Presentation on theme: "The Origin of American Politics"— Presentation transcript:
1The Origin of American Politics 1789-1820 US HistoryChapter 6
2Problems of the New Government National Debt$52 millionFarm economy; 3 million peopleNot respected by other countriesNo navyArmy of only 400 menSpain closed Mississippi River to American tradeControlled New OrleansBritish kept forts within American territory
3George Washington1st President of the United States (April 30, March 3, 1797)Nickname: Father of the CountryHighly respected around the world as a General and leader
4George Washington 1789-1797 Background Fought in French and Indian War Commander in Chief of the Continental ArmyPresiding Officer at Constitutional ConventionNatural leader; seemed almost royalKeen sense of dutySought no personal power
5George Washington 1789-1797 Election Views on Government Unanimously electedInaugurated April 30, 1789 in New York CityVice President – John AdamsViews on GovernmentAvoided argumentsConcentrated on larger picture of national unitySmoothly functioning administrationCreated respect for the new governmentOpposed to political parties
6First Acts of the New Government Judiciary Act of 1789Established the court systemSupreme Court6 judges – 1 Chief Justice, 5 associatesJohn Jay – 1st Chief Justice13 District Courts3 Circuit CourtsAllowed state court decisions to be appealed to federal court when constitutional issues are in questionEstablished office of Attorney General
7First Acts of the New Government Bill of RightsFulfilled promise to Anti-Federalists; 1791Formation of First CabinetAdvisers to the PresidentSecretary of State – Thomas JeffersonAttorney General – Edmund RandolphSecretary of War - Henry KnoxSecretary of Treasury - Alexander HamiltonHad greatest influence on Washington’s administration
9Squabbling in the Cabinet… How Should the Constitution be Interpreted???Federalists believed in…Loose construction of ConstitutionGovernment could do anything that was not forbiddenAnti-Federalists believed in…Strict construction of ConstitutionGovernment should not do anything unless specified
10Two Factions BornAlexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, as heads of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist groups respectively, are often considered 'fathers' of the modern party system.
11Whoops.. The New Government is Broke The war debt was enormous, and the creditors were demanding payment on the loans they had given during the warEuropean countries refused to trade with the US worried that they would not be reimbursed for products and services
12Hamilton’s Beliefs…Felt that government needed to direct the development of the American economyHad little faith in the peopleRemember…we’re the MOB!
13Hamilton’s Financial Program Payment of all debtsDemonstrate to the world that the federal government, not the individual states, was the responsible contracting party in all international commerce and foreign affairsThree types:Domestic debt ($44 million in bonds)Exchange old bonds for new onesProblem – speculators bought old bonds below face value – would get richNecessary to establish US credit
14Hamilton’s Financial Program Payment of all debtsThree types:Foreign debts ($12 million)Pay back France and SpainState debts ($22 million)Opposed by the Southern states because they had already paid back their loansTo get South to agree, promised to move the capital to the SouthFrom? – temporary capitalTo? – originally called Federal Town
15Hamilton’s Strategy Alexander Hamilton The new Secretary of the Treasury worried about the nation’s debt from the warHe wanted the national government to take over the states’ debt to European countries and banks and consolidate1 large debt instead of 13 smaller debts…All he had to do was convince the 13 states to take on each others debts!
16Hamilton's Ideas for $$ Get us out of DEBT by… 1. Excise Tax (Luxury Tax)One year tax on Whiskey to raise moneyChiefly affected farmers on western frontierConverted corn crop to whiskey to transport it to market more efficiently2. Protective Tariff - Placing taxes on domestic products, and place tariffs on foreign goods entering the countryHow are citizens going to feel about this one??Only part of Hamilton’s plan that was rejected by Congress
17The Whiskey RebellionCorn was not profitable as a crop until it was made into whiskeyWhiskey was also used as a kind of currency in certain states and regionsWhen Hamilton attempted to raise money through a tax on whiskey in 1794, Pennsylvania farmers took to armsThe army was called in by Washington to squash the rebellionFirst time the new government was tested
18Hamilton's Ideas for $$ Creating the Bank of United States Hamilton thought the Bank would help centralize the debt, American finances, and investmentsDoes anyone remember an article, section in the Constitution concerning a National Bank?What is the position of the leaders on this issue?Hamilton: necessary and proper clauseJefferson: Constitution doesn’t give government the power to have a bank.
19The Rise of Political Parties FederalistsAnti-FederalistsJeffersoniansDemocratic RepublicansLeadersHamiltonJohn AdamsJeffersonJames MadisonSupportersUpper Class –Merchants, manufacturers bankers, large land ownersCommon PeopleFarmers, city workers, small shopkeepersLocationStrongest in New EnglandSouth and West
20The Rise of Political Parties FederalistsAnti-FederalistsJeffersoniansDemocratic RepublicansRelationship with GovernmentBelieved in gov’t for and by the rich and well-born; distrusted common peopleBelieved in more democracy; gov’t should work in the interest of the common peopleInterpretation of the ConstitutionLooseWanted a strong central governmentStrictFavored states’ rights & weak gov’tHamilton’s ProgramFavoredBeneficial to economic interestsOpposedToo much power to governmentForeignAffairsFavored Great Britain–government dominated by upper classFavored France – followed our lead to revolt in 1789
21War in Europe…Again!! Once again Great Britain and France were at war The Americans were uncertain of the position they should take..Side with the French?Side with the British?Keep America neutral?Americans were split as to which side to support.
22European Influences on the Federalists Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists were fans of Great Britain- and afraid of their navy!“Keep your friends close, but keep your enemies closer”He was afraid of the problems in France and the Reign of Terror-The people were considered “rabble” and sometimes referred to as “the mob”
23European Influences on the Anti-Federalists Thomas Jefferson and the Anti-Federalists were still fans of France, the country that had helped them during the Revolutionary WarDid not trust the British; thought we should help the French during the warSaw the current problems in France as a true reaction by a real democracyJefferson thought there should be a revolution every 10 yearsTrue democracies were all about change and growthThrow the bums, out!
24Washington Decides… Washington declared neutrality in April 1793 The new country would not have to take sidesAngered the French who had sided with the Americans during the Revolution
25Washington’s Cabinet Breaks Up The Former Anti-Federalists became a faction within the Washington cabinetThomas Jefferson was the most influential opponent.He resigned his position as Sec. of State in opposition to the ideasMan of the people and states’ rightsStates’ rights advocates
26War Between France and Britain Great BritainBegan to seize American shipsViolated our “Freedom of the Seas”Definition: the right of a neutral nation to trade with belligerents in goods not intended for war
27War Between France and Britain Great Britain continued its practice of stopping American ships and searching them for “British citizens”.This resulted in the practice of impressment.This angered American traders and businessmen who were losing key personnel.Still in the American NW – inciting Indians???Chief Justice John Jay was sent to GB to negotiate a treaty
28“Jay’s Treaty” Major Provisions The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American WestA commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and CanadaA commission to be established to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence.Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen. It did help us get a favorable treaty with Spain.
29Reactions to “Jay’s Treaty” The paper on which "the treaty was written was called a piece of shame."Jay was accused of having betrayed his country by negotiating a servile treaty with Britain's monarch.Jay's name became the subject of punning toasts such as, "clipped wings and lame legs" and he was burned in effigy in many states.He claimed he could have walked the entire eastern seaboard at night and had his way illuminated by protesters burning him in effigy.
30Federalists…what were you thinking? But Congress ratified the treatyThe split between factions became larger and…A new party was born!!
31Treaty with SpainAfter Jay’s treaty, Spain feared US and Britain would team up to attack Florida and Louisiana – willing to work out problems.Pinckney Treaty (1795)Guaranteed US free navigation of MississippiGave US “right of deposit” in New Orleans – right to transfer goods from riverboats to ocean going ships w/out paying Spanish tariffEstablished the Mississippi as the western boundary and the 31st parallel as southern boundary of USConsidered an American triumph!!
32Washington’s Retirement Set two term precedentTired of burden of public officeHurt by bitter criticism of Democratic-RepublicansWanted to show that no one was indispensableFarewell Address – urgedNo political partiesDevelop economy; solve domestic problemsDon’t enter into foreign alliances (entangling)Stay out of Europe’s quarrelsInstituted foreign policy of non-involvement
33The Election of 1796 John Adams The Federalists and the Jeffersonians competed for the presidency in the 1796 and 1800 electionsFederalists v JeffersoniansAdams v JeffersonWinner 1796 –Federalists and AdamsJefferson was then selected as his Vice-President because he came in second!John Adams
34John Adams 1797-1801 Ben Franklin said of Adams: “always honest, often great”Helped write the Declaration of IndependenceAmbassador to EnglandWashington’s Vice PresidentFirst to live in the White HouseWife – Abigail – wrote her many love lettersSon – John Quincy AdamsDevout ChristianVain, Stuffy, Overweight – often called “His Rotundy”Died July 4, 1826 – same day as Jefferson
35The French are MAD!! French enraged by American foreign policy Proclamation of NeutralityJay Treaty with BritainThe French withdrew their minister from Philadelphia; refused to receive the newly appointed U.S. Minister, Charles Pinckney.They then began to seize U.S. ships on the high seas bound for Britain.Federalists want warPresident Adams responded by sending three Americans to negotiate
36XYZ Affair The resulting scandal became known as the XYZ Affair. The Americans demanded that the French halt the practice of seizing shipsThree anonymous French agents (X, Y, & Z) were sent by the French Prime Minister Tallyrand to demand a bribe from AmericaThis was common in 18th century Europe, but John Jay refusedThe resulting scandal became known as the XYZ Affair.Americans become strongly anti-French.
38Undeclared Naval War Congress votes funds to build navy 1798 – Cabinet level navy departmentCaptured 100 French vessels1800 – Adams sent negotiator to France – controlled by NapoleonAgreed to end naval conflict and cancel 1778 treaty of allianceAdams lost popularity but restored peace
39Naturalization ActIncreased the number of years required for immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years.What party will be most hurt by this law?
40Alien ActPresident gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S. considered dangerous to U.S.What about the land of liberty and opinion?Freedom of speech and assembly?Extremely unpopular among the Anti-Federalists
41The Sedition ActPersons who wrote, published, or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be jailed or finedAnti-Federalists fumed after the law was signed by President AdamsWhat happened to freedom of the press?
42The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson, Madison, and others felt the Sedition Act violated free speechLegislatures of two states came up with “null and void” ideaIf we don’t agree with the Act in our state, we will not enforce or obey itA direct challenge to Federal superiorityThe Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were later used as a basis for the creation of the Confederacy
43In other words… Its all about Federal Superiority vs. States Rights Should the states have the right to decide whether or not a federal statute is constitutional FOR THEM.Can they nullify a law if it is not agreeable to the state??The states versus federal government question began in earnest!
44The Federalist Party dies Lost both executive and legislative branches in 1800Federalist judicial appointments served for many yearsMost important – Chief Justice John Marshall appointed January 31, 1801Never won another electionParty died but ideas remained
45Summary of Federalist Era Fostered loose interpretation of ConstitutionEstablished national creditCreated the court systemDemonstrated ability of government to enforce lawsAdmitted three statesVermont, Kentucky, TennesseeKept nation out of warInstituted a foreign policy of isolation
46Election of 1800 Jefferson versus Adams.. AGAIN!! Nasty, personal attacks on each man’s characterJeffersonians called Adams an elitist and ToryFederalist newspapers claimed that the election of Jefferson would cause the "teaching of murder robbery, rape, adultery and incest".Sound more like politics today!
47The Evolution of American Political Parties The Anti-Federalists became known as the Republican-Democrats in 1800Sometimes known as the Democratic Republicans or simply the RepublicansHistorians have given them the name, “Jeffersonians” to stop confusion with today’s Republican partyFYI…The modern Democratic party actually can trace their roots to the Jeffersonians
49The Confusing Results of 1800 Neither Adams or Jefferson received the necessary number of electoral votesSince no one had the majority of votes, and the election was turned over to the House of Representatives.The House deliberated from February 11th to February 17thJefferson was selected on the 36th ballot!!Aaron Burr came in second and became the new VP
50Transfer of Power in 1800 Americans disagreed peacefully Diplomatic …no bloodshedThe Constitution WORKED!!
51Aaron Burr Jefferson’s greatest rivals were Alexander Hamilton and Vice President Aaron BurrJefferson saw Burr as a clear and present danger, and began a campaign to ruin his reputation"I never thought him an honest, frank-dealing man, but considered him as a crooked gun, or other perverted machine, whose aim or shot you could never be sure of.""A great man in little things, he is really small in great ones”Alexander Hamilton said of Aaron Burr as vice president,"He is an isolated man, totally without influence."
52The Burr- Hamilton Duel Hamilton then sarcastically questioned Burr's integrity.Sensing a chance to regain political honor, Burr demanded an apology.Hamilton refused on the grounds that he could not recall the instance.After an exchange of testy letters, and despite the attempts of mutual friends to avert a confrontation, a duel was scheduled for July 11, 1804 along the bank of the Hudson River beneath a rocky ledge in New Jersey
54Hamilton Dies of His Wounds The two men met at dawnHamilton's shot was fired into the air away from Burr into the air.Burr fired at his opponent who was mortally woundedHamilton died the next dayThe guns were selected by Hamilton and have a hair-trigger setting that may be switched on or off.Burr fled the state and returned to Washington as a fugitive to finish his term as Vice President!!
55Thomas Jefferson 1801 -1808 First to be inaugurated in Washington Self-taught architect – designed his homeInventorLetter copying machine7 day clockPocket doorsDumb waiterSpoke 7 languagesLawyerDeep abiding faith in the common people
56Thomas Jefferson 1801 -1808 Founder of the University of Virginia Author of the Declaration of IndependenceGovernor of Virginia during the RevolutionAmbassador to FranceWidowerWrote 50,000 lettersHead and Heart Letter to wife
57The 3rd President Views on Government Democracy – ideal government that functions best in an agricultural society of small independent farmersRole of Government – limitedfavored popular educationCareful protection of civil libertiesConstitution – Strict InterpreterSupported loose interpretationwhen national welfare required it
58Jefferson’s Policies Reverses some Federalists policies All internal taxes eliminatedCut military spending and reduced national debtUS Military Academy (West Point) 1802Alien and Sedition Acts expireReplaced Federalists with Dem.-Repubs.Repealed Naturalization ActRepealed Judicial Act of 1801
59Jefferson’s Policies Continued other Federalist Policies Hamilton’s Financial ProgramWashington’s policy of non-involvementMove toward loose interpretationLouisiana Purchase
60Louisiana PurchaseNapoleon - purchased from Spain to create American Empire1802 – suspended right of depositJefferson feared strong French presence would for US in alliance with BritainSent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to try to buy New Orleans and W. Florida from France
61Louisiana Purchase - 1803 Napoleon sells entire territory Needed money for war with BritainRather sell than loseSlave in Hispaniola – didn’t need to feed themMonroe agrees to purchase for $15 million – 3 cents an acre!!
62Was it legal? A big STRETCH Purchasing land is not an expressed power in the ConstitutionJefferson at first suggested a Constitutional amendmentSolution: Constitution gives power to make treaties –A big STRETCH
63Exploring Louisiana Wanted to learn about resources Meriwether Lewis and William ClarkStart in St. Louis, up Missouri River, across Rocky Mountains, reached Columbia River in Oregon TerritoryIndian guide - SacajaweaZebulon PikeLooking for source of Mississippi River2nd exploration into Rockies and ColoradoFound Great American desert
65Significance of Purchase Almost doubled size of the USSource of tremendous wealthGave US control of Mississippi River and New OrleansRemoved French influence in N. AmericaEstablished precedent for future land purchasesMoved Democratic-Republicans toward loose interpretation of Constitution
66Napoleonic Wars 1803 – Britain and France fight again! Fought for 12 yearsFrance supreme on land; Britain on sea“Tiger against the Shark”Stalemate on battlefieldEconomic WarfareBerlin and Milan Decrees – France tried to restrict trade with Britain; GB retailiatesOrders in Council – to blockade trade with FranceWhich is most effective?
67Effect on the United States Hampered our trade with EuropeBritish seizing shipsBritish impressing sailorsKeep trying – profit made up for lossesChesapeake-Leopard AffairBritish captain demanded to search the Chesapeake; American captain refusedBritish fired on ship; boarded it and took off 4 sailors – 3 American citizens3 Americans killed; 18 woundedAmericans demanded Jefferson take action; to avoid war had Congress pass . . .
68Embargo Act Prohibited all exports to all foreign countries Prohibited American ship from sailing into foreign portsDidn’t hurt France and Britain muchAlmost completely destroyed commerce in New EnglandSouth and West lost foreign markets for farm produceBoomerang Effect 1809 repealed-Non-intercourse Act
69Election of 1808 Federalist – Charles Pinckney Little supportDemocratic-Republican – James MadisonFather of ConstitutionAuthor of Federalist PapersSmallest presidentWife – Dolly-served as hostess for JeffersonDolly sold notes on Constitutional Convention for $30,000Very extravagantHad not money leftDaniel Webster bought groceries for her
70Mr. Madison’s War Efforts at Peace War Hawks 3 years tried to protect American shippingWar HawksJohn Calhoun; Henry ClayWanted war to acquire new territory in Canada and FloridaRemove European powers from our borders1812 – Declaration of war by Congress
71Causes of the War of 1812Britain’s seizure of American ships and impressment of American sailorsAmerican resentment of Britain dating back to the RevolutionBelieved British in Canada were inciting and arming Indians to attack American settlementsAmerican ambitions to annex CanadaSouth and West – Favored war; Northeast – oppose to war
72Military Events – War of 1812 Americans invades Canada – unsuccessfulBritain invades US from Canada – unsuccessfulCaptain Oliver Perry – “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”British blockade our portsBritish invasionChesapeake Bay – Washington DC capturedWashington DC – Burned White HouseFt. McHenry (Baltimore)Francis Scott Key – Star Spangled Banner
74No one; no land changed hands Treaty of Ghent – Dec. 1814Who won the war?No one; no land changed handsTreaty did not mention impressment of sailors but European war was over so not an issue any longer.
75Battle of New Orleans – Jan. 1815 Biggest battle of warFought one month after treaty signedAndrew Jackson – American commanderBritish attempt to invade SouthwestBritish – 8000 menAmerican – 5400 menCasualtiesBritishAmericans - 71Only decisive battleWho won the war?We did!!
76Results of the War of 1812 Strengthened isolation Increased westward expansionEncouraged American industryEnded the Federalist Party – opposed warHartford ConventionAdvocate states’ rights and nullificationWanted Constitutional amendment to require 2/3 majority to declare war, admit new states