2George Washington1st President of the United States (April 30, 1789 to March 3, 1797)Nickname: "Father of His CountryHighly respected around the world as a general and leader
3The First Cabinet Secretaries Secretary of StateJohn Jay then…Thomas JeffersonSecretary of the TreasuryAlexander HamiltonSecretary of WarHenry Knox
4Squabbling in the Cabinet… How Should the of Constitution be Interpreted???Federalists believed in…Loose construction of ConstitutionGovernment could do anything that was not forbiddenAnti-Federalists believed in…Strict construction of ConstitutionGovernment should not do anything unless specified
5Two Factions BornAlexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, as heads of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist groups respectively, are often considered 'fathers' of the modern party system.
6Whoops.. The New Government is Broke The war debt was enormous, and the creditors were demanding payment on the loans they had given during the warEuropean countries refused to trade with the US worried that they would not be reimbursed for products and services
7Hamilton’s Beliefs…Felt that government needed to direct the development of the American economyHad little faith in the peopleRemember…we’re the MOB!
8Hamilton’s Strategy Alexander Hamilton The new Secretary of the Treasury worried about the nation’s debt from the warHe wanted the national government to take over the states’ debt to European countries and banks and consolidate1 large debt instead of 13 smaller debts…All he had to do was convince the 13 states to take on each others debts!
9Other Hamilton's Ideas for $$ Get us out of DEBT by…1. Creating the Bank of United StatesHamilton thought the Bank would help centralize the debt, American finances, and investmentsDoes anyone remember an article, section in the Constitution concerning a National Bank??What was the Federalist position on this question??2. Placing taxes on domestic products, and place tariffs on foreign goods entering the countryHow are citizens going to feel about this one??
10The Whiskey RebellionCorn was not profitable as a crop until it was made into whiskeyWhiskey was also used as a kind of currency in certain states and regionsWhen Hamilton attempted to raise money through a tax on whiskey in 1794, Pennsylvania farmers took to armsThe army was called in by Washington to squash the rebellion
11War in Europe…Again!! Once again Great Britain and France were at war The Americans were uncertain of the position they should take..Side with the French?Side with the British?Keep America neutral?Americans were split as to which side to support.
12European Influences on the Federalists Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists were fans of Great Britain- and afraid of their navy!“Keep your friends close, but keep your enemies closer”He was afraid of the problems in France and the Reign of Terror-The people were considered “rabble” and sometimes referred to as “the mob”
13European Influences on the Anti-Federalists Thomas Jefferson and the Anti-Federalists were still fans of France, the country that had helped them during the Revolutionary WarDid not trust the British; thought we should help the French during the wasSaw the current problems in France as a true reaction by a real democracyJefferson thought there should be a revolution every 10 yearsTrue democracies were all about change and growthThrow the bums, out!
14Washington Decides… Washington declared neutrality in April 1793 The new country would not have to take sidesAngered the French who had sided with the Americans during the Revolution
15Washington’s Cabinet Breaks Up The Former Anti-Federalists became a faction within the Washington cabinetThomas Jefferson was the most influential opponent.He resigned his position as Sec. of State in opposition to the ideasMan of the people and states’ rightsStates’ rights advocates
16The Election of 1796 John Adams The Federalists and the Jeffersonians competed for the presidency in the 1796 and 1800 electionsFederalists v JeffersoniansAdams v JeffersonWinner 1796 –Federalists and AdamsJefferson was then selected as his Vice-President because he came in second!John Adams
17ImpressmentGreat Britain continued its practice of stopping American ships and searching them for “British citizens”.This resulted in the practice of impressment.This angered American traders and businessmen who were losing key personnel.Chief Justice John Jay was sent to GB to negotiate a treaty
18“Jay’s Treaty” Major Provisions The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American WestA commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and CanadaA commission to be established to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence.Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen.
19Reactions to “Jay’s Treaty” The paper on which "the treaty was written was called a piece of shame."Jay was accused of having betrayed his country by negotiating a servile treaty with Britain's monarch.Jay's name became the subject of punning toasts such as, "clipped wings and lame legs" and he was burned in effigy in many states.He claimed he could have walked the entire eastern seaboard at night and had his way illuminated by protesters burning him in effigy.
20Federalists…what were you thinking? But Congress ratified the treatyThe split between factions became larger and…A new party was born!!
21The French are MAD!!The French withdrew their minister from Philadelphia, refused to receive the newly appointed U.S. Minister, Charles Pinckney,They then began to seize U.S. ships on the high seas bound for Britain.President Adams responded by sending three Americans to negotiate
22XYZ Affair The resulting scandal became known as the XYZ Affair The Americans demanded that the French halt the practice of seizing shipsThree anonymous French agents (X, Y, & Z) were sent by the French Prime Minister Tallyrand to demand a bribe from AmericaThis was common in 18th century Europe, but John Jay refusedThe resulting scandal became known as the XYZ Affair
24Alien ActPresident gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S.What about the land of liberty and opinion?Freedom of speech and assembly?Extremely unpopular among the Anti-Federalists
25The Sedition ActPersons who wrote, published, or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be jailed or finedAnti-Federalists fumed after the law was signed by President AdamsWhat happened to freedom of the press?
26The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson, Madison, and others felt the Sedition Act violated free speechLegislatures of two states came up with “null and void” ideaIf we don’t agree with the Act in our state, we will not enforce or obey itA direct challenge to Federal superiorityThe Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were later used as a basis for the creation of the Confederacy
27In other words… Its all about Federal Superiority vs. States Rights Should the states have the right to decide whether or not a federal statute is constitutional FOR THEM.Can they nullify a law if it is not agreeable to the state??The states versus federal government question began in earnest!
28Election of 1800 Jefferson versus Adams.. AGAIN!! Nasty, personal attacks on each man’s characterJeffersonians called Adams an elitist and ToryFederalist newspapers claimed that the election of Jefferson would cause the "teaching of murder robbery, rape, adultery and incest".Sound more like politics today!
29The Evolution of American Political Parties The Anti-Federalists became known as the Republican-Democrats in 1800Sometimes known as the Democratic Republicans or simply the RepublicansHistorians have given them the name, “Jeffersonians” to stop confusion with today’s Republican partyFYI…The modern Democratic party actually can trace their roots to the Jeffersonians
31The Confusing Results of 1800 Neither Adams or Jefferson received the necessary number of electoral votesSince no one had the majority of votes, and the election was turned over to the House of Representatives.The House deliberated from February 11th to February 17thJefferson was selected on the 36th ballot!!Aaron Burr came in second and became the new VP
32Transfer of Power in 1800 Americans disagreed peacefully Diplomatic …no bloodshedThe Constitution WORKED!!
33Aaron Burr Jefferson’s greatest rivals were Alexander Hamilton and Vice President Aaron BurrJefferson saw Burr as a clear and present danger, and began a campaign to ruin his reputation"I never thought him an honest, frank-dealing man, but considered him as a crooked gun, or other perverted machine, whose aim or shot you could never be sure of.""A great man in little things, he is really small in great ones”Alexander Hamilton said of Aaron Burr as vice president,"He is an isolated man, totally without influence."
34The Burr- Hamilton Duel Hamilton then sarcastically questioned Burr's integrity.Sensing a chance to regain political honor, Burr demanded an apology.Hamilton refused on the grounds that he could not recall the instance.After an exchange of testy letters, and despite the attempts of mutual friends to avert a confrontation, a duel was scheduled for July 11, 1804 along the bank of the Hudson River beneath a rocky ledge in New Jersey
36Hamilton Dies of His Wounds The two men met at dawnHamilton's shot was fired into the air away from Burr into the air.Burr fired at his opponent who was mortally woundedHamilton died the next dayThe guns were selected by Hamilton and have a hair-trigger setting that may be switched on or off.He fled the state and returned to Washington as a fugitive to finish his term as Vice President!!
37The 3rd PresidentJefferson reversed much of what the Federalists had done, such as a formal presidential styleMuch less formal than GW – just call me Mr. President!!Very popular during his first termReduced taxesCut the bureaucracy