Presentation on theme: "CHARLES I Fought with Parliament Petition of Rights (tries to limit power of monarch) 1.King could not tax w/o Parliament ok 2.King could not declare."— Presentation transcript:
CHARLES I Fought with Parliament Petition of Rights (tries to limit power of monarch) 1.King could not tax w/o Parliament ok 2.King could not declare Martial Law. 3.Soldier not allowed in private homes in peace. 4.Could not imprison w/o charges. Charles signs, but does not follow. James I- Divine Rights of Kings Father of Charles I
COLONIAL EXPANSION England begins to look for markets over sea. (Main goal is to make money) “Sea Dogs” English traders and sea captains (supported by Queen Elizabeth) British East India Company (1600) –Lasted for 260 years –Set up trading posts around the world –Really represented the British Gov’t
For 11 Years No Parliament Anglican Church (upset Puritans) Used courts against enemies. Fought Scots (2x) over Presbyterianism. Called Parliament-$$$ 1.LONG PARLIAMENT a.Met on & off for 20 years b.Forced Charles to call Parliament every 3 years. 2.Fought with Irish
SECTION 1 Question: What were some of the causes of the English Civil War? Civil War and Revolution
SECTION 1 Civil War and Revolution longstanding conflict between royalty and Parliament general population rejected radical Puritans’ attempted changes in the church English Civil War efforts of Long Parliament to limit the monarchy’s power Irish rebellion
ENGLISH CIVIL WAR 1.CAVALIERS: Loyal to king (Anglicans, Catholics, Nobles) 2.Round-Heads: Loyal to Parliament (Puritans, Non-Anglicans) *Led by Oliver Cromwell, Crushes Charles & his army. 3.Rump Parliament: Abolished Monarchy and House of Lords. *Tried Charles for treason and Beheaded him (1649) 4.England: a Commonwealth (Republic) OLIVER CROMWELL
COMMONWEALTH=REPUBLIC 1.Cromwell ruled from 1653 – 1658 with Puritans in control of Gov’t. 2.Lord Protectorate – title given to Cromwell *ruled as a military dictator. 3.Navigation Act 1651 – Tried to control trade with Dutch. 1.Led to war with Dutch 2.England should protect itself 4.1653 Constitution – 1 st written gov’t of any major European country. 5.1656 – Cromwell dissolves Parliament and ruled alone. 6.1658 – Cromwell dies his son, Richard takes over. Oliver Cromwell
CHARLES II 1.Son of Charles I – power restored by Parliament 2.Reign is known as Restoration (entertainment, leisure, theater). 3.Continued conflict with Dutch (won New Amsterdam, NY) 4.Tried to remove Parliamentary restrictions on Catholics (fails). 5.Married Catherine of Braganza (Portuguese/no children)
Political Parties Develop Tories – “Outlaws” James II (Charles II younger Catholic brother) should be king – Supporters of the king. Supported Anglican Church Whigs – “Horse Thief” Deny James II the throne (anti-catholic). Supported a strong parliament & opposed a Catholic.
James II Charles died in 1685 & James succeeds. James had absolute power- Tories & Whigs don’t like it. Feared Catholics succession.
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION 1.Asked by Parliament to overthrow James II. 2.1688 William leads Dutch army. 3.James flees to France. 4.William & Mary rule England 5.1 st Bloodless transfer of power. 6.England becomes a “Constitutional Monarchy”= monarch had to consult Parliament William of Orange James’ Daughter Mary
BILL OF RIGHTS 1689 No suspending Parliament’s laws No taxation w/o Parliaments ok. Parliament has freedom of speech. No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievance. (limits the power of the monarch & extends power of the parliament)
SECTION 2 Question: What laws did Parliament create to protect against arbitrary rule? Constitutional Monarchy in England
SECTION 2 Constitutional Monarchy in England Safeguard Habeas Corpus Act English Bill of Rights Act of Toleration * protected individuals from unfair arrest and imprisonment subjected ruler to parliamentary laws; prohibited ruler from imposing taxes or maintaining an army in peaceful times without Parliament’s consent; guaranteed free speech for members of Parliament; gave citizens the right to petition the government; declared citizens should not be required to pay excessive bail or be subjected to cruel and unusual punishment granted Protestant dissenters some religious freedoms Purpose
Mercantilism The colony exists for the economic benefit of the home country. England’s Parliament passed laws to enforce this idea. Certain products could only be sold or shipped to England. Smuggling becomes a major industry to avoid English laws and taxes.
Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Question: What are some effects of mercantilism? English Colonial Expansion
SECTION 3 English Colonial Expansion conflict over resources aggression colonization Mercantilism
Colonial Expansion England expands into Africa, Asia, and North America. (Main goal was MONEY) “Sea Dogs” English traders and Captains. supported by Queen Elizabeth British East India Company - started in 1600 Lasted for 260 years and set up trading posts all around the world. It really represented the British Gov’t.
ENLIGHTENMENT What does the cartoon mean showing a light bulb over the characters head? Picture in your mind the great thinkers of the time with a light bulb over their heads. Belief that natural law governed human behavior. Truth could be determined by logic. What do these characteristics have in common? Order Practical Interest in natural events Also called the “Age of Reason”.
Thomas Hobbes 1588 - 1679 Civil war is worse than even an extremely oppressive government. Only governments with (nearly) absolute authority will not be susceptible to civil war. People act in self interest with little regard for others. “Social Contract” give up individual freedom for group safety and order. People are barbarians (evil). Implication of Hobbes’ argument: Extremely limited rights given by gov’t. –No rights against the sovereign as long as the sovereign secures one’s right to life. –No right to education –No right to property –No right to liberty or happiness
John Locke 1632 -1704 Only give up some individual freedom to government. People are generally good, blank slate. Natural Rights-life, liberty, health and property, if government did not have consent citizens could rebel. Government could only be legitimate through consent of governed. Government had a social contract and protected the natural rights of life, liberty, and estate. Most influential Enlightenment thinker. His thoughts influenced American revolutionaries and the American Declaration of Independence
2 nd Generation American Philosophers Thomas Paine James Madison Thomas Jefferson Ben Franklin
SECTION 4 Question: What were the beliefs of philosophers during the Enlightenment? The Enlightenment
SECTION 4 The Enlightenment edited Encyclopedia, criticized society wrote Spirit of the Laws, described “perfect” government wrote Candide, championed freedom of thought and religion wrote The Social Contract, believed in sovereignty DiderotMontesquieuVoltaireRousseau
SECTION 5 Question: What British policies were implemented in the mid- 1700s, and how did the American colonists react to them? The American Revolution
SECTION 5 The American Revolution Colonists were forbidden to settle in the land west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists felt that Britain was curbing their liberties. Britain wanted to avoid American Indian uprisings. British PolicyColonial ReactionPossible British Cause
Chapter Wrap-Up 1.How did many political writers and philosophers of the 1700s see the relationship between people and their government? 2.What were the sources of the political ideas that led to the American Revolution and the United States Constitution? 3.Why did British policy anger many Americans in the years following 1763? 1.How did many political writers and philosophers of the 1700s see the relationship between people and their government? 2.What were the sources of the political ideas that led to the American Revolution and the United States Constitution? 3.Why did British policy anger many Americans in the years following 1763? CHAPTER 20