4. British East India Co. financed Industrial Revolution: Indians lose jobs (cotton) 2. Caste system used to keep Indians in lower societal positions as British were often brutal/racist. 3. Indian resources exploited by British. 1700s 1. 1757 - India came under British control when army assembled by British East India Co. defeated governor of Bengal near Calcutta
1800s 4. British legal tradition introduced Western ideas of individual and social rights (many important Indian independence leaders trained in London) 3. Railroad, telegraph, English language (common means of communication for educated Indians) 1. 1858: Official British Colony 2. Benefits of Colonial Rule
1800s 1. Nationalism (pride in one’s nation) movement begins in India 2. Indians educated in England were influenced by society there (Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru – India’s first prime minister, and Mohammad Ali Jinnah – Pakistan’s first leader) 4. Movement strongest with middle class 3. Leaders began to teach ideas of individual rights and self government
Post WWI 4. Acts seemed to be a betrayal of promises of self-rule, so protests broke out 3. 1919 Rowlatt Acts: gave government emergency powers to suppress public unrest (ie. imprison suspicious people) 1. During WWI, a million Indians served the British as soldiers or laborers 2. The Raj (British administration in India) promised self-government after war
1900- 1947 Gandhi (Mahatma): Earned law degree in England Fought prejudice in South Africa for 21 years Returned to India in 1914 Believed in non-violent resistance to injustice (non cooperation: protests, closed businesses, withdrawn children from school, resignations, boycotts, sit ins, refuse to pay taxes, etc) Spoke out against British rule – people listened to him Millions of followers Paved way to Indian independence in 1947 India’s move toward independence deepens conflict between Hindus/Muslims Hindus = Landowners Muslims = Peasants 1947: Partition making India and Pakistan (East and West)
1947- present After partition, 12 million people migrated. Why? To avoid being ruled by a religion other than their own. Hindus to India Muslims to E/W Pakistan Conflict in 1971: Leads to creation of Bangladesh Also have been fighting over the KASHMIR.
1.Who controlled India from the 1700s to 1947? 2.What is nationalism? 3.Where was the movement the strongest? 4.Who was Gandhi? 5.What is E. Pakistan’s current name?