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A New Nation. America Emerging 1789: Population doubling every 25 years Weak Militarily, Economically, in National Unity, but strength in political leadership…

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Presentation on theme: "A New Nation. America Emerging 1789: Population doubling every 25 years Weak Militarily, Economically, in National Unity, but strength in political leadership…"— Presentation transcript:

1 A New Nation

2 America Emerging 1789: Population doubling every 25 years Weak Militarily, Economically, in National Unity, but strength in political leadership… – Starts at the top…

3 Washington’s Cabinet Washington: 1 st in war, 1 st in peace, 1 st in the heart of his countrymen Establishing the Cabinet (Informal Amendment): – Alexander Hamilton: Secretary of Treasury – Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State – Henry Know: Secretary of War Judiciary Act of 1789 – Estbl. Structure of Supreme Ct. 1 Chief Justice; 5 Assoc. Justices…how many today? – Established Federal District Courts and Courts of Appeals

4 Team of Rivals Alexander Hamilton – Co-Author of the Federalist Papers – Favor rule by Aristocracy – Believe British Government the “Best in the World” – Favored a strong central government with a weak legislature – Imperial Presidency – Loose constructionist

5 Hamilton’s Economic Plan Assume State Debts…why? – Increase their connection to central government – National Debt will make it so those who loan govt. $ have vested stake in success of the government – National/state debts amount to $75 million Promote Trade Tariffs – Use revenues to fund the government – Protect infant, emerging industry in U.S. – Faced strong opposition: Agricultural and commercial interests…tariffs remain low

6 Hamilton’s Economic Plan Government Revenue – Tariffs – Excise Tax Whiskey Tax: 7 cents/gallon Whiskey Rebellion Customs agents assaulted in SW Pennsylvania in 1794 in anger over excise tax Washington mobilizes multi-state militia…rebellion disperses… Washington pardons individuals who were caught Rebellion was miniscule, but significant: Washington government was strengthened and commanded new respect

7 Hamilton’s Economic Plan Capstone of Hamilton’s Plan: National Bank – Modeled on Bank of England – Private Bank…but US Government major stockholder – Hamilton’s Case: – Treasury place to deposit its surplus monies – Allow federal funds to stimulate business by remaining in circulation – Establish stable currency – Debate over Constitutionality – Hamilton’s Case – Loose Constructionist – Elastic Clause/Necessary and Proper Clause – Constitutionality… Hamilton cites Elastic Clause…loose construction – Support came from industrial north

8 Opposition to the National Bank Team of Rivals Stiffest opposition came from fellow Cabinet member Thomas Jefferson & James Madison Strict Constructionist Nothing in Constitution provides for bank… 10 th Amendment Large opposition from agrarian South National Bank Passed by Congress Impact – Overnight country got sound credit rating… – Borrow needed funds from Dutch on favorable terms

9 The Birth of Political Parties Impact of National Bank Feud between Hamilton and Jefferson turns into all out bitter political rivalry Factions v. Political Parties Faction: – Federalist/Anti-Federalists – Spring up over special issues but then faded away when their cause triumphed or fizzled – Political Parties: – Permanent institutions – Attempt to control government through winning of elections – Jefferson & Madison opposition to Hamilton’s economic plan gave birth to the two-party system in America Jefferson’s Democratic Republicans v. Hamilton’s Federalists

10 Two Party System Parties Divide over Foreign Affairs: French Revolution – Democratic Rep. support French Revolution – Stronger support for lower classes – Federalists weary of French Rev…why? – Aristocracy…fearing own class insurrections limiting their power? French Revolution becomes World Affair… – Dem.-Rep. favor honoring Franco-American Alliance of 1778…U.S. would help defend Fr. West Indies – Federalists weary of war with British Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 – Washington Issues as war b/n FR and Brit. Breaks out…breaks alliance with French…why? – Why wasn’t continuing alliance with France in best interests of U.S.? – Proves the adage: “Self interest is the cement of all alliances”…

11 Rising Conflict with Britain Britain Pushes American Neutrality – Block American trade with French Indies, disrespecting American neutrality – Seize American Merchant Ships and Impress American Sailors – Continued British occupation of outposts on America’s northern border…contrary to Treaty of Paris (1783) – Canadian-Maine Boundary Dispute Jay’s Treaty – Hamilton’s Sabotage…and public disapproval… – Why does Washington enforce treaty such a bad treaty? Buying America Valuable Time…Why? America too weak economically, militarily…but won’t be for long – Angers French…Scares Spanish

12 Washington’s Foreign Policy (Misc.) Pinckney’s Treaty – Spain gave up all land east of the Mississippi (except Florida) – Opened the Mississippi R. to American traffic Impact: Spread population west of Appalachians Treaty of Greenville – Ceded large amounts of Indian land to America – Sets precedent for acquiring Indian lands…removing Indians in the way of American growth…breaking treaties

13 Washington’s Farewell Address "It serves to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the Public Administration....agitates the Community with ill- founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one....against another” -- G.W. What was Washington’s Major Warnings? – No Political Parties; No Foreign Alliances – Why?

14 John Adams’ Administration John Adams – Great Founding Father…poor politician – Opposition to Adams Hamilton: Leads opposition…Hawks Jefferson: Vice President…Former Friend turned Political Foe – XYZ affair French Anger w/ Jay’s Treaty leads to seizure of Amer. Merchant Ships Tensions with French Rise Federalist Hawks Call for Build-Up of military Quasi-War Adams to Chagrin of Hamilton/Federalists Negotiates Peaceful End…Why Adams hope to avoid war?

15 John Adams’ Administration Alien and Sedition Acts – Adds Fuel to the Opposition/Two Party System – Alien Laws: Increased the residency requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years, Authorized the president to imprison or deport immigrants considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the U.S.“ – Why Target Immigrants? – Vote Democrat (lower class) – Sedition Act: Restricted speech critical of the government…why? – Which Amendment does this conflict with? Also illustrates importance of Sup. Ct. make-up

16 States Rights v. Federal Power: Conflict in Federalism Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – A Response to the Alien and Sedition Acts Drafted by Jefferson & Madison Argued Federal government had exceeded its authority States the right to nullify any federal law they felt the government didn't have the right to make. Why were the VA/KY Resolutions so significant? – Concept of Nullification Introduced which states would later use during threats of secession – Do States have this right?...This was before Judicial Review which would not come about until 1803 Marbury v. Madison

17 Modern Day Conflicts in Federalism Voter ID Laws – ssing-the-vote ssing-the-vote Marriage Equality

18 Election of 1800 Federalists Rule by the best people Powerful central govt. at expense of states Loose constructionists Protective tariff Govt. promotes business National debt as a tool Central bank Military expansion Democratic Republicans Rule by informed masses Weak central govt./strong state govt. Strict constructionist No special favors for business, promote agriculture Slash debt Encourage state banks Minimize army/navy

19 Election of 1800: The Original “Real Housewives” or “Love and Hip-Hop” Brutal Election between two former friends turned rivals… – John Adams (Federalist, President) v. Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican, VP) – Divisions between the two worsened by the Alien and Sedition Acts Dirty Campaign: – Jefferson calls Adams a "hideous hermaphroditical character, which has neither the force and firmness of a man, nor the gentleness and sensibility of a woman." – Adams Administration spreads rumor that Jefferson “had died” 3/5 Compromise plays a deciding factor…how? – Boost to Southern Electoral Vote…who would this benefit? Why? o Daily Show: Richard Brookhiser Interview Daily Show: Richard Brookhiser Interview

20 Election of 1800 Outcome: – Jefferson wins presidency; defeats John Adams – Election further solidifies 2 Party System: Federalists v. Democratic Republicans – Despite Washington’s warning, was the formation of political parties inevitable? Federalists (Hamilton/Adams) – Favor strong central government; a national bank; protective tariffs – Economic power = National power Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson) – Limits on Federal Government; protect states rights Significance: – 1 st peaceful transfer of power – 12 th Amendment – Impact of Adams court appointments John Marshall


22 Election of 1800 election of 1800 (Hamilton decides it) Midnight judges

23 Jefferson – election of 1800 (Hamilton decides it) – reduced the size of the army – eliminated internal taxes – reduced influence of the national bank – Marbury vs. Madison (judicial review) – Louisiana Purchase – Lewis and Clark – British Orders in Council- closed European ports unless through England first – Embargo Act 1807 – Non-Intercourse Act (exclude England and France)

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