Presentation on theme: "Absolutism. Monarchies Definition: a queen or king that inherits power Two Types - - Absolute Monarchy: no limit to the Queen or King’s power Limited."— Presentation transcript:
Monarchies Definition: a queen or king that inherits power Two Types - - Absolute Monarchy: no limit to the Queen or King’s power Limited Monarchy: Today most monarchies are one of two types of limited monarchies: Parliamentary Monarchy: Constitutional Monarchy: Two European countries in the 1700s were not absolute monarchies: the Dutch Netherlands & England England had a parliamentary monarchy with the House of Lords and House of Commons
Limits were placed on the monarchs power: 1215 Magna Carta King was bound to the law King could not collect taxes without consent of the Great Council Right to trial by jury** “No freeman shall be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way harmed—nor will we go upon or send upon him—save by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.”
1628 Petition of Right (four limits) King could not collect taxes or force loans without Parliament’s consent King could not imprison anyone without just cause** Troops could not be housed in a private home against the owner’s will** King could not declare martial law unless the country was at war
1689 English Bill of Rights No suspending of Parliament’s laws No levying of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament No interfering with a member’s freedom of speech in Parliament** No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances** No standing army to be kept in time of peace No posting of excessive bail in royal courts**
Four long-lasting dynasties where absolute monarchies took hold were: RUSSIA – Romanov (1613-1917) – 300 years AUSTRIA – Hapsburg (1273-1918) – 600 years PRUSSIA – Hohenzollern (1417-1919) – 500 years FRANCE – Bourbon (1589-1792, interrupted, 1814-1848) There was also one long-lasting dynasty that was NOT an absolute monarchy (it was a limited (parliamentary) monarchy: ENGLAND (Hanover, “Hanoverian”; today known as the Windsor dynasty)
The Enlightenment was preceded by a SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Francis Bacon Rene Descartes Isaac Newton Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey Robert Hooke Benjamin Franklin Robert Boyle, Joseph Priestly, Antoine & Marie Lavoisier Their significance was to begin to question past assumptions and apply logic and REASON to scientific knowledge. Enlightened thinkers (philosophes) began to apply REASON to political and economic thought too.
Major Ideas: Reason – (Voltaire considered this also the absence of intolerance, bigotry, or prejudice in one’s thinking) Nature – there were natural laws, what is natural was also good and reasonable Happiness – they did not accept the medieval idea that people should accept misery in this world to find joy in the hereafter, they expected well-being on Earth Progress – now that people used a scientific approach, society and humankind could be perfected Liberty – through reason, the philosophes believed society could be free, they envied the liberties that the English people had
Agree/Disagree Mankind is naturally selfish. People are born given “natural rights” of life, liberty and property. The only way to protect people from injuring each other is to give all power and strength to one person. When there is not a Power (government) to keep men under control they will go to war with each other. What all men know is derived from their experience. Men have the power to reason. The human mind at birth is a blank slate.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) English philosopher, scientist and political theorist. Leviathan The natural state of humans is to be constantly at war with each other. People’s lives are “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Out of man’s selfish interest, not to be killed, man delegates total power to a monarch. If people rebel against the state, they deserve whatever punishment the monarch gives them b/c they have broken society’s basic contract. This is so they are protected from acting out their natural state. Absolute monarchy is the best form of government.
John Locke (1632-1704) English philosopher and political theorist Two Treatises of Government The state/government exists to preserve the natural rights (of life, liberty and property) of its citizens. When the government fails to preserve those rights, the citizens have the right, even the duty, to withdraw their support and rebel. An individual who breaks the law (breaks the social contract) may lose his liberty, property or even his life. *Locke’s theory benefited the elite better than the masses b/c of his emphasis on property.
Hobbes/Locke? Mankind is naturally selfish. Hobbes People are born given “natural rights” of life, liberty and property. Locke The only way to protect people from injuring each other is to give all power and strength to one person. Hobbes When there is not a Power (government) to keep men under control they will go to war with each other. Hobbes What all men know is derived from their experience. Locke Men have the power to reason. Locke The human mind at birth is a blank slate. Locke
Agree/Disagree? Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains. The conservation of liberty depends on the separation and balance of powers: executive, legislative and judicial. Man was originally good but had been corrupted by society. Man needs to put the interests of the community before his own. Freedom means doing what one ought, now what one wants.
Baron de Montesquieu (1688-1755) French political theorist. He spent two years in London. On the Spirit of Laws Political liberty is the absence of one dominating power in the state. The conservation of liberty depends on the separation and balance of powers: executive, legislative and judicial. If a single power controls all 3 functions then the state lives under despotism.
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Political theorist. Born in Switzerland but spend his adult life in France. The Social Contract Rousseau felt that one of the illnesses of modern civilizations was - - society - - that man was originally good but had been corrupted by society. The social arrangement involves consent, participation and subordination of individual self-interest to the commonwealth. Trusts the ability of the people to make good decisions. Man needs to put the interests of the community before his own. Freedom means doing what one ought, not what one wants. This is a struggle between one’s conscience and the individual’s passion, appetite and self-interest. He differed from Locke b/c Locke thought the only purpose of gov’t was to protect natural rights but Rousseau said gov’t must go further and carry out the interests of the community.
Montesquieu/Rousseau? Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains. Rousseau The conservation of liberty depends on the separation and balance of powers: executive, legislative and judicial. Montesquieu Man was originally good but had been corrupted by society. Rousseau Man needs to put the interests of the community before his own. Rousseau Freedom means doing what one ought, now what one wants. Rousseau
Agree/Disagree? This is the best of all possible worlds.
Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire) (1694- 1778) Sickly as a child and throughout his life, frequently said he was dying but lived until age 84 Imprisoned twice in the Bastille (criticized the French gov’t and the Christian religion) Spent some time in Britain between prison stays, read Locke Citizen of the world Spent three years at Frederick the Great’s palace in Prussia, until they irritated each other Wrote Candide in 3 days Frequently ended his letters with “Ecrasez I’infame!” “Crush the infamous thing!” became the battle cry of enlightened thinkers What government was most admired by Voltaire, Montesquieu, etc.?
Enlightened Despots - Reading Absolute ruler who embraced the Enlightenment, but was not willing to give up their power 1) favored religious tolerance 2) made economic and legal reforms 3) justify his/her reign based on usefulness rather than divine right Frederick II of Prussia: called himself “the first servant of the state,” invited Voltaire to come to Prussia, granted religious freedom to Catholics and Protestants, but discriminated against Polish and Prussian Jews, reduced (but did not abolish torture), acknowledged serfdom was wrong, but didn’t end it b/c he needed the support of landowners
Exploration Terminology: Joint Stock Companies: organizations that sold stock or shares, in the venture, enabling large and small investors to share the profits and risks of a trading voyage. Examples: Dutch East India Company; Dutch West India Company; (later-1700 and 1800s) British East India Company; French East India Company Mercantilism: economic system that believed: a nation’s real wealth was measured in its gold and silver treasure To build up gold and silver, a nation needed to export more than it imported Overseas colonies existed for the benefit of the “mother country”
Social Classes Peninsulares = people born in Spain Highest positions in colonial government and Catholic Church Creoles = American-born descendants of Spanish settlers Owned most plantations, ranches and mines Mestizos = Native American + European Mulattoes = African + European Lowest class = African + Native American (zambos)
Castas http://faculty.smu.edu/bakewell/BAKEWELL/thinkshee ts/castas.html http://faculty.smu.edu/bakewell/BAKEWELL/thinkshee ts/castas.html The idea that the Spanish and Portuguese focus so much on COLOR – trying to breed out black and, even more so, Indian blood - - focus is on trying to get as white as you can
Due to the high death rate from smallpox, etc. labor shortages were acute. Several systems were attempted to bring in laborers: Encomienda system: began as a response to the shortage of Spanish workers in the Americas. Native Americans worked and the Spanish settlers agreed to look after workers’ health and welfare and their “souls” by converting them to Christianity Mita System: forced villages to supply a quota of workers Debt peonage: Spanish settlers agreed to give loans for seed, tools, etc. in exchange for labor but they kept wages so low, the loans would never get paid off Indentured servitude: Europeans would pay the trans-Atlantic passage if the person agreed to work for a set number of years (4-7 years) Slavery
Columbian Exchange Positive Central America got horses, cows, chickens, pigs, sheep, goats, donkeys, oxen, wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice, oranges, apples, bananas, apricots, peaches, pears, coffee, sugar cane, and olives Europeans got corn, potatoes, kidney beans, lima beans, squash, avocados, pineapples, melons, tobacco, quinine, and cacao
Negative Disease: smallpox, measles, influenza In 1492, there were 250,000 Indians in Hispaniola. Seventy years later: 500 Slave Trade: At least 10 million African slaves reached the Americas over a 400-year period Triangular Trade Came over on a ship called a slaver. “Middle Passage” lasted 10 or more weeks One out of five died on the journey (some estimates are 15-25 of every 100) by suffocation or disease “Sharks routinely trailed the slave ships, enticed by the large number of dead or dying Africans who were tossed overboard during the Middle Passage.”