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CRJS 318 Web Site

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1 CRJS 318 Web Site

2 CRJS 318 Probation, Parole and Community-Based Corrections Two Books: Community-Based Corrections, MML Community Corrections, JP

3 Instructor Background Chris Pate Military State Government Academic Practitioner Perspective

4 Succeeding In Class The Easy Way – Read Assignments Generally Before Classes – Attend Class, Participate, Take Notes – Review Material For Understanding The Hard Way - Don’t Read Assignments Or Attend Class -Rely On Someone Else To Carry You

5 Rules For Fairness Verification required for excused late papers and missed quizzes. Be considerate. Be on time for quizzes and written assignments. Honor Code is absolute.

6 Extra Credit 1. Options listed in online syllabus 2. Pre-Approved community service Provide verification by due date

7 Getting Started 1. What is the purpose of our CJ System? 2. What is the purpose of incarceration? 3. What is CBC expected to accomplish? 4. Who are the clients served by CJ system?

8 5. Does our CJ system work as it should? 6. Does CBC accomplish what it should? 7. Does rehabilitation work?

9 8. Should offenders who commit similar crimes and who have similar backgrounds receive identical sentences? 9. Who is being punished worse by incarceration: offenders or society?

10 10. How should society decide who is punished and who is not? 11. Should we be as fair and just with criminals as with one another? 12. What is punishment?

11 13. What is sufficient punishment? 14. Is prison/jail more punitive than probation or parole?

12 16. If CBC with Intermediate Sanctions punishes more than confinement, and if imprisonment increases criminal outcomes, why not use more CBC? 17. Whose responsibility is public safety?

13 18. Why do resource allocators (Politicians) not fund CBC better? 19. Who pays the bill? 20. Who cares?

14 Historical Perspectives Public debate on crime has ignored or diminished the role of CBC. Crime control legislation has all but eliminated consideration of P&P.

15 Perhaps the only public system in worse shape than education and health care is criminal justice. Perhaps we should call it the legal system rather than the criminal justice system.

16 Public debate on crime has ignored or diminished the role of CBC. Recent federal crime control legislation – 1994, Most ambitious crime control bill ever – $22 Billion to expand prisons, lengthen sentences, hire police, TX – 1995, Increased funding to $30 Billion – Diverted $5 Billion TX money to prison construction and enforcement

17 Why is this a problem? The majority of criminals, who happen to be serving sentences on probation and parole, are unaffected. Discussion

18 Effects Governmental “cutback mentality” and “get tough” mood exacerbate crime.

19 Caseload Size

20 Simplistic Solutions “A smart person solves problems. A genius prevents them. CJ is filled with wise people and short of geniuses.”

21 False Dichotomy

22 CBC Is Partly At Fault CBC practitioners need to: – Articulate what they do – Evaluate programs for effectiveness – Proactively educate the public Facts and Alternatives

23 Challenge: Balanced Approach Make better use of taxpayer funds. Recognize incarceration may have a limited impact on crime rates. Imprison physical threat offenders. Redirect some resources to promising CBC programs.

24 How Did The Mess Occur? Human Nature and Immediate Gratification Think of love – Perfection – Fireworks – Promise of Eternal Bliss – Reality Dawns (Usually)

25 The Panacea Phenomenon

26 Prior Panaceas The Evolution of CBC Community Punishments 1700’s Quakers, Penitentiaries 1870’s Indeterminate Sentence 1800’s-1900 Therapeutic Prison 1960’s-1970’s Flourishing CBC 1980’s-Present Get Tough On Crime 1980’s-1990’s Punish and Control

27 Net Widening During the Flourishing of CBC Period

28 A Better Idea Reasoned Approach Consensus Building Realize TX Is Not A Euphemism For Leniency Realize Control, Properly Done, Will Not Corrupt Reform

29 Facts P&P Programs Work When They Are:

30 Corrections Spending Prison and Jail Spending – Two Cents of Every State and Local Dollar Probation and Parole - Two Tenths of One Cent ¾ of Correctional Clients Are In Local Communities They Receive 1/10 Of Corrections Budgets

31 Problem, Reality, Results Problem: President’s Crime Commission Reality: Average national caseload 150:1

32 Supervision Failures Offenders who fail under community supervision are the fastest growing component of prison populations. This costs you $$$$$$$$$$.

33 Cost Comparisons Effective TX Programs – $12,000 to $14,000 per year Prison – $18,000 to $25,000 per year Probation – About $1,400 per year

34 Expanded Prison Policy Politicians Cite Public Opinion As The Reason For Supporting Expanded Prison/Incarceration Policies. Fundamental Tenet of Democratic Society – Government and its institutions should reflect the will of the people.

35 Problem: What Punishes? – Is requiring a runner to run 5 miles punishment? – Is requiring a lazy person to stay home punishment? Reality: The opinion of the person punished is crucial in determining punishment.

36 Intermediate Sanctions As Punishment Many offenders consider Intermediate Sanctions more punishing than prison. Balance, Level and Intensity of IS can be dreaded. – One 10 page research paper per semester – Per week – Per Day

37 Building Consensus Common Sense (and Knowledge) Target Offender Groups That Make Sense – Those that commit the most crime – Those that pose the least physical threat

38 Consensus (cont’d) Answer: Minor Drug Offenders - Greatest number of offenders -Drugs generally contribute to crime -TX reduces crime

39 What Really Works

40 Results of P&P Cases in TX Higher success rates and Lower crime rates Each day of TX pays for itself that day – Crime costs and Health Care costs

41 Problems to Address How to Control Crime Crime Prevention De-escalating Criminal Careers

42 A Bottom Line Problem Federal Crime Control Policy – Provides $$$ to states to support fed policies – Political Leadership and Guts Is A Major Issue

43 False Dichotomy Tough Law Enforcement vs. CB Prevention To argue between tough law enforcement and community-based crime prevention is a false dichotomy. The choice is not one or the other.

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