Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary Colonialism- the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people. Nationalism- The belief."— Presentation transcript:
Vocabulary Colonialism- the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people. Nationalism- The belief that people should be loyal to those with whom they share common history, customs, origins, and sometimes language or religion. People who share these things often think of themselves as a distinct nation.
Under Colonialism Many Indians felt as they were being treated as second-class citizens British citizens living in India were given better jobs and education as well as positions of authority Indians living under British rule were deprived opportunities to succeed in their own countries
Under Colonialism British East India Company- wanted to exploit trade with East Asia, Southeast Asia, and India Sepoy Rebellion (1857) [Sepoy was an Indian soldier in the British army] Large numbers of Sepoys mutinied against the British army In 1858, the British government took direct command over India. By 1873, the company had lost its power.
Groups Advocating the Rights of Indians Indian National Congress Founded in 1885 Attracted mainly Indian Hindus Muslim League Founded in 1906 Attracted Indians who followed Islam Lucknow Pact (1916) Alliance between the 2 groups
Start of Nationalism Years of contact with the British taught the Indians about the Western ideas of Democracy and Self-Government Indians joined the British during World War I, hoping to be rewarded with more control of their government Britain promised India they would help them work toward self-government
Leaders of Indian Independence Mohandas K. Gandhi. believed in nonviolent resistance as well as a full boycott on all things British (including goods, schools and universities, and courts) Civil disobedience- breaking unfair laws using non-violence Marches Speeches Protests Media Fasting
Rowlatt Act (1919) Passed during WWI to control the public Effectively authorized the government to imprison, without trial, any person suspected of terrorism Protestors and anyone who spoke out against the government was arrested without trial for up to 2 years.
Amritsar Massacre (1919) Peaceful gathering of men, women, and children in a garden area in Amritsar for a religious celebration British soldiers fired on the crowd claiming they were there illegally About 400 deaths and more than 200 wounded. United the country against the British
Amritsar Massacre (1919) "The incident in Jallian Wala Bagh was an extraordinary event, a monstrous event, an event which stands in singular and sinister isolation". Winston Churchill
When the British finally agreed to grant India its independence, the cooperation between the Indian Hindus and Indian Muslims began to diminish The Muslim League called for a separate country for the Muslim minority The British agreed it would be best to divide the country based on the concentration of Hindus and Muslims Partition of India
The country was divided into 3 parts, creating two new countries: East & West Pakistan
Indian Independence August 15th, 1947 India gained its freedom from British colonial rule and became an independent nation
Explain the role of Nationalism that led to India’s independence. Include the following in your summary: Role of colonialism Gandhi and Non-violence Rowlett Act Amritsar Massacre Partition of India