Presentation on theme: "HUSH Unit 3 America’s First Political Parties. George Washington 1st President of the United States (April 30, 1789 to March 3, 1797) Nickname: "Father."— Presentation transcript:
HUSH Unit 3 America’s First Political Parties
George Washington 1st President of the United States (April 30, 1789 to March 3, 1797) Nickname: "Father of His Country Highly respected around the world as a general and leader
The First Cabinet Secretaries Secretary of State John Jay then…Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War Henry Knox
Squabbling in the Cabinet… How Should the of Constitution be Interpreted??? Federalists believed in… Loose construction of Constitution Government could do anything that was not forbidden Anti-Federalists believed in… Strict construction of Constitution Government should not do anything unless specified
Two Factions Born Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, as heads of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist groups respectively, are often considered 'fathers' of the modern party system.
Whoops.. The New Government is Broke The war debt was enormous, and the creditors were demanding payment on the loans they had given during the war European countries refused to trade with the US worried that they would not be reimbursed for products and services
Hamilton’s Beliefs… Felt that government needed to direct the development of the American economy Had little faith in the people Remember…we’re the MOB!
Hamilton’s Strategy Alexander Hamilton The new Secretary of the Treasury worried about the nation’s debt from the war He wanted the national government to take over the states’ debt to European countries and banks and consolidate 1 large debt instead of 13 smaller debts… All he had to do was convince the 13 states to take on each others debts!
Other Hamilton's Ideas for $$ Get us out of DEBT by… 1. Creating the Bank of United States Hamilton thought the Bank would help centralize the debt, American finances, and investments Does anyone remember an article, section in the Constitution concerning a National Bank?? What was the Federalist position on this question?? 2. Placing taxes on domestic products, and place tariffs on foreign goods entering the country How are citizens going to feel about this one??
The Whiskey Rebellion Corn was not profitable as a crop until it was made into whiskey Whiskey was also used as a kind of currency in certain states and regions When Hamilton attempted to raise money through a tax on whiskey in 1794, Pennsylvania farmers took to arms The army was called in by Washington to squash the rebellion
War in Europe…Again!! Once again Great Britain and France were at war The Americans were uncertain of the position they should take.. Side with the French? Side with the British? Keep America neutral?
European Influences on the Federalists Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists were fans of Great Britain- and afraid of their navy! “Keep your friends close, but keep your enemies closer” He was afraid of the problems in France and the Reign of Terror- The people were considered “rabble” and sometimes referred to as “the mob”
European Influences on the Anti-Federalists Thomas Jefferson and the Anti-Federalists were still fans of France, the country that had helped them during the Revolutionary War Did not trust the British; thought we should help the French during the was Saw the current problems in France as a true reaction by a real democracy Jefferson thought there should be a revolution every 10 years True democracies were all about change and growth Throw the bums, out!
Washington Decides… Washington declared neutrality in April 1793 The new country would not have to take sides Angered the French who had sided with the Americans during the Revolution
Washington’s Cabinet Breaks Up The Former Anti-Federalists became a faction within the Washington cabinet Thomas Jefferson was the most influential opponent. He resigned his position as Sec. of State in opposition to the ideas Man of the people and states’ rights States’ rights advocates
The Election of 1796 The Federalists and the Jeffersonians competed for the presidency in the 1796 and 1800 elections Federalists v Jeffersonians Adams v Jefferson Winner 1796 –Federalists and Adams Jefferson was then selected as his Vice-President because he came in second!
Impressment Great Britain continued its practice of stopping American ships and searching them for “British citizens”. This resulted in the practice of impressment. This angered American traders and businessmen who were losing key personnel. Chief Justice John Jay was sent to GB to negotiate a treaty
“Jay’s Treaty” Major Provisions The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American West A commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and Canada A commission to be established to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence. Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen.
Reactions to “Jay’s Treaty” The paper on which "the treaty was written was called a piece of shame." Jay was accused of having betrayed his country by negotiating a servile treaty with Britain's monarch. Jay's name became the subject of punning toasts such as, "clipped wings and lame legs" and he was burned in effigy in many states. He claimed he could have walked the entire eastern seaboard at night and had his way illuminated by protesters burning him in effigy.
Federalists…what were you thinking? But Congress ratified the treaty The split between factions became larger and… A new party was born!!
The French are MAD!! The French withdrew their minister from Philadelphia, refused to receive the newly appointed U.S. Minister, Charles Pinckney, They then began to seize U.S. ships on the high seas bound for Britain. President Adams responded by sending three Americans to negotiate
XYZ Affair The Americans demanded that the French halt the practice of seizing ships Three anonymous French agents (X, Y, & Z) were sent by the French Prime Minister Tallyrand to demand a bribe from America This was common in 18 th century Europe, but John Jay refused The resulting scandal became known as the XYZ Affair
Alien Act President gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S. What about the land of liberty and opinion? Freedom of speech and assembly? Extremely unpopular among the Anti- Federalists
The Sedition Act Persons who wrote, published, or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be jailed or fined Anti-Federalists fumed after the law was signed by President Adams What happened to freedom of the press?
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson, Madison, and others felt the Sedition Act violated free speech Legislatures of two states came up with “null and void” idea If we don’t agree with the Act in our state, we will not enforce or obey it A direct challenge to Federal superiority The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were later used as a basis for the creation of the Confederacy
In other words… Its all about Federal Superiority vs. States Rights Should the states have the right to decide whether or not a federal statute is constitutional FOR THEM. Can they nullify a law if it is not agreeable to the state?? The states versus federal government question began in earnest!
Election of 1800 Jefferson versus Adams.. AGAIN!! Nasty, personal attacks on each man’s character Jeffersonians called Adams an elitist and Tory Federalist newspapers claimed that the election of Jefferson would cause the "teaching of murder robbery, rape, adultery and incest". Sound more like politics today!
The Evolution of American Political Parties The Anti-Federalists became known as the Republican-Democrats in 1800 Sometimes known as the Democratic Republicans or simply the Republicans Historians have given them the name, “Jeffersonians” to stop confusion with today’s Republican party FYI…The modern Democratic party actually can trace their roots to the Jeffersonians
The Confusing Results of 1800 Neither Adams or Jefferson received the necessary number of electoral votes Since no one had the majority of votes, and the election was turned over to the House of Representatives. The House deliberated from February 11th to February 17th Jefferson was selected on the 36 th ballot!! Aaron Burr came in second and became the new VP
Transfer of Power in 1800 Americans disagreed peacefully Diplomatic …no bloodshed The Constitution WORKED!!
Aaron Burr Jefferson’s greatest rivals were Alexander Hamilton and Vice President Aaron Burr Jefferson saw Burr as a clear and present danger, and began a campaign to ruin his reputation "I never thought him an honest, frank-dealing man, but considered him as a crooked gun, or other perverted machine, whose aim or shot you could never be sure of." "A great man in little things, he is really small in great ones” Alexander Hamilton said of Aaron Burr as vice president, "He is an isolated man, totally without influence."
The Burr- Hamilton Duel Hamilton then sarcastically questioned Burr's integrity. Sensing a chance to regain political honor, Burr demanded an apology. Hamilton refused on the grounds that he could not recall the instance. After an exchange of testy letters, and despite the attempts of mutual friends to avert a confrontation, a duel was scheduled for July 11, 1804 along the bank of the Hudson River beneath a rocky ledge in New Jersey
Hamilton Dies of His Wounds The two men met at dawn Hamilton's shot was fired into the air away from Burr into the air. Burr fired at his opponent who was mortally wounded Hamilton died the next day The guns were selected by Hamilton and have a hair-trigger setting that may be switched on or off. He fled the state and returned to Washington as a fugitive to finish his term as Vice President!!
The 3 rd President Jefferson reversed much of what the Federalists had done, such as a formal presidential style Much less formal than GW – just call me Mr. President!! Very popular during his first term Reduced taxes Cut the bureaucracy