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Crash Course The Dark Ages...How Dark Were They, Really?: Crash Course World History #14 - YouTube.

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2 Crash Course The Dark Ages...How Dark Were They, Really?: Crash Course World History #14 - YouTube

3 Charlemagne's Empire Chapter 13 Section 1 Pages

4 Charlemagne’s Empire Main Idea Reading Focus
Through conquest and social change, Charlemagne tied much of western Europe together in a single empire. Reading Focus How did Charlemagne and the Carolingians build the Frankish empire? How did Charlemagne’s actions contribute to shaping a new society?

5 Building an Empire Powerful Kingdom Frankish Empire Early Carolingians
Crowning of Charlemagne a surprise, but not random decision His predecessors, the kings of the Franks, worked for 200 years to make kingdom most powerful in Europe Frankish Empire By 800s Franks ruled much of western, central Europe Leaders most influential in expansion of Franks all belonged to one family—Charlemagne’s family, the Carolingians Early Carolingians One of first Carolingians to gain power, Charlemagne’s grandfather Charles Martel, political adviser, war leader for Frankish king Led Frankish army in many crushing defeats of opponents, notably Muslims

6 Charlemagne’s Rise to Power
Pippin Charles’s son, Pippin III, also skilled leader; won many battles, captured new lands for Franks Became first king of Carolingian dynasty, 751 Upon death, 768, Pippin passed kingdom to son, ruler known today as Charlemagne Charlemagne’s Rise to Power Charlemagne, Old French for Charles the Great Name proved accurate, Charlemagne a great leader Historically considered one of most important leaders in European history Foundation of success, his military power

7 Military Power Increased Kingdom Pope Leo III
Assembled army each year, led into battle against a foe Incorporated land of vanquished foe into his sphere of influence, formed alliances with local rulers In this way Charlemagne increased size and power of Carolingian kingdom Increased Kingdom Recognized Charlemagne’s skill, called on him for help when Lombards attacked Papal States, 774 Papal states, region in central Italy under control of pope Franks defeated Lombards; Charlemagne became king of Lombards as well as Franks Pope Leo III

8 Helping the Pope Another Cry for Help A Pope’s Thanks
Pope Leo III grateful for Charlemagne’s help against Lombards 799, called on Charlemagne again when angry supporters of previous pope ran Leo out of Rome Charlemagne had Leo escorted back to Rome, restored to power Another Cry for Help Pope Leo III thanked Charlemagne by naming him emperor of Roman people Title implied Charlemagne had restored glory of Roman Empire in Europe Pope’s action suggested that Charlemagne’s rule had backing of church, God A Pope’s Thanks

9 Charlemagne’s Rule Powerful Delegating Authority Oversight
Charlemagne had tremendous power as emperor Empire large, not easy to rule; changes made government efficient, effective Established permanent capital at Aachen, in what is now Germany Delegating Authority Built huge palace, cathedral to reflect own greatness Chose counts, officials to help rule parts of empire in his name Counts bound to obey, granted large tracts of land, given much authority Oversight Inspectors kept tabs on Charlemagne’s counts Rewarded counts who did jobs well, punished those who did not Inspectors helped ensure counts remained loyal, empire was well run

10 Aachen

11 How did Charlemagne turn his kingdom into an empire?
Summarize How did Charlemagne turn his kingdom into an empire? Answer(s): strong warrior; restored the pope to power; provided stability and order; barons helped him rule

12 A New Society Education Scholars
Although Charlemagne is known mostly as a warrior and a political leader, he also made sweeping changes to Frankish society. Charlemagne personally interested in learning, spent much time studying Wanted leaders in empire to be able to read, write Ordered churches, monasteries to start schools Students learned: Religion Music Grammar Education Noted European scholars invited by Charlemagne to Aachen Spent time teaching, as well as studying, copying ancient texts Sent copies of texts to monasteries across Europe; monks there made copies Saved many valuable works for posterity Scholars

13 Religion Law Great Heights
In addition to improving education, Charlemagne wanted to preserve, spread Christian teachings Worked closely with church to create unified Christian empire Used force to accomplish, ordered those he conquered to convert to Christianity under penalty of death Sent monks to live among conquered to help Christianity take root Honored traditional laws of tribes brought under his rule Most laws existed only in oral tradition Had many tribal laws recorded Allowed tribal legal codes to maintain separate existence Law Western Europe reached great heights under Charlemagne Empire did not survive long after death in 814 Civil war wracked kingdom, grandsons divided empire Empire weak, invaders poured in Great Heights

14 How did Charlemagne change society in his empire?
Find the Main Idea How did Charlemagne change society in his empire? Answer(s): built an education system, preserved ancient writings, expanded religion, developed single law code

15 GROG 13-1 Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by ranking Charlemagne’s achievements in what you think was their order of importance in strengthening the empire

16 New Invaders Chapter 13 Section 2 Pages

17 Bell Ringer 13-2 Write a letter describing Charlemagne’s coronation as though you were a Roman who witnessed the event. In your letter, explain what happened and why

18 New Invaders Main Idea Reading Focus
Invasions and migrations changed the political and cultural landscapes of western Europe during the early Middle Ages. Reading Focus Why did many Europeans fear the Vikings? What made Magyar raids in eastern Europe so devastating to people there? Why did Muslims raid towns in southern Europe?

19 The Vikings The relative peace Charlemagne brought to western Europe did not last long. Even before he died, invaders had begun nibbling at the edges of his empire. Of all the invaders, the fiercest were the Vikings. Vikings came from northern Europe Lived in Scandinavia Society rural, agricultural Most worked as fishers, farmers Origins of Vikings Though sea provided plenty of fish, soil not fertile Farmers had trouble growing enough grain Food shortages common problem Food Shortages Viking leaders looked for new sources of food, wealth Decided to take what they needed from others Viking raids began New Sources

20 Viking Raids Sailing Skills First Targets Little Time
Vikings superb ship builders, sailors Ships capable of withstanding heavy ocean waves; crews as many as 100 Skills at navigation allowed crossing great expanses of ocean First Targets First targets of raids England, northern France Later Vikings began raiding places farther from homeland Even inland locations like Paris, Aachen unsafe Little Time People lived in fear, had no warning that Vikings were coming Fast-moving ships approached target quickly Vikings killed, captured defenders; took what they could find, sailed away

21 Favorite Targets Viking Settlements
Among favorite Viking targets, monasteries Monks not warriors, monasteries easy to plunder Fine treasures, jeweled crosses, golden candlesticks stolen Vikings not Christians, had no problems stealing religious items Viking Settlements Not all Vikings who left Scandinavia raiders, some explorers One place settled by Vikings, Iceland; first arrived late 700s Viking society thrived there for centuries, longer than in Europe 982, Viking explorers reached Greenland 100 years later, Leif Eriksson reached North America

22 Viking warriors also settled in northern France
Normandy Viking warriors also settled in northern France Led by chief named Rollo, attacked France many times King of France made deal with Rollo Rollo to stop raids, defend Frankish lands against other Vikings King to give Rollo land Rollo accepted, area became known as Normandy, land of Northmen

23 What made Viking raids so terrifying to Christian Europe?
Draw Conclusions What made Viking raids so terrifying to Christian Europe? Answer(s): People did not know when they were coming, so could not prepare; Viking raids were brutal.

24 The Magyars Nomads Raids
Vikings terrorized northern, western Europe; Magyars invaded from east Magyars nomads from central Asia who settled in what is now Hungary Fierce warriors like Vikings Not sailors, skilled riders who outmaneuvered opponents on horseback Planned raids carefully, attacking smaller settlements Nomads Raided eastern France, Germany, northern Italy, western Byzantine Empire Eventually gave up nomadic ways, but lost battle advantage of running from opposing armies Mid-900s, German king Otto the Great crushed Magyar army, ending raids Raids

25 Why were Magyar raids so difficult to stop?
Infer Why were Magyar raids so difficult to stop? Answer(s): They attacked small villages, were excellent horsemen, able to outrun the opposing army

26 Muslims first came to Europe in large numbers as conquerors.
The Muslims Muslims first came to Europe in large numbers as conquerors. 711, Muslim army from North Africa crossed Strait of Gibraltar, conquered Spain Ruled Iberian Peninsula more than 700 years, non nomadic Capital city, Cordoba, one of wealthiest, most culturally advanced cities of medieval world Muslim Spain land of tolerance Many religions living together in peace Muslim Spain 732, Muslims swept into France, stopped short by Charles Martel, Charlemagne’s grandfather 800s, 900s, Muslim leaders ordered small, fast raids against cities, towns in southern France, Italy Raided Rome, destroyed ancient churches France, Italy

27 Blocking Trade Muslim fleets blocked Byzantine trade in Mediterranean Muslim pirates looted ships, sold crews into slavery Cut off Italy from trade with eastern allies Pope turned to Franks for protection Balance of power in western Europe shifted because of this


29 Why did Muslims launch small, fast raids against Christian lands?
Make Generalizations Why did Muslims launch small, fast raids against Christian lands? Answer(s): unable to achieve a full invasion of Europe

30 Grog 13-2 use the interactive graphic organizer to list and describe the peoples that invaded Europe

31 The Feudal System and Manorial Systems
Chapter 13 Section 3 Pages

32 Bell Ringer 13-4 Write a description of a Viking, Magyar, or Muslim raid as though you are an inhabitant of the town being raided. Bring your description to life by choosing vivid adjectives to describe the sights, sounds, and emotions that surround you

33 The Feudal and Manorial Systems
Main Idea In Europe during the Middle Ages, the feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties and obligations. Reading Focus What duties and obligations were central to the feudal system? How did the manorial system govern the medieval economy? What was daily life like for people on a manor?

34 Feudalism Why Feudalism?Invasion of groups like Vikings, Magyar, and Muslims left king unable to defend their lands and nobles land from attack. Nobles must find a way to defend their own lands. Build castles on hilltops

35 How to solve this problem?
Nobles would hire Knights to defend their lands. Knights would provide military services Provide loyalty to lord Give an oath of Fealty. Diminished the power of kings Lords would give Knights Land treat fairly Protect if attacked Settle disputes

36 The Feudal System Based on rights & obligations
In exchange for military & other services, a lord (landowner) granted land (fief) to a vassal (person receiving fief) Exchanging land for services is called the Feudal system. This is a complicated system where very few understood who their obligations were to.

37 The Feudal Pyramid

38 WHAT’S HAPPENING? What led to the Feudal System ?
Constant brutal fighting amongst nobles What was Feudal System ? Political system in which nobles were granted the use of land that legally belonged to the king In return, the nobles agreed to give their loyalty and military services to the king. Reduce the number of people who are loyal to king

39 WHAT’S HAPPENING? How did Feudal system diminish the power of the king? What is the Noble? What is the Vassal? What is the Fief?

40 The Manorial System Economic Arrangement Between Lord & Serf
In exchange for housing, land, and protection, serfs had to perform tasks to maintain the estate and pay several different kinds of taxes Were legally tied to the land Could not leave land, or marry w/o lords permission Serfdom was hereditary No opportunities to better their situation

41 The Manorial System Serfs
The manor was practically self-sufficient, producing almost everything needed for daily life, so serfs rarely had to leave their manor for anything Outside purchases included salt, iron, and a few unusual objects like millstones (used to grind flour) So why did they accept their economic hardship? Acceptance was part of Church teachings They believed that God decided people’s social position

42 The Manorial System Manors
Self-contained communities that dotted the countryside throughout western Europe Crop rotation

43 Daily Life in The Middle Ages Castle
Built for defense not Comfort Few windows- dark and musty all year long Private rooms rare- divided by sheets or rugs Waste was disposed into the moat or river No Charmin only Hay Bathed in wooden tub in garden (summer) or by fireplace (winter)

44 Castle Bedroom

45 Daily Life in The Middle Ages Villages
Small 1- 2 bedroom cottages built by themselves Small/Few windows Hatched straw roof Wooden stools/ few pieces of furniture Hay mattress=Bugs Cook over open fire??? Really???

46 Villages

47 Grog 13-4 In 10-15 sentences tell me which you would rather live in
A castle or a village home Put your name on it and turn it in.

48 The Growth of Monarchies
Chapter 13 Section 4 Pages

49 Bell Ringer 13-4 Write a journal entry from the point of view of a man or woman in the early Middle Ages. In your entry, describe what your daily life is like and what duties and obligations you fulfill

50 The Growth of Monarchies
Main Idea The power of kings grew and the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the early Middle Ages. Reading Focus How did the power of the English monarchy grow and change? How did kings increase their powers in the other monarchies of Europe?

51 The Growth Of Monarchies CH 13 Sec 4 pages 387-391

52 What we will learn The power of kings and the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the middle ages

53 Anglo Saxon England England was the 1st country in Europe to develop a strong central monarchy The Anglo Saxons first unified the county During most of the Anglo Saxon period England was divided into 7 small kingdoms Alfred the Great drove Vikings out of England uniting England under 1 ruler Alfred’s decedents would rule England until one would die without a heir

54 2 men would claim the crown
Anglo Saxon England 2 men would claim the crown Harold, a nobleman from England William, the Duke of Normandy and a distant relative of dead Anglo Saxon King Supported by English nobles Harold would be named king William would decided to take thrown by force

55 England’s Evolving Gov’t
Battle of Hastings (1066) Normans, under William the Conqueror defeated Harold, Anglo-Saxon king English lords lost their land William granted fiefs to Norman lords A new nobility in England They swore loyalty to him personally Doomsday book- survey to see what each person could pay in taxes Laid the foundation for centralized gov’t William would bring elements of French Culture to England- French Language

56 England’s Evolving Gov’t
Henry II- descendent of William Became ruler of England in 1154 Strengthened England’s legal system Sent royal judges to parts of England to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, & punish crimes Introduced the use of the jury in English courts Laid foundation for English common law

57 Why was King William I known as William the Conquer?
Why did William I create a new nobility in England? Do you think that William should have insisted that the Nobles learn the Anglo Saxon Language?

58 King John Decision making game
King John takes power of English thrown in 1200 AD. He will have some tough decision so make in order to keep the people happy.

59 King John manages to upset everyone!!
The first king to give up some of his power was John. He is famous as Prince John in make believe stories of Robin Hood. In the stories he is a wicked and foolish prince who taxes the people of England unfairly. Some historians say John was just as foolish in real life. Others say he was simply unlucky! John ruled England from 1199 to He faced the following problems.

60 Could the rich control the king?
Around the picture below, you can read some of the qualities which medieval people expected their king to have! Which three are the most important for a medieval king? A good judge of character Rich – but not greedy! A good soldier Fit and strong God fearing Inspiring! Brave Hardworking Wise Firm – but fair!

61 Your enquiry! Medieval kings could get into serious trouble if they did not have the qualities of a KING! In the thirteenth century some Nobles forced an unpopular king to give up some power …and it was only the beginning!! In this enquiry, you will find out how the richest people in the country began to challenge the king

62 ..\Pictures\KingJohnDecisionGame.ppt

63 England’s Evolving Gov’t
The power of the king continued to increase significantly Noble worried that Kings power would take from their own rights King continued to fight wars, adding new lands in France Needed money and tried to raise taxes Nobles would refused and took up arms against the King of England.

64 How did the barons strike back?
In 1214 many barons rebelled against John. They believed that he could not rule the country properly and was treating them unfairly. If someone did not do something the whole country could be ruined! In 1215 the barons forced John to grant a charter, which was the first time anyone had expected an English king to obey a set of rules.

65 England’s Evolving Gov’t
Magna Carta Signed by King John of England in 1215 Bill of Rights is very similar to the Magna Carta Guaranteed what are now seen as certain basic legal rights in both England and the US Included: No taxation without representation Trial by jury Protection of the law

66 I, King John, accept that I have to govern according to the law.
The Magna Carta I, King John, accept that I have to govern according to the law. So I agree: 1. Not to imprison nobles without trial 2. That trials must be in courts; not held in secret by me 3. To have fair taxation for the nobles 4. To let freemen travel wherever they like 5. Not to interfere in Church matters 6. Not to seize crops without paying for them …. and lot more things too!!

67 King John Signing the Magna Carta

68 England’s Evolving Gov’t
Some Nobles were still not satisfied They wanted more of a say in how the country was run They rebelled….. Again. King needing money for wars agreed to meet with Nobility, Clergy, and middle class Resulting in the formation of Parliament

69 England’s Evolving Gov’t
Meeting of Model Parliament Met in 1295 under the reign of Edward I Considered a major step toward democratic government because: It was a legislative group composed of commoners – burgesses from every borough and knights from every county Parliament could create new taxes and advised the king on law making and other policies ** Under Edward I, Parliament was a royal tool that weakened the great lords, but as time went on, it became strong enough to provide a check on royal power

70 Why did nobles rebel against King John?
What's Happening? Why did nobles rebel against King John? What was most unusual about the council that becomes parliament? What was the most revolutionary part of Magna Carta?

71 King of France ruled little territory
France Develops King of France ruled little territory Rest of France was in hands of nobles and King of England Nobles had more land and power Ignored Kings wishes

72 Capetian family was a noble family
France Develops Capetian family was a noble family Hugh Capet extended the power of their monarchy throughout France Did so via wars, marriages and other arrangements

73 Holy Roman Empire After Charlemagne's death, Germany is divided into several small states Otto the Great, Duke of Saxony Unites Germany and Northern Italy When Noble challenged Pope Otto stepped Pope rewarded him by crowning him Emperor of the Romans. The land he ruled was called the Holy Roman Empire

74 Emperor needed Dukes support to make laws
Holy Roman Empire Decisions and laws were passed with help of Dukes who still had authority over their own lands Emperor needed Dukes support to make laws Duke would elected new emperor New Emperor would then have to crown by Pope

75 Before the Capetians, how much territory did the king of France rule?
What's Happening? Before the Capetians, how much territory did the king of France rule? Why do you think the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was elected? Why do you think that the Roman Emperor had to travel to Rome in to be crowned by the Pope

76 Ruled by Muslims (Moors) Cordoba was center of powerful Muslim rule
Spain and Portugal Ruled by Muslims (Moors) Cordoba was center of powerful Muslim rule Christian defeat powerful Moors after they are weakened by a civil war Reconquista- Campaigns to take back Iberian Peninsula from Moors 1100 Portugal is successful 1492 Spain is Successful 2 Kingdoms would ruled together Via Marriage Rulers of Aragon and Castile marriage Resulting in one of the strongest countries in Europe

77 What was the reconquista?
What's Happening? What was the reconquista? How was Spain and Portugal united and what was the result?

78 Grog 13-4 use the interactive graphic organizer to take notes about the growth of monarchies in Europe

79 Power of the Church Chapter 13 Section 5 Pages

80 Bell Ringer 13-5 Write a letter to King John of England as though you were one of his advisors. In your letter, you must advise him either to accept or reject Magna Carta. Remember to use logical reasons to support your position

81 Power of the Church Main Idea Reading Focus
Reform and changes swept through the Christian Church, one of the most influential institutions in medieval Europe. Reading Focus What was the nature and influence of religion in the Middle Ages? What led to the growth of papal power in Europe? What changes in monasticism were introduced in the Middle Ages?

82 Religion in the Middle Ages
Pope is head of Roman Catholic Church Early popes seen as spiritual leaders Noted for their religious devotion During Middle Ages, they became powerful political figures Popes as Political Figures Manorialism, feudalism encouraged local loyalties Christian beliefs brought people across Europe together in spiritual community of Christendom Religion touched almost every aspect of Christians’ lives Increased Popes influence Christian Beliefs

83 Religious Ceremonies Dramatic Increase
Major life events marked by religious ceremonies Monks acted as peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers, armies Church officials served as teachers, record keepers Clergy people’s main connection to church, had great influence Dramatic Increase Around 1000, influence of church increased dramatically Great upwelling of piety, level of devotion, in Europe Members of Christian church became more devout Participation in religious services increased, thousands flocked to monasteries, joined religious orders

84 Identify Cause and Effect
Why was the medieval clergy so influential? Answer(s): Christian church had strong influence over daily lives of most Europeans; clergy were the people's link to the church

85 Growth of Papal Power Papacy Church Reforms
Not only were Europe’s common people inspired by a new sense of piety, many clergy members sought ways to improve conditions. 900s, 1000s, pope had little authority Considered head of church, but local bishops made most important religious decisions Papacy not held in high regard Few popes noted for religious devotion; most were nobles concerned with increasing own power Papacy 1049, first of series of clever, capable popes dedicated to reforming papacy came to power, Leo IX Believed that Europe’s clergy had become corrupt, wanted to reform it Concerned with simony, buying and selling of church offices by bishops Church Reforms

86 Power and Conflict Excommunication Reforms Conflict
Bishops guilty of bad offenses excommunicated, cast out of church No greater punishment for Christians in Middle Ages Person excommunicated could not take part in Eucharist, could not be saved Reforms Leo became more active in governing church than other popes in past Reforms brought him into conflict with political, religious leaders Many bishops believed pope had no authority to tell them how to act Conflict One who rejected Leo’s authority, bishop of Constantinople 1054, Leo excommunicated bishop, split Christian Church in two Those who agreed Leo called Roman Catholics; those who sided with bishop, Orthodox

87 Popes and Politics Popes gained influence over people’s religious lives, also over European politics Pope became head of huge network of ecclesiastical courts, heard cases on religious, moral matters Pope also ruled territories, like Papal States Had ability to raise armies to defend territories Several popes hired Normans to fight wars Crusades against Muslims launched by popes

88 Conflict over Bishops Tradition Reform Bishop of Milan
Although popes had increased their power, they still came into conflict with political leaders. Popes of the late 1000s were firmly resolved to change the way members of the clergy were chosen. Kings, other leaders played active role in choosing clergy Kings chose most bishops Holy Roman emperor named several popes Tradition Reform popes did not think anyone but clergy should choose religious officials Issue became critical during Pope Gregory VII’s pontificate Reform Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor, chose new bishop for city of Milan Gregory did not approve, removed bishop Henry disputed Gregory’s authority Bishop of Milan

89 Gregory and Henry Excommunication Canossa Bishops Power
Gregory’s response was to excommunicate Henry Called on clergy, nobility of Germany to replace emperor Canossa Fearing he would lose his throne, Henry traveled to Canossa to beg forgiveness Reluctantly, Gregory lifted excommunication Bishops Gregory, Henry continued fighting over bishops for years Later popes reached compromise: local clergy would choose bishops Power Most important outcome: Gregory stood up to emperor The pope had become one of strongest figures in Europe

90 In what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages?
Analyze In what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages? Answer(s): eliminated corrupt clergy, appointed bishops, became political leaders, built armies, ruled territory

91 Changes in Monasticism
Contemplation and Prayer Early Middle Ages, monasteries founded by men seeking lives of contemplation and prayer Monasteries often paid for by local rulers, who chose abbots who led them Benedictine Rule Abandoned By around 900, rulers had stopped choosing qualified abbots Many held positions only for prestige In these monasteries, strict Benedictine Rule abandoned Return to Monasticism Early 900s, group of monks sought to return monasticism to strict roots Established new monastery at Cluny, France, to live by Benedictine Rule Monks of Cluny reserved right to choose own abbot

92 Network of Monasteries
Cluny became most influential monastery in Europe Monks established daughter houses, leaders had to answer to Cluny abbot Other monasteries in France, Spain, Italy adopted Cluny’s customs, agreed to follow direction of its abbots Cluny became core of network of monasteries across western Europe For some monks, Benedictine life not strict enough Monks wanted lives free from any worldly distractions Created new orders, most popular of which was Cistercian order New Orders Usually built outside of towns to ensure isolation Undecorated, unheated even in winter; monks divided time between prayer, labor Other new orders even stricter, members lived like hermits Admired for their dedication to faith and the piety Cistercian Monasteries

93 What changes were introduced to monasticism?
Find the Main Idea What changes were introduced to monasticism? Answer(s): stricter rules, monks stayed out of politics, simplified lives

94 GROG 13-5 fill in the interactive graphic organizer by identifying how changes in Christianity affected different types of people in the Middle Ages

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