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ENGLISH ABSOLUTISM Tudor Dynasty through the Glorious Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH ABSOLUTISM Tudor Dynasty through the Glorious Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGLISH ABSOLUTISM Tudor Dynasty through the Glorious Revolution

2 REVIEW & REMEMBER:  From 1485 thru 1603 England was ruled by the Tudor Dynasty  King Henry VII ?  Henry VIII ?  Edward VI ?  Mary ?  Elizabeth ?  Though powerful monarchs in their own right, each of these rulers maintained good relations with Parliament (law-making body) of England


4 In Order to Understand the Stuart Dynasty of Scotland you need to know some facts:  Mary Stuart’s Great-Grandfather was Henry VII  Her father was married to Mary Guise (French)  She was married at the age of 10 to the Francis II of France  At 16 she becomes Queen of Scotland (Catholic) and at Age 22 she marries Henry Darnley in 1565  Two years later, she is implicated in a plot to murder her 2 nd husband by her lover, the Earl of Bothwell. Captured by her nobles, she chooses to abdicate and her 1-yr old son, James VI becomes King of Scotland.  In 1583, at the age of 17 James VI takes full power in Scotland (Presbyterian)  Scottish Parliament is made up of three groups – Bishops, Lords, Gentry – but the King is the head of the nation and the church

5 STUART DYNASTY  Following the death of Elizabeth, her cousin, James VI, King of Scotland inherited the English throne  The Stuarts were not as well liked nor adept at handling the English people nor Parliament.  As James & his family would discover – England was not Scotland

6 KING JAMES I  He devoutly believed in the concept – Divine Right of Kings and had written the famous tract, “True Law of a Free Monarchy” – Need (10) readers of this excerpt….  It did not take long before James had issues with what parliament was supposed to do and what it did.

7 As there is not a thing so necessary to be known by the people of any land, next the knowledge of their God, as the right knowledge of their allegiance, according to the form of government established among them, especially in a Monarchy, which form of government, as resembling the Divine, approaches the nearest to perfection. Unity being the perfection of all things…. The natural zeal therefore, that I bear to this my native country, with the great pity I have to see the so-long disturbance (religious strife)…I have chosen then, to set down in this short Treatise, the true grounds of the mutual duty, and allegiance between a free and absolute monarch and his people. By the Law of Nature the King becomes a natural Father to all his people at his coronation; And as a Father of his fatherly duty is bound to care for the nourishing, education, and virtuous government of his children; even so is the king bound to care for all his subjects.

8 As all the toil and pain that a father can take for his children, will be thought light and well bestowed by him, so that the effect thereof will respond to their profit and wealth; so ought the Prince to do towards his people. As the kindly father ought to foresee all inconveniences and dangers that may arise towards his children, and though with the hazard of this own person press to prevent the same; so ought the King towards his people. As the father’s wrath and correction upon any of his children that offend him, ought to be by a fatherly chastisement seasoned with pity, as long as there is any hope of change in them; so ought the King towards any of his subjects that offend in that measure. And shortly, as the Father’s chief joy ought to be in procuring his children's welfare, rejoicing at their wealth, sorrowing and pitying at their evil, to hazard for their safety, travel for their rest, wake for their sleep; and in a word, to think that his earthly power and life live in them, so ought a good Prince think of his people….

9 ….And it is likewise to be noted, that the duty and allegiance, which the people swear to their prince, is not only bound to themselves, but likewise to their lawful heirs and posterity, the line of succession of crowns being begun among the people of God, and happily continued in diverse Christian commonwealths…. …And if a king makes errors and does unfair acts....he ought to be punished by God, who is the one true judge…for the further a king is preferred by God above all other ranks and degrees of men, and the higher than his seat is above theirs, the great is his obligation to his maker. In essence…James is stating that Kings are appointed by God to Rule the people and thus are above Human Laws…A wicked king is likely to be punished by God, but his subjects have no right to take actions of their own by rebellion.  Keep this in Mind as we move through the Stuart Dynasty

10 TAXES & FOREIGN POLICY:  These two areas were where James I conflicted with parliament.  When parliament refused to give in to King James I, he in turn dissolved parliament and continued to rule without their assistance.  Upon his death, he was replaced by his son, Charles I

11 KING CHARLES I He too, had problems with raising taxes and controlling parliament.  Imprisoned nobles & then ransomed them back to their families.  Unable to raise more money, he called parliament into session.  Parliament required him to sign the Petition of Right, it required Charles to not raise taxes without their consent.

12 PETITION OF RIGHT – 1628:  Insisted the king was bound by the law  King could not levy taxes without approval of Parliament  Could not impose forced loans on his subjects  Could not declare martial law in peacetime  Could not Imprison citizens without a trial  Could not quarter troops in homes

13 THE RELIGIOUS CRISIS: Archbishop William Laud created the new Anglican Book of Common Prayer The Puritans ( those who sought to purify the Anglican Church of Catholicism ) took offense The Scots ( They were Presbyterians ~ followers of John Knox) openly rebelled. Charles saw their rebellion not as a religious one, but as treason against their king.

14 CHARLES ANSWER TO THE PURITANS: “I will have ONE Doctrine, ONE Discipline, ONE Religion, both in Substance and in Ceremony”

15 LONG PARLIAMENT:  Charles had no choice but to summon parliament.  They met in 1640 and did not disband until 1653.  They tried and executed the king’s ministers, including Laud  They refused to be dissolved without their own consent

16 ENGLISH REVOLUTION: Charles gathered up his supporters and formed the Cavaliers  Most of old family nobles who were handy with their swords. They expected to win. They were opposed by Parliament and the Roundheads.  Mostly Gentry (?), townspeople and Puritan clergy. Their leader was Oliver Cromwell.

17 REGICIDE:  Charles and his army were defeated twice and the king himself was captured.  Charles was accused of Treason against all Englishmen by parliament  He refused to plead  Under English law, a person who fails to plead is assumed to be guilty.  It was the first time in Europe that a sitting monarch was put to death for crimes against the state.

18 CROMWELL & THE COMMONWEALTH  Following the death of Charles, the House of Commons abolished the monarchy of England, the House of Lords and the Church of England  A Republic was declared under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.

19 Cromwell faced dissent by those who supported Charles II for the throne  England invaded Ireland and put down the rebellion at a heavy cost. (When times are bad – make war on someone else – WHY?)  Catholics were exiled and could be killed  The Levelers and Diggers, two radical Puritan groups that sought universal male suffrage (?), horrified the Gentry  Religious division – Some Puritans wanted to allow religious toleration of other protestants and some didn’t. (How much is enough?)

20 LORD PROTECTOR….  1653 saw Cromwell become a military dictator.  He came to understand that England could not be a republic  He divided England into several military zones, each under the command of a general.  How did the English people feel?

21 RETURN OF THE MONARCHY: 1658 marked the death of Cromwell and the English people longed to restore a king to England. Charles II encouraged religious toleration of other protestants (Quakers, Baptists and Presbyterians), he accepted the Petition of Right and though a firm believer in Divine Right, he did not confront parliament.

22 PETITION OF RIGHT – 1628:  Insisted the king was bound by the law  King could not levy taxes without approval of Parliament  Could not impose forced loans on his subjects  Could not declare martial law in peacetime  Could not Imprison citizens without a trial  Could not quarter troops in homes

23 JAMES II  He inherited the throne from his brother in 1685  Openly Catholic, he ruled by whim and appointed Catholics to important positions  His people feared a return of Catholicism  They invited his daughter, Mary and her husband, William III of Netherlands to invade England and claim the throne

24 GLORIOUS REVOLUTION:  When William and Mary landed in England, they were greeted with open arms; James II fled to France  Before they could become the monarchs of England, Parliament made them agree to the English Bill of Rights

25 ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS: Ensured the superiority of Parliament over the Monarch Parliament was required to meet regularly Prevented a future Catholic monarch Restated traditional rights of English citizens (Magna Carta – 1215)  No person could be held in prison without first being charged Toleration Act – Granted limited freedoms, but not to Catholics

26 CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT: This government is based on the precepts that the government’s powers are defined and limited by the law Emergence of a party-system  Whigs – Supported Urban interests, religious toleration & favored Parliament  Tories – Supported the Crown, generally aristocrats, believed in tradition Development of a Cabinet (?)– following the crowning of George I Creation of a Prime Minister, leader of the majority party in Parliament

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