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WWI: Conscription Crisis and the War at Home. Financing the War Money was needed to train, transport, feed, equip, and pay soldiers, and to build ships,

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Presentation on theme: "WWI: Conscription Crisis and the War at Home. Financing the War Money was needed to train, transport, feed, equip, and pay soldiers, and to build ships,"— Presentation transcript:

1 WWI: Conscription Crisis and the War at Home

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3 Financing the War Money was needed to train, transport, feed, equip, and pay soldiers, and to build ships, armored vehicles, airplanes and weapons Money was needed to train, transport, feed, equip, and pay soldiers, and to build ships, armored vehicles, airplanes and weapons At its height, the war effort was costing the government about $1 million a day At its height, the war effort was costing the government about $1 million a day

4 The Answer? #1: WAR LOANS– selling gov’t bonds to investors #1: WAR LOANS– selling gov’t bonds to investors “Victory Bonds” – strong response “Victory Bonds” – strong response People “loaned” money to gov’t by buying bonds; people earned interest and made money on them in the long term. People “loaned” money to gov’t by buying bonds; people earned interest and made money on them in the long term. #2: INCOME TAX – Canadians were assured that paying tax would end the war #2: INCOME TAX – Canadians were assured that paying tax would end the war Never rescinded this tax Never rescinded this tax

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6 Women’s Changing Roles Work for women restricted to low-paying jobs such as teaching, domestic work, and low-skilled factory work Work for women restricted to low-paying jobs such as teaching, domestic work, and low-skilled factory work As men went off to war, more women were needed in the workforce (but less pay) As men went off to war, more women were needed in the workforce (but less pay) Jobs were considered to be temporary only Jobs were considered to be temporary only

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8 War Measures Act Gave the Federal Government sweeping powers to pass laws without the approval of Parliament while Canada was at war Gave the Federal Government sweeping powers to pass laws without the approval of Parliament while Canada was at war The gov’t could overrule provincial laws, censor the news media, tell manufacturers and farmers what they must produce, imprison people without trial, and label some people enemies of Canada The gov’t could overrule provincial laws, censor the news media, tell manufacturers and farmers what they must produce, imprison people without trial, and label some people enemies of Canada

9 Enemy Aliens Before WW1, the Canadian gov’t campaigned to attract immigrants from Europe Before WW1, the Canadian gov’t campaigned to attract immigrants from Europe By 1914, more than a million people from German and Austria-Hungarian Empires lived in Canada By 1914, more than a million people from German and Austria-Hungarian Empires lived in Canada Gov’t used War Measures Act to label more than people ENEMY ALIENS Gov’t used War Measures Act to label more than people ENEMY ALIENS

10 Consequences of Being an Enemy Alien Forced to carry identification cards and report regularly to authorities Forced to carry identification cards and report regularly to authorities Not allowed to publish or read anything in a language other than French or English Not allowed to publish or read anything in a language other than French or English Could not leave the country without permission Could not leave the country without permission Placed in internment camps where they were forced to build roads and railways, work in mines, and clear land Placed in internment camps where they were forced to build roads and railways, work in mines, and clear land

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12 What is Conscription? What is Conscription? What is Conscription? Compulsory military service Compulsory military service by 1917 Canada was running out of volunteers. by 1917 Canada was running out of volunteers. Enlistment was less than the casualty rate. Enlistment was less than the casualty rate. PM Borden went to Britain and France to see the situation. PM Borden went to Britain and France to see the situation. He visited the wounded in hospitals. He visited the wounded in hospitals. wounded men were patched up and sent back to the front. wounded men were patched up and sent back to the front.

13 Enlistments (1917) Casualties (1917)

14 What to do? Borden realized we needed to have conscription (i.e. the draft) to keep the army going and win the war. Borden realized we needed to have conscription (i.e. the draft) to keep the army going and win the war. Laurier, leader of the opposition, was strongly opposed. Laurier, leader of the opposition, was strongly opposed. Fr Cdns objected to conscription. Fr Cdns objected to conscription. There were riots in Montreal. Troops fired on the crowd. There were riots in Montreal. Troops fired on the crowd. Borden wanted to push for conscription. Borden wanted to push for conscription. The drafting of all men between 19 and 45. Some were exempt, e.g. farmers, war workers, miners, injured, etc.. The drafting of all men between 19 and 45. Some were exempt, e.g. farmers, war workers, miners, injured, etc..

15 The Answer? the issue split the Liberal Party. Eng Cdn Liberals left Laurier, joined Borden in a “Union Govt”. the issue split the Liberal Party. Eng Cdn Liberals left Laurier, joined Borden in a “Union Govt”. election of 1917 fought on issue of Conscription. election of 1917 fought on issue of Conscription. Borden passed the Military Voters Act. It Borden passed the Military Voters Act. It a. Gave the vote to women who were wives, sisters or mothers of a soldier. a. Gave the vote to women who were wives, sisters or mothers of a soldier. b. Allowed soldiers at the front to vote (the govt decided which riding votes would go to). b. Allowed soldiers at the front to vote (the govt decided which riding votes would go to). c. Removed the vote from enemy aliens. c. Removed the vote from enemy aliens.

16 What happened… The women voted for Borden, they wanted their families to survive. The women voted for Borden, they wanted their families to survive. The Soldier voted for Borden, they wanted more help. Their votes were used selectively to win key ridings. The Soldier voted for Borden, they wanted more help. Their votes were used selectively to win key ridings. The new immigrants lost their votes, they were traditional Liberal voters. The new immigrants lost their votes, they were traditional Liberal voters. Borden won the election. Borden won the election. Canada was divided. Canada was divided. in the end, only 24,000 conscripts went to the front. in the end, only 24,000 conscripts went to the front.

17 Registration and Aboriginal People Aboriginal people were exempt from conscription, but they were not exempt from the law requiring men to register Aboriginal people were exempt from conscription, but they were not exempt from the law requiring men to register No such thing as Canadian Citizenship at the time (still under Britain) and there was no other option on the form except to say you were British by birth or choice No such thing as Canadian Citizenship at the time (still under Britain) and there was no other option on the form except to say you were British by birth or choice Aboriginal men refused to register Aboriginal men refused to register

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