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The Origin of American Politics

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1 The Origin of American Politics 1789-1820
US History Chapter 6

2 Problems of the New Government
National Debt $52 million Farm economy; 3 million people Not respected by other countries No navy Army of only 400 men Spain closed Mississippi River to American trade Controlled New Orleans British kept forts within American territory

3 George Washington 1st President of the United States (April 30, March 3, 1797) Nickname: Father of the Country Highly respected around the world as a General and leader

4 George Washington 1789-1797 Background Fought in French and Indian War
Commander in Chief of the Continental Army Presiding Officer at Constitutional Convention Natural leader; seemed almost royal Keen sense of duty Sought no personal power

5 George Washington 1789-1797 Election Views on Government
Unanimously elected Inaugurated April 30, 1789 in New York City Vice President – John Adams Views on Government Avoided arguments Concentrated on larger picture of national unity Smoothly functioning administration Created respect for the new government Opposed to political parties

6 First Acts of the New Government
Judiciary Act of 1789 Established the court system Supreme Court 6 judges – 1 Chief Justice, 5 associates John Jay – 1st Chief Justice 13 District Courts 3 Circuit Courts Allowed state court decisions to be appealed to federal court when constitutional issues are in question Established office of Attorney General

7 First Acts of the New Government
Bill of Rights Fulfilled promise to Anti-Federalists; 1791 Formation of First Cabinet Advisers to the President Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson Attorney General – Edmund Randolph Secretary of War - Henry Knox Secretary of Treasury - Alexander Hamilton Had greatest influence on Washington’s administration

8 The First Cabinet Secretaries

9 Squabbling in the Cabinet…
How Should the Constitution be Interpreted??? Federalists believed in… Loose construction of Constitution Government could do anything that was not forbidden Anti-Federalists believed in… Strict construction of Constitution Government should not do anything unless specified

10 Two Factions Born Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, as heads of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist groups respectively, are often considered 'fathers' of the modern party system.

11 Whoops.. The New Government is Broke
The war debt was enormous, and the creditors were demanding payment on the loans they had given during the war European countries refused to trade with the US worried that they would not be reimbursed for products and services

12 Hamilton’s Beliefs… Felt that government needed to direct the development of the American economy Had little faith in the people Remember…we’re the MOB!

13 Hamilton’s Financial Program
Payment of all debts Demonstrate to the world that the federal government, not the individual states, was the responsible contracting party in all international commerce and foreign affairs Three types: Domestic debt ($44 million in bonds) Exchange old bonds for new ones Problem – speculators bought old bonds below face value – would get rich Necessary to establish US credit

14 Hamilton’s Financial Program
Payment of all debts Three types: Foreign debts ($12 million) Pay back France and Spain State debts ($22 million) Opposed by the Southern states because they had already paid back their loans To get South to agree, promised to move the capital to the South From? – temporary capital To? – originally called Federal Town

15 Hamilton’s Strategy Alexander Hamilton
The new Secretary of the Treasury worried about the nation’s debt from the war He wanted the national government to take over the states’ debt to European countries and banks and consolidate 1 large debt instead of 13 smaller debts… All he had to do was convince the 13 states to take on each others debts!

16 Hamilton's Ideas for $$ Get us out of DEBT by…
1. Excise Tax (Luxury Tax) One year tax on Whiskey to raise money Chiefly affected farmers on western frontier Converted corn crop to whiskey to transport it to market more efficiently 2. Protective Tariff - Placing taxes on domestic products, and place tariffs on foreign goods entering the country How are citizens going to feel about this one?? Only part of Hamilton’s plan that was rejected by Congress

17 The Whiskey Rebellion Corn was not profitable as a crop until it was made into whiskey Whiskey was also used as a kind of currency in certain states and regions When Hamilton attempted to raise money through a tax on whiskey in 1794, Pennsylvania farmers took to arms The army was called in by Washington to squash the rebellion First time the new government was tested

18 Hamilton's Ideas for $$ Creating the Bank of United States
Hamilton thought the Bank would help centralize the debt, American finances, and investments Does anyone remember an article, section in the Constitution concerning a National Bank? What is the position of the leaders on this issue? Hamilton: necessary and proper clause Jefferson: Constitution doesn’t give government the power to have a bank.

19 The Rise of Political Parties
Federalists Anti-Federalists Jeffersonians Democratic Republicans Leaders Hamilton John Adams Jefferson James Madison Supporters Upper Class – Merchants, manufacturers bankers, large land owners Common People Farmers, city workers, small shopkeepers Location Strongest in New England South and West

20 The Rise of Political Parties
Federalists Anti-Federalists Jeffersonians Democratic Republicans Relationship with Government Believed in gov’t for and by the rich and well-born; distrusted common people Believed in more democracy; gov’t should work in the interest of the common people Interpretation of the Constitution Loose Wanted a strong central government Strict Favored states’ rights & weak gov’t Hamilton’s Program Favored Beneficial to economic interests Opposed Too much power to government Foreign Affairs Favored Great Britain–government dominated by upper class Favored France – followed our lead to revolt in 1789

21 War in Europe…Again!! Once again Great Britain and France were at war
The Americans were uncertain of the position they should take.. Side with the French? Side with the British? Keep America neutral? Americans were split as to which side to support.

22 European Influences on the Federalists
Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists were fans of Great Britain- and afraid of their navy! “Keep your friends close, but keep your enemies closer” He was afraid of the problems in France and the Reign of Terror- The people were considered “rabble” and sometimes referred to as “the mob”

23 European Influences on the Anti-Federalists
Thomas Jefferson and the Anti-Federalists were still fans of France, the country that had helped them during the Revolutionary War Did not trust the British; thought we should help the French during the war Saw the current problems in France as a true reaction by a real democracy Jefferson thought there should be a revolution every 10 years True democracies were all about change and growth Throw the bums, out!

24 Washington Decides… Washington declared neutrality in April 1793
The new country would not have to take sides Angered the French who had sided with the Americans during the Revolution

25 Washington’s Cabinet Breaks Up
The Former Anti-Federalists became a faction within the Washington cabinet Thomas Jefferson was the most influential opponent. He resigned his position as Sec. of State in opposition to the ideas Man of the people and states’ rights States’ rights advocates

26 War Between France and Britain
Great Britain Began to seize American ships Violated our “Freedom of the Seas” Definition: the right of a neutral nation to trade with belligerents in goods not intended for war

27 War Between France and Britain
Great Britain continued its practice of stopping American ships and searching them for “British citizens”. This resulted in the practice of impressment. This angered American traders and businessmen who were losing key personnel. Still in the American NW – inciting Indians??? Chief Justice John Jay was sent to GB to negotiate a treaty

28 “Jay’s Treaty” Major Provisions
The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American West A commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and Canada A commission to be established to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence. Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen. It did help us get a favorable treaty with Spain.

29 Reactions to “Jay’s Treaty”
The paper on which "the treaty was written was called a piece of shame." Jay was accused of having betrayed his country by negotiating a servile treaty with Britain's monarch. Jay's name became the subject of punning toasts such as, "clipped wings and lame legs" and he was burned in effigy in many states. He claimed he could have walked the entire eastern seaboard at night and had his way illuminated by protesters burning him in effigy.

30 Federalists…what were you thinking?
But Congress ratified the treaty The split between factions became larger and… A new party was born!!

31 Treaty with Spain After Jay’s treaty, Spain feared US and Britain would team up to attack Florida and Louisiana – willing to work out problems. Pinckney Treaty (1795) Guaranteed US free navigation of Mississippi Gave US “right of deposit” in New Orleans – right to transfer goods from riverboats to ocean going ships w/out paying Spanish tariff Established the Mississippi as the western boundary and the 31st parallel as southern boundary of US Considered an American triumph!!

32 Washington’s Retirement
Set two term precedent Tired of burden of public office Hurt by bitter criticism of Democratic-Republicans Wanted to show that no one was indispensable Farewell Address – urged No political parties Develop economy; solve domestic problems Don’t enter into foreign alliances (entangling) Stay out of Europe’s quarrels Instituted foreign policy of non-involvement

33 The Election of 1796 John Adams
The Federalists and the Jeffersonians competed for the presidency in the 1796 and 1800 elections Federalists v Jeffersonians Adams v Jefferson Winner 1796 –Federalists and Adams Jefferson was then selected as his Vice-President because he came in second! John Adams

34 John Adams 1797-1801 Ben Franklin said of Adams:
“always honest, often great” Helped write the Declaration of Independence Ambassador to England Washington’s Vice President First to live in the White House Wife – Abigail – wrote her many love letters Son – John Quincy Adams Devout Christian Vain, Stuffy, Overweight – often called “His Rotundy” Died July 4, 1826 – same day as Jefferson

35 The French are MAD!! French enraged by American foreign policy
Proclamation of Neutrality Jay Treaty with Britain The French withdrew their minister from Philadelphia; refused to receive the newly appointed U.S. Minister, Charles Pinckney. They then began to seize U.S. ships on the high seas bound for Britain. Federalists want war President Adams responded by sending three Americans to negotiate

36 XYZ Affair The resulting scandal became known as the XYZ Affair.
The Americans demanded that the French halt the practice of seizing ships Three anonymous French agents (X, Y, & Z) were sent by the French Prime Minister Tallyrand to demand a bribe from America This was common in 18th century Europe, but John Jay refused The resulting scandal became known as the XYZ Affair. Americans become strongly anti-French.


38 Undeclared Naval War Congress votes funds to build navy
1798 – Cabinet level navy department Captured 100 French vessels 1800 – Adams sent negotiator to France – controlled by Napoleon Agreed to end naval conflict and cancel 1778 treaty of alliance Adams lost popularity but restored peace

39 Naturalization Act Increased the number of years required for immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years. What party will be most hurt by this law?

40 Alien Act President gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S. considered dangerous to U.S. What about the land of liberty and opinion? Freedom of speech and assembly? Extremely unpopular among the Anti-Federalists

41 The Sedition Act Persons who wrote, published, or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be jailed or fined Anti-Federalists fumed after the law was signed by President Adams What happened to freedom of the press?

42 The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Jefferson, Madison, and others felt the Sedition Act violated free speech Legislatures of two states came up with “null and void” idea If we don’t agree with the Act in our state, we will not enforce or obey it A direct challenge to Federal superiority The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were later used as a basis for the creation of the Confederacy

43 In other words… Its all about Federal Superiority vs. States Rights
Should the states have the right to decide whether or not a federal statute is constitutional FOR THEM. Can they nullify a law if it is not agreeable to the state?? The states versus federal government question began in earnest!

44 The Federalist Party dies
Lost both executive and legislative branches in 1800 Federalist judicial appointments served for many years Most important – Chief Justice John Marshall appointed January 31, 1801 Never won another election Party died but ideas remained

45 Summary of Federalist Era
Fostered loose interpretation of Constitution Established national credit Created the court system Demonstrated ability of government to enforce laws Admitted three states Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee Kept nation out of war Instituted a foreign policy of isolation

46 Election of 1800 Jefferson versus Adams.. AGAIN!!
Nasty, personal attacks on each man’s character Jeffersonians called Adams an elitist and Tory Federalist newspapers claimed that the election of Jefferson would cause the "teaching of murder robbery, rape, adultery and incest". Sound more like politics today!

47 The Evolution of American Political Parties
The Anti-Federalists became known as the Republican-Democrats in 1800 Sometimes known as the Democratic Republicans or simply the Republicans Historians have given them the name, “Jeffersonians” to stop confusion with today’s Republican party FYI…The modern Democratic party actually can trace their roots to the Jeffersonians


49 The Confusing Results of 1800
Neither Adams or Jefferson received the necessary number of electoral votes Since no one had the majority of votes, and the election was turned over to the House of Representatives. The House deliberated from February 11th to February 17th Jefferson was selected on the 36th ballot!! Aaron Burr came in second and became the new VP

50 Transfer of Power in 1800 Americans disagreed peacefully
Diplomatic …no bloodshed The Constitution WORKED!!

51 Aaron Burr Jefferson’s greatest rivals were Alexander
Hamilton and Vice President Aaron Burr Jefferson saw Burr as a clear and present danger, and began a campaign to ruin his reputation "I never thought him an honest, frank-dealing man, but considered him as a crooked gun, or other perverted machine, whose aim or shot you could never be sure of." "A great man in little things, he is really small in great ones” Alexander Hamilton said of Aaron Burr as vice president, "He is an isolated man, totally without influence."

52 The Burr- Hamilton Duel
Hamilton then sarcastically questioned Burr's integrity. Sensing a chance to regain political honor, Burr demanded an apology. Hamilton refused on the grounds that he could not recall the instance. After an exchange of testy letters, and despite the attempts of mutual friends to avert a confrontation, a duel was scheduled for July 11, 1804 along the bank of the Hudson River beneath a rocky ledge in New Jersey


54 Hamilton Dies of His Wounds
The two men met at dawn Hamilton's shot was fired into the air away from Burr into the air. Burr fired at his opponent who was mortally wounded Hamilton died the next day The guns were selected by Hamilton and have a hair-trigger setting that may be switched on or off. Burr fled the state and returned to Washington as a fugitive to finish his term as Vice President!!

55 Thomas Jefferson 1801 -1808 First to be inaugurated in Washington
Self-taught architect – designed his home Inventor Letter copying machine 7 day clock Pocket doors Dumb waiter Spoke 7 languages Lawyer Deep abiding faith in the common people

56 Thomas Jefferson 1801 -1808 Founder of the University of Virginia
Author of the Declaration of Independence Governor of Virginia during the Revolution Ambassador to France Widower Wrote 50,000 letters Head and Heart Letter to wife

57 The 3rd President Views on Government
Democracy – ideal government that functions best in an agricultural society of small independent farmers Role of Government – limited favored popular education Careful protection of civil liberties Constitution – Strict Interpreter Supported loose interpretation when national welfare required it

58 Jefferson’s Policies Reverses some Federalists policies
All internal taxes eliminated Cut military spending and reduced national debt US Military Academy (West Point) 1802 Alien and Sedition Acts expire Replaced Federalists with Dem.-Repubs. Repealed Naturalization Act Repealed Judicial Act of 1801

59 Jefferson’s Policies Continued other Federalist Policies
Hamilton’s Financial Program Washington’s policy of non-involvement Move toward loose interpretation Louisiana Purchase

60 Louisiana Purchase Napoleon - purchased from Spain to create American Empire 1802 – suspended right of deposit Jefferson feared strong French presence would for US in alliance with Britain Sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to try to buy New Orleans and W. Florida from France

61 Louisiana Purchase - 1803 Napoleon sells entire territory
Needed money for war with Britain Rather sell than lose Slave in Hispaniola – didn’t need to feed them Monroe agrees to purchase for $15 million – 3 cents an acre!!

62 Was it legal? A big STRETCH
Purchasing land is not an expressed power in the Constitution Jefferson at first suggested a Constitutional amendment Solution: Constitution gives power to make treaties – A big STRETCH

63 Exploring Louisiana Wanted to learn about resources
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark Start in St. Louis, up Missouri River, across Rocky Mountains, reached Columbia River in Oregon Territory Indian guide - Sacajawea Zebulon Pike Looking for source of Mississippi River 2nd exploration into Rockies and Colorado Found Great American desert

64 Sacajawea

65 Significance of Purchase
Almost doubled size of the US Source of tremendous wealth Gave US control of Mississippi River and New Orleans Removed French influence in N. America Established precedent for future land purchases Moved Democratic-Republicans toward loose interpretation of Constitution

66 Napoleonic Wars 1803 – Britain and France fight again!
Fought for 12 years France supreme on land; Britain on sea “Tiger against the Shark” Stalemate on battlefield Economic Warfare Berlin and Milan Decrees – France tried to restrict trade with Britain; GB retailiates Orders in Council – to blockade trade with France Which is most effective?

67 Effect on the United States
Hampered our trade with Europe British seizing ships British impressing sailors Keep trying – profit made up for losses Chesapeake-Leopard Affair British captain demanded to search the Chesapeake; American captain refused British fired on ship; boarded it and took off 4 sailors – 3 American citizens 3 Americans killed; 18 wounded Americans demanded Jefferson take action; to avoid war had Congress pass . . .

68 Embargo Act Prohibited all exports to all foreign countries
Prohibited American ship from sailing into foreign ports Didn’t hurt France and Britain much Almost completely destroyed commerce in New England South and West lost foreign markets for farm produce Boomerang Effect  1809 repealed-Non-intercourse Act

69 Election of 1808 Federalist – Charles Pinckney
Little support Democratic-Republican – James Madison Father of Constitution Author of Federalist Papers Smallest president Wife – Dolly-served as hostess for Jefferson Dolly sold notes on Constitutional Convention for $30,000 Very extravagant Had not money left Daniel Webster bought groceries for her

70 Mr. Madison’s War Efforts at Peace War Hawks
3 years tried to protect American shipping War Hawks John Calhoun; Henry Clay Wanted war to acquire new territory in Canada and Florida Remove European powers from our borders 1812 – Declaration of war by Congress

71 Causes of the War of 1812 Britain’s seizure of American ships and impressment of American sailors American resentment of Britain dating back to the Revolution Believed British in Canada were inciting and arming Indians to attack American settlements American ambitions to annex Canada South and West – Favored war; Northeast – oppose to war

72 Military Events – War of 1812
Americans invades Canada – unsuccessful Britain invades US from Canada – unsuccessful Captain Oliver Perry – “We have met the enemy and they are ours.” British blockade our ports British invasion Chesapeake Bay – Washington DC captured Washington DC – Burned White House Ft. McHenry (Baltimore) Francis Scott Key – Star Spangled Banner

73 Ft. McHenry

74 No one; no land changed hands
Treaty of Ghent – Dec. 1814 Who won the war? No one; no land changed hands Treaty did not mention impressment of sailors but European war was over so not an issue any longer.

75 Battle of New Orleans – Jan. 1815
Biggest battle of war Fought one month after treaty signed Andrew Jackson – American commander British attempt to invade Southwest British – 8000 men American – 5400 men Casualties British Americans - 71 Only decisive battle Who won the war? We did!!

76 Results of the War of 1812 Strengthened isolation
Increased westward expansion Encouraged American industry Ended the Federalist Party – opposed war Hartford Convention Advocate states’ rights and nullification Wanted Constitutional amendment to require 2/3 majority to declare war, admit new states

77 Read Chapter 6!!!

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