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World War One I.The War A.Causes B.Opposition II.Labor in the War A.Boomtime for Workers B.Strike wave III.The State and the Unions A.Persuasion B.Pressure.

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Presentation on theme: "World War One I.The War A.Causes B.Opposition II.Labor in the War A.Boomtime for Workers B.Strike wave III.The State and the Unions A.Persuasion B.Pressure."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War One I.The War A.Causes B.Opposition II.Labor in the War A.Boomtime for Workers B.Strike wave III.The State and the Unions A.Persuasion B.Pressure C.Repression IV.1919 A.Radical strikes B.Red Scare

2 European Empires Four empires –Germany –Russia –Hapsburgs (A-H) –Ottomans Vie for control over Eastern & Southern Europe –Poland –Lithuania –Latvia –Belarus –Czech Republic –Slovakia –Ukraine –Romania –Bulgaria –Greece

3 World Empires Britain –S. Asia –Canada –Australia –E. & S. Africa France –West Africa –S.E. Asia Ottomans –Turkey –Middle East Belgium –C. Africa Italy –Somalia Holland –Indonesia Germany seeks to expand its holdings

4 Assassination Archduke Ferdinand Gavrilo Princip

5 Alliances Central Powers (Germany, Austria, Ottomans) Allies (UK, France, Russia, Italy)

6 Opposition Ethnic divisions –Total US Pop-- 91M –Germany M –Aus-Hun M –Ireland M African-Ams-- 9.7M Populists and Pacifists Radicals –Socialists –Industrial Workers of the World  Eugene Debs Canton, OH, 1918

7 Labor Shortage Draft takes four million men out of the work force –1/6 of the adult male population (92 million) Women –White collar women increased by more than 300,000 The Great Migration –Between 1910 and 1920, 500,000 African-Americans leave the South for Northern cities

8 Protest Between , more than a million workers go on strike every year 6,000 strikes Earnings rise 26% Remington Arms Plant Bridgeport, CT June 1915

9 Persuasion Worker protection Union legitimacy Arbitration “Industrial democracy”  War Industries Board, 1917

10 Closing Ranks Pressure on individuals –Propaganda –Bond Drives –Americanization Crush labor’s left flank –Vigilantism –Mass arrests of Wobblies –Imprison Eugene Debs and other critics of war

11 Postwar expectations Rhetoric: “Industrial Democracy” Russian Revolution Strike wave –Seattle Soviet –Boston Police –Actors Strike –Garment –Textile –Coal

12 The Great Steel Strike William Z. Foster <= Chicago Steel Workers

13 The Great Steel Strike Johnstown18K Coatesville4K Youngstown70K Wheeling15K Cleveland25K Steubenville12K Chicago90K Buffalo12K Pueblo6K Birmingham2K Bethlehem20K Total366K Pittsburgh25K Homestead9K Braddock10K Rankin5K Clairton4K Duquesne12K Vandergrift4K Brackenridge5K New Kensington1.1K Apollo1.5K Leechburg3K Donora12K

14 The Red Scare Palmer House Bombed

15 The Red Scare Quash dissent 6,000 detained 300 deported Emma Goldman Ethel Bernstein Peter Blaski Alex. Berkman Radicals deported to Russia from the United States Socialists suspended from NY Legislature, 1920


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