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Constitution, Society, and Leadership Week 3 Unit 4 The Constitution in Historical Context: Ratification through the Civil War Christopher Dreisbach, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Constitution, Society, and Leadership Week 3 Unit 4 The Constitution in Historical Context: Ratification through the Civil War Christopher Dreisbach, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Constitution, Society, and Leadership Week 3 Unit 4 The Constitution in Historical Context: Ratification through the Civil War Christopher Dreisbach, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University 1

2  This Unit identifies key historical moments  Relevant to the Constitution  From Ratification  Through the Civil War  It has two main parts  To Form a More Prefect Union: Ratification through Monroe  Democracy and Dissent: Jackson through the Civil War 2

3  This section looks at some post-ratification events and people from ratification through Pres. Monroe’s administration.  It has the following subsections:  Ratification to the War of 1812  The War of 1812  Monroe and the “Age of Good Feeling” 3

4  Washington inaugurated April 30, 1789  Washington opposed formation of political parties. But ▪ Liberal democratic-republicans headed by Jefferson  Favors states’ rights over nationalism ▪ Conservative federalists headed by Hamilton and Adams  Favors nationalism over states’ rights  Whiskey Rebellion (1794) ▪ Congress levied federal Tax on corn liquor (1791) ▪ 1794—Pennsylvania farmers resist paying tax ▪ Put down by militia under Washington’s command  Washington the only U. S. to fight in combat while In office 4

5  John Adams becomes second president of the United States, 1797  THE XYZ Affair ▪ Under Pres. Adams, Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry go to France to ask for treaty on commerce ▪ Prime Minister Tallyrand’s agents insist on U.S. loaning France $12 million and giving Tallyrand $250,000 ▪ 4/3/98-Adams identifies French commissioners as X,Y,Z ▪ Congress publishes portfolio ▪ Leads to quasi-war (“Franco-American Quasi-war”) ▪ Hostilities end when French revolution ends in 1799 5

6  The Alien and Sedition Acts ▪ Naturalization Act (6/18/98): Requirement for citizenship raised from 5 to 14 years ▪ Alien Act (6/25/98): President can deport aliens he considers dangerous ▪ Alien Enemies Act (7/6/98): President can, in time of war, arrest, imprison, or deport subjects of enemy power. ▪ Sedition Act (7/14/98): Prohibits speech or assembly against government. ▪ Virginia and Kentucky (written by Madison and Jefferson, respectively) ▪ Oppose the acts as unconstitutional ▪ Jefferson: states can nullify unconstitutional acts of congress. ▪ The acts die. 6

7  Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary ▪ Ratified unanimously by U. S. Senate on June 7, 1797 ▪ Art. 11. “As the Government of the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion,—as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion, or tranquility, of Mussulmen,—and as the said States never entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mahometan nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries.” 7

8  Second Great Awakening (1796-1801)  Four factors ▪ Many U. S. religious leaders worried that the Constitution “opened the door to heresy, skepticism, and irreligion.” ▪ Christians still devoted to model of a state church ▪ French Revolution (1789)-violence against religion ▪ “The flood of settlers” 8

9  Major Revival Leaders in Kentucky and New England ▪ Revivals eventually joined into one country-wide phenomenon  Humanitarian Crusade of the 2 nd Great Awakening  Legacy-“Usher[s] in a period of Protestant Domination in US.” 9

10  Thomas Jefferson becomes third President of the United States, 1801  Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Marbury v. Madison ▪ Jefferson had refused to honor a number of judicial commissions that Pres. Adams had signed, but had not time to deliver ▪ Adams had hoped to load up the judiciary with Federalists 10

11 ▪ William Marbury expected to receive a commission as a DC justice of the peace ▪ Under the Judiciary Act of 1789, Marbury took his case directly to the U. S. Supreme Court ▪ Secretary of State James Madison was the respondent ▪ Chief Justice John Marshall ruled against Marbury ▪ Sympathized with him on moral grounds ▪ Claimed that the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional  Marbury should only have been bringing a case to the Supreme Court only on appeal of a lower court ruling 11

12 ▪ Marshall explained his ruling by claiming that the Constitution gives the Court final review of all legislative and executive action.  Controversy continues to this day concerning the power the court gave itself under this ruling  Other Events under Jefferson ▪ Louisiana Purchase, 1803 ▪ 90,000 sq. miles ; 4 cents per acre ▪ Doubled the size of the United States ▪ Purchased France’s claim: the land belonged to the Indians ▪ Authorizes Lewis and Clark expedition to map the land to the west of the United States, 1804-1806 12

13  Non-importation Act, 1806 ▪ Response to British seizure of U. S. ships in French ports and forcing American sailors to serve on British ships ▪ Followed by Embargo Act, 1807 ▪ This was meant to stave off war by economic action over military action ▪ This annoyed everyone, including Americans  1807, signs law banning the importation of slavery 13

14  James Madison becomes the fourth President of the United State, 1809  Great Britain at war with France ▪ Continue to impress U.S. sailors, in spite of Embargo Act of 1807 ▪ Also enlist the aid of American Indians hostile to the U.S.  Madison declares war on Great Britain, 1812 ▪ Maj. Gen. Robert Ross (UK) prevails in Maryland’s Battle of Bladensberg (8/24/14) ▪ Then marches into DC and burns capitol and White House ▪ Meets resistance at Fort McHenry  Francis Scot Key writes the Star Spangled Banner ▪ US Naval Capt. Thomas McDonough beats the British fleet in Lake Champlain (9/11/14) ▪ 12/24/14: TREATY OF GHENT signed: “status quo ante bellum” (  ”the utter futility of the war”)TREATY OF GHENT ▪ Once called “The Second War of Independence” 14

15  James Monroe elected fifth President of the United States, 1816 and 1820  A Federalist paper sarcastically calls his administration the “Era of Good Feelings”  Construction on the Erie Canal begins ▪ Connecting the Great Lakes with New York City ▪ Opens in 1825  7/27/1816; Under Gen. Andrew Jackson’s orders, Negro Fort attacked killing 300 slaves and 30 Seminoles. ▪ Seminole Chief Neamathla tells Gen. Gaines to get out ▪ Gaines attacks ▪ Chief escapes ▪ FIRST SEMINOLE WAR underway  1818: Rush-Bagot Agreement establishes U.S. border with Quebec  Convention of 1818 with Great Britain regarding the Oregon Territory  2/12/1819: The U. S. gets Florida from Spain  1821,23, 25: Indian treaties turn over more than 25 million acres of land. 15

16  1823 : MONROE DOCTRINE – ▪ 4 Principles ▪ Americas are not available for colonization ▪ Political systems of Americas ≠ Europe ▪ U.S. “would consider any interference by European powers in the Americas a direct threat to U.S. security.” ▪ U.S. “would not interfere with existing colonies, internal affairs of European nations, or European wars.” ▪ The first major step toward Americanism 16

17  Missouri Compromise, 1820 ▪ Allows Missouri to become a state and to have slaves ▪ Although no other state in the Louisiana Territory above the southern border of Missouri could have slaves  John Quincy Adams becomes 6 th president of the United States, 1825  Chosen by the House of Representatives over Andrew Jackson  July 4, 1826; Jefferson and Adams both die. 17

18  This section looks at some post-ratification events and people from the Jackson administration through the Civil War  It has the following subsections  The Jackson Administration  The Trail of Tears  Harrison, Tyler, Polk, and Taylor  Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny 18

19  Subsections (ctd)  Women’s Rights  Abolitionism  Technological Advances  Pierce, Buchanan, Lincoln  The Civil War 19

20  Andrew Jackson becomes 7 th President of the United States, 1829  Common man or King Andrew? ▪ Not from New England or Virginia: A “Westerner”  Brought greater degree of democracy to US government ▪ Most states abandoned land ownership as a requirement for voting.  Kills 2 nd Bank of US by withdrawing all federal deposits from the Bank ▪ Therefore: more credit available and more westward settlement  1828 Tariffs: North supports; South abhors ▪ Nov. 24, 1832: Southerners pass Ordinance of Nullification ▪ Compromise Tariffs, 1833 20

21  8/28/30: Indian Removal Act ▪ Exchanges western land to Indians in return for eastern lands  1832: The defiance of Black Hawk –resists white settlement in Illinois, but defeated.  1834: William Lloyd Garrison founds American Anti-slavery Society  12/29/35: TREATY OF ECHOTA—all Cherokees must move ▪ Osceola organizes Seminole and Red Stick Creek resistance against government-mandated removal from ▪ 1835-42: GUERRILLA Warfare: THE SECOND SEMINOLE WAR 21

22  2/23-3/6/1836: The Battle of the Alamo ▪ Santa Anna’s Mexican Army slaughters Texans at the Alamo Mission ▪ 4/21/1836: Vengeance-seeking Americans join the Texas Army ▪ Defeat the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto ▪ End the Mexican Revolution  1837: Nationalist Party of Cherokees protests land seizures to Supreme Court ▪ Justice John Marshall agrees: Georgia’s persecution of Indians is unconstitutional ▪ Jackson refuses to enforce: “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.” 22

23  Martin Van Buren becomes 8 th President of the United states, 1837  Trail of Tears 1838-39 (Cherokee name)  Forced relocation of many Indian nations to the West  Indian Territory: Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota region  Note: Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) reduced area of Indian territory ▪ Which is why so many Indians fought for the Confederates in the Civil War 23

24  William Henry Harrison becomes ninth President of the United States, 1841  Dies one month later  John Tyler becomes the 10 th President of the United States, 1841  The first to become President upon the death of the previous President  James K. Polk becomes 11 th President of the United States, 1845  Zachary Taylor becomes 12 th President of the United States, 1849  Dies about a year later 24

25  Manifest Destiny  Idea that America was destined to conquer and inhabit the land between the Atlantic Coast and the Pacific Coast  John L. Sullivan coined “ Manifest Destiny” in July-Aug. 1845 edition of The United States Magazine and Democratic Review John L. Sullivan coined “ Manifest Destiny” in July-Aug. 1845 edition of The United States Magazine and Democratic Review ▪ NY Post, 1845: “Manifest Destiny” (I CH. 18)  Tension between concept of American mission and concept of American imperialism ▪ Re: Promotion of Democracy 25

26  America’s sense of being the Millennial Nation ▪ 1830s: Lyman Beecher accepts Jonathan Edwards’ claim that the millennium would begin in America. ▪ Puritans understood that God did not choose Israel because of its goodness; ditto America ▪ Proponents of Manifest Destiny ▪ God chose U. S. because of its righteous stands on liberty and self-government ▪ Idea of covenant among the Puritans, BUT no covenant among the proponents of Manifest Destiny ▪ Inalienable rights belong to all people; but some people are more natural than others. ▪ European norms as backed by natural law: settled communities, roads, schools, books, parliaments, factories, Christianity  Native Americans had none of these ▪ Two characteristics of “NATURAL ORDER”  American ability  “Geographical predestination” ▪ Importance of settling, cultivating, and improving land 26

27  Westward Expansion  Annexation of Texas as the 28 th State, 1845 ▪ Leads to the Mexican –American War (1845-1848)  Mormon Trek (c. 1846)  Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) ▪ Established Kansas and Nebraska Territories ▪ Allowed each to decide whether to be free or slave ▪ Overturned the Missouri Compromise of 1820 ▪ Kansas admitted as Free state in 1861 ▪ Nebraska admitted as state after the Civil War, 1867 27

28  Homestead Act (1862) ▪ Allowed people to file for up to 160 acres of undeveloped federal land 28

29  Women’s Rights  1848: Women’s rights convention held in Seneca Falls, NY  Resulting Document: “Declaration of Rights and Sentiments: “Declaration of Rights and Sentiments: ▪ Lead author: Elizabeth Cady Stanton ▪ Based on the Declaration of Independence ▪ Signed by 68 women and 32 men 29

30  Abolitionism  Millard Fillmore becomes 13 th President of the United States, 1850 ▪ Signs the Compromise of 1850 which, among other things strengthens the Fugitive Slave Act  Underground railroad starts in 1820s ▪ Most active in 1850s and 1860s  1852: Frederick Douglass’ “What to the Slave is the 4 th of July?” “What to the Slave is the 4 th of July?” ▪ oration in Rochester, NY 30

31 ▪ 1857: Dred Scott v. SandfordDred Scott v. Sandford ▪ Dred Scott was a slave who lived for a time with his master in free federal territory  He claimed that this made him free  The estate of his deceased master disagreed  After a series of suits, the case was heard by the U.S. Supreme Court ▪ The Court ruled that  Slaves and their descendants were not U.S. citizens and therefore could not be protected by the Constitution  U.S. Congress could not prohibit slavery in the federal territories  Slaves, as property, could not be taken from their owners without due process ▪ Effectively overturned by the 14 th Amendment 31

32  Cyrus McCormack’s reaper (1834)  John Deere’s Plow (1837)  Morse Code (1844)  David Halliday’s windmill with a pivoting vane (1854)  The railroad (1828-1869) 32

33  Franklin Pierce becomes the 14 th President of the United States, 1853  James Buchanan becomes the 15 th President of the United States, 1857  Abraham Lincoln becomes the 16 th President of the United States 33

34  Civil War  Lincoln suspends habeas corpus: Congress passes a law allowing it during peace time.  Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861  North (23 states) population=22 million; South (11 states) population=9 million (incl. 3 million slaves)  Battle of Manassas (South) or First Bull Run (North), July 21, 1861 ▪ 2 nd battle of the war  Aug. 30, 1862: Second Battle of Bull Run—Union swept out of Virginia.  Perryville and Antietam: Lee sought too bold offensives; loses both 34

35  Emancipation Proclamation— Emancipation Proclamation ▪ Preliminary, Sept. 23, 1862; Final Jan. 1, 1863 ▪ Frees all slaves in Confederate States ▪ The proclamation did not include slave-holding states and territories under Union control, including Missouri Kentucky West Virginia Maryland Delaware Tennessee Parts of Virginia New Orleans and 13 other parishes in Louisiana 35

36  July 1-3, 1863: Battle of Gettysburg is the North’s first major victory  Vicksburg, Mississippi and Chattanooga, Tennessee ▪ Grant gets control of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg ▪ Grant and Gen. George H. Thomas take the Tennessee River at Chattanooga  Mar. 1864: Lincoln names Grant general in chief of all the union armies  Apr. 2, 1865: Lee evacuates Richmond ▪ Jefferson Davis and the rest of the Confederate government flee  April 14, 1865: Lincoln assassinated  April 26, 1865; Principal land campaign ends at Durham Station ▪ Lee had already surrendered the Army of Northern VA on April 19. (I 180)  WADE-DAVIS Bill—put off re-admission of southern states pending signing of loyalty oath.  13 th, 14 th, 15 th Amendments 36

37 Constitution, Society, and Leadership Week 3 Unit 4 The Constitution in Historical Context: Ratification through the Civil War Christopher Dreisbach, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University 37

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