most schools still would not admit women In a Republic, ignorance is a crime.

32 Elizabeth Blackwell Education In 1849, became 1st woman in U.S. to earn a medical degree Feminism If society will not admit of woman’s free development, then society must be remodeled.

33 Alexander Twilight & John Russwurm
Education 1st African-Americans to receive college degrees Russwurm began 1st African-American newspaper Russwurm became a leader of the “Back-to-Africa” movement and moved to Liberia, believing that blacks had no future in the U.S. Abolition

34 Care for the Mentally Ill
Dorothea Dix Prison Reform Care for the Mentally Ill / Convinced many Northern states to build hospitals to treat the mentally ill, rather than to imprison them Worked to separate children from adult inmates, and to focus efforts on rehabilitation rather than simple punishment In a world where there is so much to be done, I felt strongly impressed that there must be something for me to do.

35 Thomas Gallaudet Samuel Gridley Howe
Worked to improve education for the blind … using a new method developed in France by Louis Braille                           Began first school in America for the deaf (his son started the 1st deaf college) Education

36 Penny Papers Spread information about reform movements and society
Education Spread information about reform movements and society Informed—or inflamed—voters, leading to political and social change

37 Sarah Hale Education Advocate of women’s education who published magazines for women Promoted idea of women’s “Proper Sphere” Opposed feminism because it “took women from the empire of the home” Men’s Sphere – business, politics Women’s Sphere – home, “human ties” No need have we of power or splendor, wide hall or lordly dome; the good, the true, the tender,these form the wealth of home.

38 “Mother” Ann Lee Utopia Movements Some groups decided Society was beyond redemption — so they chose to separate and to create their own “Utopia” … a perfect society “Mother” Ann founded the Shakers — believed in sharing all worldly goods, equality among genders and races, and refused to fight for any reason The gospel is the greatest treasure that souls can possess; go home and be faithful; put your hands to work, and give your hearts to God. If you have anything to spare, give it to the poor.

39 Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
Abolition Free African-American poet who traveled the North lecturing against slavery and for women’s rights Feminism The sale began—young girls were there, Defenseless in their wretchedness, Whose stifled sobs of deep despair Revealed their anguish and distress. -"The Slave Auction"

40 David Walker Abolition Free African-American who published a call for slaves to revolt … then had copies smuggled into the South and distributed it to slaves and free blacks Southerners responded with stricter slave codes, and by offering a reward ($3,000) for his head (or $10,000 if brought to the South alive) Mysteriously found dead in his home shortly thereafter Somebody must die in this cause. I may be doomed to the stake and the fire, or to the scaffold tree, but it is not in me to falter if I can promote the work of emancipation.

41 William Lloyd Garrison
Abolition I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD. Published The Liberator, the nation’s leading abolitionist newspaper Spoke out eloquently and passionately against slavery and for the rights of America's black inhabitants Feminism

42 Grimké Sisters Theodore Weld Sarah and Angelina
Abolition Grimké Sisters Theodore Weld Sarah and Angelina Southern women who lectured across the North on the evils of slavery (Angelina married Theodore Weld) Preacher who spoke out against slavery and was effective at recruiting others into the abolitionist movement

43 John Quincy Adams Abolition Fought Congress’s “Gag Rule” and argued for abolition Introduced amendment to abolish slavery Successfully argued before the U.S. Supreme Court for freedom for the Amistad slaves If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.

44 Frederick Douglass Abolition Escaped slave who became a powerful abolitionist speaker in the U.S. and Britain Published his autobiography and an abolitionist newspaper Those who profess to favor freedom and yet criticize agitation, are people who want crops without plowing; they want rain without thunder and lightning; they want the ocean without the roar of its waves. The struggle may be a moral one, or it may be a physical one, or it may be both. But it must be a struggle. Power concedes nothing without a demand; it never has and it never will.

45 Sojourner Truth Abolition Feminism Escaped slave who spoke to huge crowds in North advocating both Abolition and Rights for Women I am glad to see that men are getting their rights, but I want women to get theirs, and while the water is stirring I will step into the pool.

46 Henry “Box” Brown Slave who escaped by mailing himself to the North
Abolition Slave who escaped by mailing himself to the North Worked on Underground Railroad to help escapees

47 Harriet Tubman Most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad
Abolition Most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad Made 19 trips into the South to free 300+ slaves, including her entire family Feminism I had reasoned this out in my mind, there was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other.

48 Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott
Feminism Organized the Seneca Falls Convention, which began the women’s rights movement in America Advocated women’s suffrage, believing that political power would lead to social equality Abolition

49 Maria Mitchell Founder of Association for the Advancement of Women
Feminism Founder of Association for the Advancement of Women Astronomer who was the 1st woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Study as if you were going to live forever; live as if you were going to die tomorrow.

50 Abolition Susan B. Anthony Feminism Built the Feminist Movement into a national organization Campaigned for laws to give married women property rights Campaigned for women’s suffrage … achieved in with 19th Amendment Temperance It was we, the people; not we, the white male citizens; nor yet we, the male citizens; but we, the whole people, who formed the Union.

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