4Charlemagne’s Empire Main Idea Reading Focus Through conquest and social change, Charlemagne tied much of western Europe together in a single empire.Reading FocusHow did Charlemagne and the Carolingians build the Frankish empire?How did Charlemagne’s actions contribute to shaping a new society?
5Building an Empire Powerful Kingdom Frankish Empire Early Carolingians Crowning of Charlemagne a surprise, but not random decisionHis predecessors, the kings of the Franks, worked for 200 years to make kingdom most powerful in EuropeFrankish EmpireBy 800s Franks ruled much of western, central EuropeLeaders most influential in expansion of Franks all belonged to one family—Charlemagne’s family, the CarolingiansEarly CarolingiansOne of first Carolingians to gain power, Charlemagne’s grandfatherCharles Martel, political adviser, war leader for Frankish kingLed Frankish army in many crushing defeats of opponents, notably Muslims
6Charlemagne’s Rise to Power PippinCharles’s son, Pippin III, also skilled leader; won many battles, captured new lands for FranksBecame first king of Carolingian dynasty, 751Upon death, 768, Pippin passed kingdom to son, ruler known today as CharlemagneCharlemagne’s Rise to PowerCharlemagne, Old French for Charles the GreatName proved accurate, Charlemagne a great leaderHistorically considered one of most important leaders in European historyFoundation of success, his military power
7Military Power Increased Kingdom Pope Leo III Assembled army each year, led into battle against a foeIncorporated land of vanquished foe into his sphere of influence, formed alliances with local rulersIn this way Charlemagne increased size and power of Carolingian kingdomIncreased KingdomRecognized Charlemagne’s skill, called on him for help when Lombards attacked Papal States, 774Papal states, region in central Italy under control of popeFranks defeated Lombards; Charlemagne became king of Lombards as well as FranksPope Leo III
8Helping the Pope Another Cry for Help A Pope’s Thanks Pope Leo III grateful for Charlemagne’s help against Lombards799, called on Charlemagne again when angry supporters of previous pope ran Leo out of RomeCharlemagne had Leo escorted back to Rome, restored to powerAnother Cry for HelpPope Leo III thanked Charlemagne by naming him emperor of Roman peopleTitle implied Charlemagne had restored glory of Roman Empire in EuropePope’s action suggested that Charlemagne’s rule had backing of church, GodA Pope’s Thanks
9Charlemagne’s Rule Powerful Delegating Authority Oversight Charlemagne had tremendous power as emperorEmpire large, not easy to rule; changes made government efficient, effectiveEstablished permanent capital at Aachen, in what is now GermanyDelegating AuthorityBuilt huge palace, cathedral to reflect own greatnessChose counts, officials to help rule parts of empire in his nameCounts bound to obey, granted large tracts of land, given much authorityOversightInspectors kept tabs on Charlemagne’s countsRewarded counts who did jobs well, punished those who did notInspectors helped ensure counts remained loyal, empire was well run
11How did Charlemagne turn his kingdom into an empire? SummarizeHow did Charlemagne turn his kingdom into an empire?Answer(s): strong warrior; restored the pope to power; provided stability and order; barons helped him rule
12A New Society Education Scholars Although Charlemagne is known mostly as a warrior and a political leader, he also made sweeping changes to Frankish society.Charlemagne personally interested in learning, spent much time studyingWanted leaders in empire to be able to read, writeOrdered churches, monasteries to start schoolsStudents learned:ReligionMusicGrammarEducationNoted European scholars invited by Charlemagne to AachenSpent time teaching, as well as studying, copying ancient textsSent copies of texts to monasteries across Europe; monks there made copiesSaved many valuable works for posterityScholars
13Religion Law Great Heights In addition to improving education, Charlemagne wanted to preserve, spread Christian teachingsWorked closely with church to create unified Christian empireUsed force to accomplish, ordered those he conquered to convert to Christianity under penalty of deathSent monks to live among conquered to help Christianity take rootHonored traditional laws of tribes brought under his ruleMost laws existed only in oral traditionHad many tribal laws recordedAllowed tribal legal codes to maintain separate existenceLawWestern Europe reached great heights under CharlemagneEmpire did not survive long after death in 814Civil war wracked kingdom, grandsons divided empireEmpire weak, invaders poured inGreat Heights
14How did Charlemagne change society in his empire? Find the Main IdeaHow did Charlemagne change society in his empire?Answer(s): built an education system, preserved ancient writings, expanded religion, developed single law code
15GROG 13-1Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by ranking Charlemagne’s achievements in what you think was their order of importance in strengthening the empire
17Bell Ringer 13-2Write a letter describing Charlemagne’s coronation as though you were a Roman who witnessed the event. In your letter, explain what happened and why
18New Invaders Main Idea Reading Focus Invasions and migrations changed the political and cultural landscapes of western Europe during the early Middle Ages.Reading FocusWhy did many Europeans fear the Vikings?What made Magyar raids in eastern Europe so devastating to people there?Why did Muslims raid towns in southern Europe?
19The VikingsThe relative peace Charlemagne brought to western Europe did not last long. Even before he died, invaders had begun nibbling at the edges of his empire. Of all the invaders, the fiercest were the Vikings.Vikings came from northern EuropeLived in ScandinaviaSociety rural, agriculturalMost worked as fishers, farmersOrigins of VikingsThough sea provided plenty of fish, soil not fertileFarmers had trouble growing enough grainFood shortages common problemFood ShortagesViking leaders looked for new sources of food, wealthDecided to take what they needed from othersViking raids beganNew Sources
20Viking Raids Sailing Skills First Targets Little Time Vikings superb ship builders, sailorsShips capable of withstanding heavy ocean waves; crews as many as 100Skills at navigation allowed crossing great expanses of oceanFirst TargetsFirst targets of raids England, northern FranceLater Vikings began raiding places farther from homelandEven inland locations like Paris, Aachen unsafeLittle TimePeople lived in fear, had no warning that Vikings were comingFast-moving ships approached target quicklyVikings killed, captured defenders; took what they could find, sailed away
21Favorite Targets Viking Settlements Among favorite Viking targets, monasteriesMonks not warriors, monasteries easy to plunderFine treasures, jeweled crosses, golden candlesticks stolenVikings not Christians, had no problems stealing religious itemsViking SettlementsNot all Vikings who left Scandinavia raiders, some explorersOne place settled by Vikings, Iceland; first arrived late 700sViking society thrived there for centuries, longer than in Europe982, Viking explorers reached Greenland100 years later, Leif Eriksson reached North America
22Viking warriors also settled in northern France NormandyViking warriors also settled in northern FranceLed by chief named Rollo, attacked France many timesKing of France made deal with RolloRollo to stop raids, defend Frankish lands against other VikingsKing to give Rollo landRollo accepted, area became known as Normandy, land of Northmen
23What made Viking raids so terrifying to Christian Europe? Draw ConclusionsWhat made Viking raids so terrifying to Christian Europe?Answer(s): People did not know when they were coming, so could not prepare; Viking raids were brutal.
24The Magyars Nomads Raids Vikings terrorized northern, western Europe; Magyars invaded from eastMagyars nomads from central Asia who settled in what is now HungaryFierce warriors like VikingsNot sailors, skilled riders who outmaneuvered opponents on horsebackPlanned raids carefully, attacking smaller settlementsNomadsRaided eastern France, Germany, northern Italy, western Byzantine EmpireEventually gave up nomadic ways, but lost battle advantage of running from opposing armiesMid-900s, German king Otto the Great crushed Magyar army, ending raidsRaids
25Why were Magyar raids so difficult to stop? InferWhy were Magyar raids so difficult to stop?Answer(s): They attacked small villages, were excellent horsemen, able to outrun the opposing army
26Muslims first came to Europe in large numbers as conquerors. The MuslimsMuslims first came to Europe in large numbers as conquerors.711, Muslim army from North Africa crossed Strait of Gibraltar, conquered SpainRuled Iberian Peninsula more than 700 years, non nomadicCapital city, Cordoba, one of wealthiest, most culturally advanced cities of medieval worldMuslim Spain land of toleranceMany religions living together in peaceMuslim Spain732, Muslims swept into France, stopped short by Charles Martel, Charlemagne’s grandfather800s, 900s, Muslim leaders ordered small, fast raids against cities, towns in southern France, ItalyRaided Rome, destroyed ancient churchesFrance, Italy
27Blocking TradeMuslim fleets blocked Byzantine trade in MediterraneanMuslim pirates looted ships, sold crews into slaveryCut off Italy from trade with eastern alliesPope turned to Franks for protectionBalance of power in western Europe shifted because of this
29Why did Muslims launch small, fast raids against Christian lands? Make GeneralizationsWhy did Muslims launch small, fast raids against Christian lands?Answer(s): unable to achieve a full invasion of Europe
30Grog 13-2use the interactive graphic organizer to list and describe the peoples that invaded Europe
31The Feudal System and Manorial Systems Chapter 13Section 3Pages
32Bell Ringer 13-4Write a description of a Viking, Magyar, or Muslim raid as though you are an inhabitant of the town being raided. Bring your description to life by choosing vivid adjectives to describe the sights, sounds, and emotions that surround you
33The Feudal and Manorial Systems Main IdeaIn Europe during the Middle Ages, the feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties and obligations.Reading FocusWhat duties and obligations were central to the feudal system?How did the manorial system govern the medieval economy?What was daily life like for people on a manor?
34FeudalismWhy Feudalism?Invasion of groups like Vikings, Magyar, and Muslims left king unable to defend their lands and nobles land from attack.Nobles must find a way to defend their own lands.Build castles onhilltops
35How to solve this problem? Nobles would hire Knights to defend their lands.Knights would provide military servicesProvide loyalty to lordGive an oath of Fealty.Diminished the power of kingsLords would give KnightsLand treat fairlyProtect if attackedSettle disputes
36The Feudal System Based on rights & obligations In exchange for military & other services, a lord (landowner) granted land (fief) to a vassal (person receiving fief)Exchanging land for services is called the Feudal system.This is a complicated system where very few understood who their obligations were to.
38WHAT’S HAPPENING? What led to the Feudal System ? Constant brutal fighting amongst noblesWhat was Feudal System ?Political system in which nobles were granted the use of land that legally belonged to the kingIn return, the nobles agreed to give their loyalty and military services to the king. Reduce the number of people who are loyal to king
39WHAT’S HAPPENING?How did Feudal system diminish the power of the king?What is the Noble?What is the Vassal?What is the Fief?
40The Manorial System Economic Arrangement Between Lord & Serf In exchange for housing, land, and protection, serfs had to perform tasks to maintain the estate and pay several different kinds of taxesWere legally tied to the landCould not leave land, or marry w/o lords permissionSerfdom was hereditaryNo opportunities to better their situation
41The Manorial System Serfs The manor was practically self-sufficient, producing almost everything needed for daily life, so serfs rarely had to leave their manor for anythingOutside purchases included salt, iron, and a few unusual objects like millstones (used to grind flour)So why did they accept their economic hardship?Acceptance was part of Church teachingsThey believed that God decided people’s social position
42The Manorial System Manors Self-contained communities that dotted the countryside throughout western EuropeCrop rotation
43Daily Life in The Middle Ages Castle Built for defense not ComfortFew windows- dark and musty all year longPrivate rooms rare- divided by sheets or rugsWaste was disposed into the moat or riverNo Charmin only HayBathed in wooden tub in garden (summer) or by fireplace (winter)
45Daily Life in The Middle Ages Villages Small 1- 2 bedroom cottages built by themselvesSmall/Few windowsHatched straw roofWooden stools/ few pieces of furnitureHay mattress=BugsCook over open fire??? Really???
47Grog 13-4 In 10-15 sentences tell me which you would rather live in A castle or a village homePut your name on it and turn it in.
48The Growth of Monarchies Chapter 13Section 4Pages
49Bell Ringer 13-4Write a journal entry from the point of view of a man or woman in the early Middle Ages. In your entry, describe what your daily life is like and what duties and obligations you fulfill
50The Growth of Monarchies Main IdeaThe power of kings grew and the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the early Middle Ages.Reading FocusHow did the power of the English monarchy grow and change?How did kings increase their powers in the other monarchies of Europe?
51The Growth Of Monarchies CH 13 Sec 4 pages 387-391
52What we will learnThe power of kings and the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the middle ages
53Anglo Saxon EnglandEngland was the 1st country in Europe to develop a strong central monarchyThe Anglo Saxons first unified the countyDuring most of the Anglo Saxon period England was divided into 7 small kingdomsAlfred the Great drove Vikings out of England uniting England under 1 rulerAlfred’s decedents would rule England until one would die without a heir
542 men would claim the crown Anglo Saxon England2 men would claim the crownHarold, a nobleman from EnglandWilliam, the Duke of Normandy and a distant relative of dead Anglo Saxon KingSupported by English nobles Harold would be named kingWilliam would decided to take thrown by force
55England’s Evolving Gov’t Battle of Hastings (1066)Normans, under William the Conqueror defeatedHarold, Anglo-Saxon kingEnglish lords lost their landWilliam granted fiefs to Norman lordsA new nobility in EnglandThey swore loyalty to him personallyDoomsday book- survey to see what each person could pay in taxesLaid the foundation for centralized gov’tWilliam would bring elements of French Culture to England- French Language
56England’s Evolving Gov’t Henry II- descendent of WilliamBecame ruler of England in 1154Strengthened England’s legal systemSent royal judges to parts of England to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, & punish crimesIntroduced the use of the jury in English courtsLaid foundation for English common law
57Why was King William I known as William the Conquer? Why did William I create a new nobility in England?Do you think that William should have insisted that the Nobles learn the Anglo Saxon Language?
58King John Decision making game King John takes power of English thrown in 1200 AD.He will have some tough decision so make in order to keep the people happy.
59King John manages to upset everyone!! The first king to give up some of his power was John. He is famous as Prince John in make believe stories of Robin Hood. In the stories he is a wicked and foolish prince who taxes the people of England unfairly. Some historians say John was just as foolish in real life. Others say he was simply unlucky!John ruled England from 1199 to He faced the following problems.
60Could the rich control the king? Around the picture below, you can read some of the qualities which medieval people expected their king to have! Which three are the most important for a medieval king?A good judge of characterRich – but not greedy!A good soldierFit and strongGod fearingInspiring!BraveHardworkingWiseFirm – but fair!
61Your enquiry!Medieval kings could get into serious trouble if they did not have the qualities of a KING! In the thirteenth century some Nobles forced an unpopular king to give up some power …and it was only the beginning!! In this enquiry, you will find out how the richest people in the country began to challenge the king
63England’s Evolving Gov’t The power of the king continued to increase significantlyNoble worried that Kings power would take from their own rightsKing continued to fight wars, adding new lands in FranceNeeded money and tried to raise taxesNobles would refused and took up arms against the King of England.
64How did the barons strike back? In 1214 many barons rebelled against John. They believed that he could not rule the country properly and was treating them unfairly. If someone did not do something the whole country could be ruined!In 1215 the barons forced John to grant a charter, which was the first time anyone had expected an English king to obey a set of rules.
65England’s Evolving Gov’t Magna CartaSigned by King John of England in 1215Bill of Rights is very similar to the Magna CartaGuaranteed what are now seen as certain basic legal rights in both England and the USIncluded:No taxation without representationTrial by juryProtection of the law
66I, King John, accept that I have to govern according to the law. The Magna CartaI, King John, accept that I have to govern according to the law.So I agree:1. Not to imprison nobles without trial2. That trials must be in courts; not held in secret by me3. To have fair taxation for the nobles4. To let freemen travel wherever they like5. Not to interfere in Church matters6. Not to seize crops without paying for them…. and lot more things too!!
68England’s Evolving Gov’t Some Nobles were still not satisfiedThey wanted more of a say in how the country was runThey rebelled….. Again.King needing money for wars agreed to meet with Nobility, Clergy, and middle classResulting in the formation of Parliament
69England’s Evolving Gov’t Meeting of Model ParliamentMet in 1295 under the reign of Edward IConsidered a major step toward democratic government because:It was a legislative group composed of commoners – burgesses from every borough and knights from every countyParliament could create new taxes and advised the king on law making and other policies** Under Edward I, Parliament was a royal tool that weakened the great lords, but as time went on, it became strong enough to provide a check on royal power
70Why did nobles rebel against King John? What's Happening?Why did nobles rebel against King John?What was most unusual about the council that becomes parliament?What was the most revolutionary part of Magna Carta?
71King of France ruled little territory France DevelopsKing of France ruled little territoryRest of France was in hands of nobles and King of EnglandNobles had more land and powerIgnored Kings wishes
72Capetian family was a noble family France DevelopsCapetian family was a noble familyHugh Capet extended the power of their monarchy throughout FranceDid so via wars, marriages and other arrangements
73Holy Roman EmpireAfter Charlemagne's death, Germany is divided into several small statesOtto the Great, Duke of SaxonyUnites Germany and Northern ItalyWhen Noble challenged Pope Otto steppedPope rewarded him by crowning him Emperor of the Romans.The land he ruled was called the Holy Roman Empire
74Emperor needed Dukes support to make laws Holy Roman EmpireDecisions and laws were passed with help of Dukes who still had authority over their own landsEmperor needed Dukes support to make lawsDuke would elected new emperorNew Emperor would then have to crown by Pope
75Before the Capetians, how much territory did the king of France rule? What's Happening?Before the Capetians, how much territory did the king of France rule?Why do you think the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was elected?Why do you think that the Roman Emperor had to travel to Rome in to be crowned by the Pope
76Ruled by Muslims (Moors) Cordoba was center of powerful Muslim rule Spain and PortugalRuled by Muslims (Moors)Cordoba was center of powerful Muslim ruleChristian defeat powerful Moors after they are weakened by a civil warReconquista- Campaigns to take back Iberian Peninsula from Moors1100 Portugal is successful1492 Spain is Successful2 Kingdoms would ruled together Via MarriageRulers of Aragon and Castile marriageResulting in one of the strongest countries in Europe
77What was the reconquista? What's Happening?What was the reconquista?How was Spain and Portugal united and what was the result?
78Grog 13-4use the interactive graphic organizer to take notes about the growth of monarchies in Europe
80Bell Ringer 13-5Write a letter to King John of England as though you were one of his advisors. In your letter, you must advise him either to accept or reject Magna Carta. Remember to use logical reasons to support your position
81Power of the Church Main Idea Reading Focus Reform and changes swept through the Christian Church, one of the most influential institutions in medieval Europe.Reading FocusWhat was the nature and influence of religion in the Middle Ages?What led to the growth of papal power in Europe?What changes in monasticism were introduced in the Middle Ages?
82Religion in the Middle Ages Pope is head of Roman Catholic ChurchEarly popes seen as spiritual leadersNoted for their religious devotionDuring Middle Ages, they became powerful political figuresPopes as Political FiguresManorialism, feudalism encouraged local loyaltiesChristian beliefs brought people across Europe together in spiritual community of ChristendomReligion touched almost every aspect of Christians’ livesIncreased Popes influenceChristian Beliefs
83Religious Ceremonies Dramatic Increase Major life events marked by religious ceremoniesMonks acted as peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers, armiesChurch officials served as teachers, record keepersClergy people’s main connection to church, had great influenceDramatic IncreaseAround 1000, influence of church increased dramaticallyGreat upwelling of piety, level of devotion, in EuropeMembers of Christian church became more devoutParticipation in religious services increased, thousands flocked to monasteries, joined religious orders
84Identify Cause and Effect Why was the medieval clergy so influential?Answer(s): Christian church had strong influence over daily lives of most Europeans; clergy were the people's link to the church
85Growth of Papal Power Papacy Church Reforms Not only were Europe’s common people inspired by a new sense of piety, many clergy members sought ways to improve conditions.900s, 1000s, pope had little authorityConsidered head of church, but local bishops made most important religious decisionsPapacy not held in high regardFew popes noted for religious devotion; most were nobles concerned with increasing own powerPapacy1049, first of series of clever, capable popes dedicated to reforming papacy came to power, Leo IXBelieved that Europe’s clergy had become corrupt, wanted to reform itConcerned with simony, buying and selling of church offices by bishopsChurch Reforms
86Power and Conflict Excommunication Reforms Conflict Bishops guilty of bad offenses excommunicated, cast out of churchNo greater punishment for Christians in Middle AgesPerson excommunicated could not take part in Eucharist, could not be savedReformsLeo became more active in governing church than other popes in pastReforms brought him into conflict with political, religious leadersMany bishops believed pope had no authority to tell them how to actConflictOne who rejected Leo’s authority, bishop of Constantinople1054, Leo excommunicated bishop, split Christian Church in twoThose who agreed Leo called Roman Catholics; those who sided with bishop, Orthodox
87Popes and PoliticsPopes gained influence over people’s religious lives, also over European politicsPope became head of huge network of ecclesiastical courts, heard cases on religious, moral mattersPope also ruled territories, like Papal StatesHad ability to raise armies to defend territoriesSeveral popes hired Normans to fight warsCrusades against Muslims launched by popes
88Conflict over Bishops Tradition Reform Bishop of Milan Although popes had increased their power, they still came into conflict with political leaders. Popes of the late 1000s were firmly resolved to change the way members of the clergy were chosen.Kings, other leaders played active role in choosing clergyKings chose most bishopsHoly Roman emperor named several popesTraditionReform popes did not think anyone but clergy should choose religious officialsIssue became critical during Pope Gregory VII’s pontificateReformHenry IV, Holy Roman emperor, chose new bishop for city of MilanGregory did not approve, removed bishopHenry disputed Gregory’s authorityBishop of Milan
89Gregory and Henry Excommunication Canossa Bishops Power Gregory’s response was to excommunicate HenryCalled on clergy, nobility of Germany to replace emperorCanossaFearing he would lose his throne, Henry traveled to Canossa to beg forgivenessReluctantly, Gregory lifted excommunicationBishopsGregory, Henry continued fighting over bishops for yearsLater popes reached compromise: local clergy would choose bishopsPowerMost important outcome: Gregory stood up to emperorThe pope had become one of strongest figures in Europe
90In what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages? AnalyzeIn what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages?Answer(s): eliminated corrupt clergy, appointed bishops, became political leaders, built armies, ruled territory
91Changes in Monasticism Contemplation and PrayerEarly Middle Ages, monasteries founded by men seeking lives of contemplation and prayerMonasteries often paid for by local rulers, who chose abbots who led themBenedictine Rule AbandonedBy around 900, rulers had stopped choosing qualified abbotsMany held positions only for prestigeIn these monasteries, strict Benedictine Rule abandonedReturn to MonasticismEarly 900s, group of monks sought to return monasticism to strict rootsEstablished new monastery at Cluny, France, to live by Benedictine RuleMonks of Cluny reserved right to choose own abbot
92Network of Monasteries Cluny became most influential monastery in EuropeMonks established daughter houses, leaders had to answer to Cluny abbotOther monasteries in France, Spain, Italy adopted Cluny’s customs, agreed to follow direction of its abbotsCluny became core of network of monasteries across western EuropeFor some monks, Benedictine life not strict enoughMonks wanted lives free from any worldly distractionsCreated new orders, most popular of which was Cistercian orderNew OrdersUsually built outside of towns to ensure isolationUndecorated, unheated even in winter; monks divided time between prayer, laborOther new orders even stricter, members lived like hermitsAdmired for their dedication to faith and the pietyCistercian Monasteries
93What changes were introduced to monasticism? Find the Main IdeaWhat changes were introduced to monasticism?Answer(s): stricter rules, monks stayed out of politics, simplified lives
94GROG 13-5fill in the interactive graphic organizer by identifying how changes in Christianity affected different types of people in the Middle Ages