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Washington Heads the New Government Chapter 6 Section 1
George Washington At 6’2”, he was almost 1 foot taller than the average man in the 1700s His wife, Martha, inherited her wealth from her deceased husband.
George Washington Washington was unanimously elected No one knew exactly what the role of a president would be. He set precedents as he established the procedure to fulfill his responsibilities.
Judiciary Act 1789 Washington and Congress set up the federal court system This included a Supreme Court, 2 federal circuit courts and 13 federal district courts Judges for each position were nominated and confirmed.
Presidential Cabinet Not mentioned in the Constitution, Washington chose 4 men to assist him. This was one of many precedents he set which every president since has copied.
Washington’s Cabinet Sec. Of State – Thomas Jefferson Sec. Of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton Sec. Of War – Henry Knox Attorney General – Edmund Randolph
Thomas Jefferson Jefferson was born to a rich family in Virginia His first memory was being carried on a pillow by a slave He owned slaves and had children with Sally Hemming
Alexander Hamilton Hamilton was born to a poor, single woman She died when he was 10 He worked his way from college to assisting Washington in the Revolutionary War
Differences Jefferson believed that the country should be agrarian based Had faith in common man Hamilton believed that the country should be industrial based Had faith in aristocracy
Alexander Hamilton Hamilton developed 3 plans for the new country Report on Public Credit National Bank Report on Manufactures
Report on Public Credit The report contained all the debt owed by America for the war He wanted all debts paid but some states did not The capital was put near VA to get them to agree
National Bank Hamilton pushed for this because the nation would have a place to Deposit money Issue currency Make loans
National Bank Opposition said the Constitution did not allow government to do it Hamilton writes report about “implied powers” using the necessary and proper clause. Passes (so does his idea)
Question: What is the necessary and proper clause? Answer: Also known as the "elastic clause," this clause is one of the most powerful in the Constitution. It allows the Government of the United States to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution." This has been used for all types of federal actions including requiring integration in the states.
Report on Manufacture Hamilton wanted to raise tariffs to help emerging New England factory system. Most taxes would be paid by importing Southern and Western farmers This failed to pass
Washington D. C. Pierre L’Enfant drew the original plans Andrew Ellicott added to the plan Benjamin Banneker surveyed the land The result was a city of parallel and diagonal streets
Political Factions Most Americans in government thought that because we had common goals, political parties would not develop. Many thought they were dangerous
Political Factions Differences of opinions, focused mainly on Jefferson and Hamilton, led to both gaining strength as people allied themselves with one or the other
Political Factions Hamilton’s followers, Federalists, wanted A strong federal government Industrial base Ties with Britain “betters” leading common men
Political Factions Washington advised against 2 things in his Farewell Address 1. involvement with European conflicts 2. political factions Parties continue to evolve
Whiskey Rebellion Congress passed a tax on whiskey, made from corn grown by western PA Scots- Irish farmers Hamilton used the situation to flex his muscle, bringing in federal troops.
Whiskey Rebellion The rebellion was almost over by the time the militia arrived Republicans said the event was a fabrication to help the Federalists The Federalists blamed the Republican farmers
Children School – optional attendance when work at home wasn’t needed Work – chores at home, many worked as adults outside the home Play – strict codes of behavior
Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation Chapter 6 Section 2
Events in Europe French rebels imprison, and then behead, King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Gouveneur Morris, minister to France, was astonished at the horrors of the Reign of Terror
Events in Europe The Treaty 1778 allied us with France Initially, America backed the French Revolution because of its similarities to their own Revolution. But we did not use the guillotine
Neutrality Washington declared our neutrality in 1793 Hamilton and Jefferson agreed that involvement in European affairs was to be avoided
Edmund Genet Edmond Genet arrived in Charleston SC in 1793 to raise and arm a fleet of American privateers to aid in France's war against Britain. On his way back with his fleet, he stopped in Philadelphia to gain the support of the government but was turned away because Washington did not want to loose American neutrality between Britain and France. His involvement split the parties and Jefferson resigns
Jay’s Treaty Relations with Britain, still smarting from the loss of her colonies, worsened in the early 1790s. From the American perspective, issues included seizure from American ships of cargoes unrelated to war, impressment of American seamen and continuing British occupation of western posts within U.S. borders. impressment In 1794, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay was dispatched to England to seek solutions. The resulting agreement stirred up heated passions within the cabinet with Hamilton supporting the agreement and Jefferson opposing it. Key provisions included:Supreme CourtJohn JayHamilton Jefferson The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American West A commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and Canada A commission to be established to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence.War for Independence Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen. Feeling against Jay's Treaty ran high, and Hamilton was stoned by an angry crowd in New York. Nevertheless, the Senate ratified the agreement with a reservation inserted regarding a provision that limited American trade in the British West Indies. Washington, after much agonizing, approved the treaty.New YorkWashington Jay's Treaty is significant in part because of the tremendous uproar it cause
Pinckney’s Treaty One of the most important diplomatic aims of the Washington administration was to secure recognition of American borders from the great powers. Britain did so in Jay's Treaty (negotiated in 1794 and ratified in 1795). France was unlikely to cooperate on any issue, given that the United States had failed to honor the alliance of Spain at this time held the prized port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi River.Washington Jay's TreatyNew Orleans Mississippi River Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain, was dispatched to Spain and won two highly desirable concessions: Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession) Spain granted Americans the right to deposit goods for transshipment at New Orleans. The second provision was a vital concern of American farmers in the West. Efforts to transport their goods to market in the East by overland routes were time- consuming and expensive. The right of deposit allows one nation to temporarily store goods on another nation's soil without paying any fees or duties. Spain granted these concessions to the United States, not from fear of America's military might, but from concern over major power diplomatic realities. Spain was a rival of Britain and noted the warming relationship between Britain and the U.S. as evidenced in Jay's Treaty. Therefore, Spain hoped to keep Britain off balance by establishing a positive relationship with America
Fallen Timbers Under the Treaty of Paris, Britain was suppose to leave the west They did not but they did encourage Indians to attack settlers Fallen Timbers, battle fought in 1794 between tribes of the Northwest Territory and the U.S. it took place southwest of present-day Toledo. The Native American defeat hastened the collapse of indigenous resistance in the area, secured the northwest frontier, and demonstrated the strength of the new national government.
Treaty of Greenville At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, in 1792, American forces soundly defeated the Indians Under the treaty, the Indians gave up Ohio for $20,000 down and $10,000 per year This trend continues as Americans move west
Election of 1796 Washington announced that he would not run for a 3 rd term with the hopes that Republicans would not have time to find a candidate. John Adams, Federalist, ran against Thomas Jefferson, Dem. Rep.
Election of 1796 J. Adams - 71 Jefferson - 68 Pinckney - 59 Burr - 30 Sectional differences can already be seen 70 needed to win
1796 Election Alexander Hamilton tried to manipulate the electoral college so Adams would lose As it happened, Adams became president but his political enemy, Jefferson, became his vice president
The Electoral College is a controversial mechanism of presidential elections that was created by the framers of the U.S. Constitution as a compromise for the presidential election process. At the time, some politicians believed a purely popular election was too reckless, while others objected to giving Congress the power to select the president. The compromise was to set up an Electoral College system that allowed voters to vote for electors, who would then cast their votes for candidates, a system described in Article II, section 1 of the Constitution.U.S. Constitution
XYZ Affair Adams tried to ease tensions with France He sent 3 ambassadors to speak to the French foreign minister Instead they were sent to lower level officials who demanded payment of $250,000
Election of 1796 The ambassadors declared, “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.” When news of the bribe reached America, anti-French sentiments rose John Adams creates the Department of the Navy to protect our ships George Washington was enlisted again to be Comm. In Chief, Hamilton runs the Army Never declaring war, America fought a quasi-war with France
Alien and Sedition Acts Opposition to the Federalists continued to grow New immigrants typically became Dem. Republicans as they became citizens The Federalists pass a series of laws to help keep themselves in power
Alien and Sedition Acts The Alien Act made immigrants wait 14 years (instead of 5) to become citizens It made it easier to deport aliens The Sedition Act made it illegal to speak poorly of the Federalists, even if the accusation were true
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Jefferson and James Madison fought the acts by passing these resolution It stated that states could nullify any act they felt was unconstitutional This was a political ploy to make the Federalists look bad
Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course Chapter 6 Section 3
Election of 1800 Hamilton again tried to manipulate the electoral college to ensure Thomas Pinckney a win It costs the Federalist the election They will never win again
Election of 1800 Jefferson - 73 Burr - 73 J. Adams - 65 Pinckney - 64
Election of 1800 Aaron Burr, Jefferson’s running mate, and Jefferson received the same number of electoral votes The House of Representatives chose Jefferson Hamilton had convinced them that Burr was dangerous
12 th Amendment The election reveals the need for an amendment The 12 th Amendment – electors cast separate votes for president and vice president
Jefferson’s Administration The Democratic Republicans will monopolize the White House until 1860 Jefferson believed in a simple government, ignoring the trappings of the gentry class
Jefferson’s Plans Jefferson reduced the size of the army and navy Lowered the cost of government Eliminated all internal taxes Reduced influence of National Bank
Jefferson’s Plans Jefferson was the first president to move to Washington DC and live in the White House He was the first of the Jeffersonian presidents from VA
Midnight Judges Adams did not leave office with grace In the last days of his administration he created new court positions (that he filled with Federalists) and appointed John Marshall as Supreme Court chief justice.
Midnight Judges Packing the courts with Federalists meant that their views could be present for the next 30 years since judges retain their position until death Appoints that were not received by the time Jefferson took office were declared invalid
Midnight Judges William Marbury did not receive his appointment sued James Madison, Jefferson’s Sec. Of State, for it. The Judiciary Act of 1789 required the Supreme Court to deliver the papers
Judicial Review The John Marshall court decided that the Supreme Court had the power of judicial review – they can review all acts of Congress for constitutionality The late appointments were not confirmed.
Moving West Settlers moved into Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee Most came through the Cumberland Gap The trail became the Wilderness Trail
Further West In 1800 Spain returned land west of the Miss. R to France Jefferson wanted to buy the land and Monroe to Paris Napoleon’s war was not going well and he needed money
Further West He offered to sell all of the Louisiana Territory, not just New Orleans, for $15 million The deal was closed but Jefferson wasn’t sure it was Constitutional The Senate approved the purchase and the US doubled in size
Lewis and Clark Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new land They recorded new plants and animals, sent bear cubs to the White House, and walked to the Pacific Ocean.
Lewis and Clark
With the help of 50 soldiers and woodsmen, Lewis and Clark hiked for over 2 years Along the way, they met Sacajawea, who had just given birth, who help guide and translate for them.
The War of 1812 Chapter 6 Section 4
Jefferson’s Re-Election Jefferson easily won re- election in 1804 The country was happy with the Louisiana Purchase The rest of his term would not be as easy
Election of 1804 Jefferson – 162 Pinckney - 14
Napoleon Britain and France renewed their hostilities toward one another. Napoleon started the Continental System ordering all French controlled land to stop trading with Britain
Napoleon Britain responded by stating that all ships going to Europe had to stop in Britain first. This put the US in the middle of the two countries The US traded heavily with both countries.
Embargo Act Britain stopped American ships and impressed (kidnapped) sailors Jefferson convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act which stated that Americans would stop trading with all foreign nations
Embargo Act Since a large portion of the population was involved in trade, this hurt Americans more than Europeans In fact, Britain tried to take America’s trade routes while Americans were denied the right to trade.
Election of 1808 Madison – 122 Pinckney – 47 Clinton - 6
Non-Intercourse Act James Madison and Congress lifted the Embargo Act in 1809 but replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act This act forbade trade only with Britain and France
Tecumseh’s Confederacy As Americans moved farther west, interaction with the Indians was hostile. Tecumseh tried to form a confederacy to fight against the Americans
Tecumseh’s Confederacy Gen. William Henry Harrison fought against the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe War Hawks, led by Sen. John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay urged him on
War of 1812 Pres. Madison decided to go to war against Britain for not removing their western forts Much of the war was on the Great Lakes
War of 1812 The British entered Baltimore Harbor and marched to Washington DC They burned the White House Dolly Madison saved important papers and paintings
War of 1812 In New Orleans, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians and then British forces The battle happened AFTER the war was over.
Treaty of Ghent The treaty ended the war and settled land differences Britain left N. America The war of 1812 is sometimes called the last battle of the Revolution.