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Lesson 1 1. Philip II was a Catholic who believed Spain had been chosen by God to save Catholic Christianity. He insisted that his subjects conform to.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 1 1. Philip II was a Catholic who believed Spain had been chosen by God to save Catholic Christianity. He insisted that his subjects conform to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 1 1. Philip II was a Catholic who believed Spain had been chosen by God to save Catholic Christianity. He insisted that his subjects conform to Catholicism, led the Holy League against the Turks, and tried to invade England to end English Protestantism. 2. Population growth in the sixteenth century led to inflation by increasing the demand for land and food. The population leveled off in the early seventeenth century. By 1650 it was declining due to war, plague, and famine.

2 Lesson 2 3. The Petition of Right limited the king of England's powers to levy taxes, imprison citizens without cause, quarter troops, and institute martial law. The petition was passed by the English Parliament when it feared that King Charles I had too much power. 4. Hobbes believed that the best ruler was one who had absolute power to maintain order and suppress rebellion. Locke argued against absolute rule by one person. He believed the people should be able to remove or alter a ruler who failed to protect their rights.

3 Lesson 3 5. Louis XIV developed a large standing army and fought four wars. He also retained all the power to make government policy. He spent extravagant sums to build palaces and maintain his court. His actions left France broke and surrounded by enemies. 6. Frederick William realized that Prussia was vulnerable to invasion from its neighbors because it was a small, open territory with no natural frontiers for defense.

4 Lesson 4 7. Gentileschi was an Italian painter in the baroque style and the first woman elected to the Florentine Academy of Design. During her lifetime, she was known for her portraits; today she is best known for her paintings of women from the Old Testament. 8. The Globe kept ticket prices low to encourage the lower classes to attend, thus filling its three thousand seats. Students may suggest that Shakespeare created characters that lower- class citizens could relate to.

5 21st Century Skills 9. Philip II of Spain regarded Protestants as heretics, and his religious wars helped bankrupt Spain. Catholicism was the official religion of France but Huguenots could worship and hold office. The Holy Roman Empire was divided into individual states, and rulers gained the freedom to determine their state's religion. 10. English nobles invited William of Orange to invade England. Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary with a Bill of Rights that protected both Parliament's and citizens' rights. Parliament's action kept the monarchy Protestant and destroyed the divine right theory of kingship.

6 Exploring the Essential Question 11. Sample: For Spain, the "Conflict" column might include: 1. Spain expelled its Jewish and Muslim subjects. 2. Philip led the Holy League against the Turks. 3. William the Silent led a Protestant revolt in the Netherlands. The "Effects" column might say: 1. Spain lost the strength that comes from diversity. 2. The Battle of Lepanto was fought. 3. Growing resistance from the Dutch ultimately led the Netherlands to secede from Spanish rule.

7 Document-Based Questions 12. The only protection he offers is that a "just" (fair) king will not take a life unless the subject has broken a law. 13. He believes in divine right for all kings, not just himself.

8 Extended-Response Questions 14. In an absolute monarchy, the king or queen has complete power and no group—not a parliament or a congress or the people—can put limits on that power. Absolutists believe the king is anointed by God. In a constitutional monarchy, the ruler's power is limited by the rule of law and the election of members of parliament. Ultimately, absolute monarchies bankrupted their countries and pushed their nobles and/or their people to revolt. Constitutional monarchies led to greater satisfaction because people had some protection from the whims of their rulers.

9 Chapter Summary Crises throughout Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led rulers in several countries to seek stability through absolute rule. This chapter described the religious and political conflicts between Protestants and Catholics in many European nations; the social, economic, and religious conflicts that challenged the established order throughout Europe; how a constitutional monarchy came to be established in England; how France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia emerged as great European powers; and how art and literature during this time reflected people's spiritual perceptions and the human condition.

10 Reviewing the Enduring Understanding Why is social stability important to people? People need to be confident that their society will provide their basic needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, and security.

11 Reviewing the Enduring Understanding What conditions might undermine social stability? Wars and other types of violent conflict that leave people with no sense of security; and economic crises that are so severe that people are unable to provide for their basic needs.

12 Reviewing the Enduring Understanding What might people be willing to sacrifice to regain security? If conditions are bad enough, people might be willing to give up representative government and economic freedom to an authoritarian government.

13 Reviewing the Enduring Understanding If instability can encourage the rise of an absolute ruler, what conditions might cause them to later resist such a ruler? With the return of stability, people will regret what they have surrendered to secure it.

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