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WWI Notes 7: Total War and the Homefront World Wars Ms. Hamer March 2-3, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "WWI Notes 7: Total War and the Homefront World Wars Ms. Hamer March 2-3, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 WWI Notes 7: Total War and the Homefront World Wars Ms. Hamer March 2-3, 2010

2 Definitions Total War: When the entire population is working for the war, whether as a soldier or on the homefront Homefront: NOT A BATTLEFIELD; home country where civilians and the government are working to help the war effort

3 Total War

4 Growth of the War State Neither side had planned for the economic impact of the war Shell shortages occurred very quickly after the start of the war New model of state power to allow total war and victory –Different from the idea of a limited state that had come before –Large state that had more control would come out of WWI

5 Managing People The War State was brought on by the need to provision HUGE armies Homefront would become important –Needed workers to make war goods –Had to provide for those who lost providers in the war Separation Allowance: stipend or subsidy for those who had lost the bread winner in the family to maintain economic livelihood

6 Unions In Europe, unions were brought into the war effort –Unions would pledge not to strike and in exchange would be given a voice in planning In America unions would pledge not to strike for the duration of the war

7 Daylight Savings Time Germany England – 1917 United States – 1918 Would make sunset later in the summer to allow for more work and energy efficiency

8 Different Models of Total War

9 Germany - Economic Control Economically unprepared for the war Coordinated by the War Raw Materials Board –All the way down to the Imperial Potato Office! Smaller businesses were pushed aside in favor of “more efficient” larger businesses Hindenburg Plan (1916): all men were drafted for jobs important to the war –Also used forced labor from Belgium and Poland

10 Germany – State Control Military commanders given control over regions Led to “Silent Dictatorship” of Hindenburg and Ludendorff after 1916 Tried for centralized control, but was not always effective or efficient and civilian needs were often cast aside

11 Great Britain – Economic and State Control Theory was that business as usual would continue, but it really needed to be reorganized July 1915 Ministry of Munitions established under David Lloyd George (the Welsh Wizard) and would reorganize the British war effort –Staff of 65,000 –Pub closing times were instated to make sure workers weren’t out too late David Lloyd George would become Prime Minister of England in 1916

12 Great Britain – Economic and State Control II Defense of the Realm Act (DORA) August 8, 1914: British government could suppress public criticism, imprison without trial, and commandeer economic resources Rationing of sugar and meat began in January 1918 to ensure supply and prevent panic –No reduced consumption levels occurred in England in WWI Women were encouraged to become agricultural workers to keep up the supply of food

13 Great Britain – Military Control Shaped by liberal traditions – no draft initially Lord Horatio Kitchener was made Secretary of State for War Kitchener made the New Army to replace the BEF (which had been crushed in the first battles) –Created the Pal’s Battalions to encourage friends to join together Conscription began January 1916

14 France – Economic Issues Less successful in industrial expansion than other war countries, but France was spared the food shortages –Because the Germans had occupied France’s industrial area After occupation France lost 75% of coal production and 80% of steel making Agriculture stayed strong and fed the population and military

15 France – Military and Political Control In the first 16 months of the war, France experienced half of its wartime casualties with more than 600,000 killed Civil and military officials struggled over who would control the war effort French army mutinies in 1917 caused extensive reorganization under civilian leadership under the new premier Georges Clemenceau (similar to David Lloyd George in England)

16 America – Military and Political Control George Creel -Committee on Public Information –Managed propaganda – posters, newsreels, 4-minute men Opposition to the war was suppressed by government agencies and private vigilante groups like the American Protective League

17 America – Economic and Social Changes Some women moved into factory work Requested conservation instead of rationing: –Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays, and Gasless Sundays Great Migration: –1.3 million African Americans moved out of the South into the North, Midwest, and West from –Inspired by the opening of service jobs during WWI Halt to most immigration during this time

18 Less Successful Cases of War Reorganization Often because they were more authoritative and conservative governments and less industrialized countries

19 Russia Could only arm about ¼ of their troops –Other soldiers would have to wait until the armed die and then pick up guns Tsar Nicholas II took over military command in 1915 –Mistake because he was personally responsible 1917 – 76% of Russia's industrial base was devoted to war production, but this still wasn't enough Russia also faced the burden of the refugees from Western Russia

20 Austria-Hungary Emperor Franz Joseph died in November 1916 – succeeded by his grandson, Emperor Karl I –Hard for Austria Hungary to bear the loss of this leader Emperor Karl I reconvened the previously closed parliament –This didn’t work because parliament immediately fell to renewed ethnic conflicts Austria Hungary could not hold itself together or work to support its war effort

21 Effects of Total War

22 Liabilities of War Economy Massive Inflation War Loan Drives were a way to soak up extra currency The combination of inflation and the changing valuation of jobs created social anxiety Illegal black market developed for food –Weakened people’s trust in the government

23 Outcomes of Total War Used to be that countries like England and France had a liberal, non-interfering government Now government was supposed to be involved in the running of the state Increased prestige for ideas of collectivism and of states providing for society at large Democratic states were more efficient in this practice

24 Propaganda

25 Use of Propaganda in Total War One of the most effective ways that countries encouraged their citizens to support the war was through propaganda. –Kitchener (England) and Creel (USA) were some of the most effective masters of propaganda, but all countries used forms of it to help the war effort Propaganda is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people Propaganda is not always factual, but uses people’s emotions to convince them to do things

26 Types of Wartime Propaganda Our country is the best – be patriotic The enemy is evil – let’s get them! Enlist to fight Work in war production Buy liberty bonds Support the war in some other way

27 Our country is the best – be patriotic Allied recruitment poster about the “plucky four” Faith in Canada – for victory bonds

28 The enemy is evil – let’s get them! French propaganda poster from 1915: –Kaiser Wilhelm eating the world

29 Enlist to fight England’s famous 1914 Kitchener enlistment poster

30 Work in war production Russian war bond poster about women factory workers British poster about needing soldiers and workers

31 Buy liberty bonds American war bond poster

32 Support the war in some other way USA grow your own food propaganda British sugar rations

33 Squirrels Rule!


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