Presentation on theme: "Launching the New Nation"— Presentation transcript:
1Launching the New Nation Washington Heads the New GovernmentChapter 6Section 1
2George WashingtonAt 6’2”, he was almost 1 foot taller than the average man in the 1700sHis wife, Martha, inherited her wealth from her deceased husband.
3George Washington Washington was unanimously elected No one knew exactly what the role of a president would be.He set precedents as he established the procedure to fulfill his responsibilities.
4Judiciary Act 1789Washington and Congress set up the federal court systemThis included a Supreme Court, 2 federal circuit courts and 13 federal district courtsJudges for each position were nominated and confirmed.
5Presidential CabinetNot mentioned in the Constitution, Washington chose 4 men to assist him.This was one of many precedents he set which every president since has copied.
6Washington’s Cabinet Sec. Of State – Thomas Jefferson Sec. Of the Treasury – Alexander HamiltonSec. Of War – Henry KnoxAttorney General – Edmund Randolph
7Thomas Jefferson Jefferson was born to a rich family in Virginia His first memory was being carried on a pillow by a slaveHe owned slaves and had children with Sally Hemming
8Alexander Hamilton Hamilton was born to a poor, single woman She died when he was 10He worked his way from college to assisting Washington in the Revolutionary War
9DifferencesJefferson believed that the country should be agrarian basedHad faith in common manHamilton believed that the country should be industrial basedHad faith in aristocracy
10Alexander Hamilton Hamilton developed 3 plans for the new country Report on Public CreditNational BankReport on Manufactures
11Report on Public Credit The report contained all the debt owed by America for the warHe wanted all debts paid but some states did notThe capital was put near VA to get them to agree
12National BankHamilton pushed for this because the nation would have a place toDeposit moneyIssue currencyMake loans
13National BankOpposition said the Constitution did not allow government to do itHamilton writes report about “implied powers” using the necessary and proper clause.Passes (so does his idea)
14Question: What is the necessary and proper clause? Answer: Also known as the "elastic clause," this clause is one of the most powerful in the Constitution. It allows the Government of the United States to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution." This has been used for all types of federal actions including requiring integration in the states.
15Report on ManufactureHamilton wanted to raise tariffs to help emerging New England factory system.Most taxes would be paid by importing Southern and Western farmersThis failed to pass
16Washington D. C. Pierre L’Enfant drew the original plans Andrew Ellicott added to the planBenjamin Banneker surveyed the landThe result was a city of parallel and diagonal streets
17Political FactionsMost Americans in government thought that because we had common goals, political parties would not develop.Many thought they were dangerous
18Political FactionsDifferences of opinions, focused mainly on Jefferson and Hamilton, led to both gaining strength as people allied themselves with one or the other
19Political Factions Hamilton’s followers, Federalists, wanted A strong federal governmentIndustrial baseTies with Britain“betters” leading common men
20Political FactionsWashington advised against 2 things in his Farewell Address1. involvement with European conflicts2. political factionsParties continue to evolve
22Whiskey RebellionCongress passed a tax on whiskey, made from corn grown by western PA Scots-Irish farmersHamilton used the situation to flex his muscle, bringing in federal troops.
23Whiskey RebellionThe rebellion was almost over by the time the militia arrivedRepublicans said the event was a fabrication to help the FederalistsThe Federalists blamed the Republican farmers
24Children School – optional attendance when work at home wasn’t needed Work – chores at home, many worked as adults outside the homePlay – strict codes of behavior
25Launching the New Nation Foreign Affairs Trouble the NationChapter 6Section 2
26Events in EuropeFrench rebels imprison, and then behead, King Louis XVI and Marie AntoinetteGouveneur Morris, minister to France, was astonished at the horrors of the Reign of Terror
27Events in Europe The Treaty 1778 allied us with France Initially, America backed the French Revolution because of its similarities to their own Revolution.But we did not use the guillotine
28Neutrality Washington declared our neutrality in 1793 Hamilton and Jefferson agreed that involvement in European affairs was to be avoided
29Edmund GenetEdmond Genet arrived in Charleston SC in 1793 to raise and arm a fleet of American privateers to aid in France's war against Britain. On his way back with his fleet, he stopped in Philadelphia to gain the support of the government but was turned away because Washington did not want to loose American neutrality between Britain and France.His involvement split the parties and Jefferson resigns
30Jay’s TreatyRelations with Britain, still smarting from the loss of her colonies, worsened in the early 1790s. From the American perspective, issues included seizure from American ships of cargoes unrelated to war, impressment of American seamen and continuing British occupation of western posts within U.S. borders.In 1794, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay was dispatched to England to seek solutions. The resulting agreement stirred up heated passions within the cabinet with Hamilton supporting the agreement and Jefferson opposing it. Key provisions included:The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American WestA commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and CanadaA commission to be established to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the War for Independence.Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen.Feeling against Jay's Treaty ran high, and Hamilton was stoned by an angry crowd in New York. Nevertheless, the Senate ratified the agreement with a reservation inserted regarding a provision that limited American trade in the British West Indies. Washington, after much agonizing, approved the treaty.Jay's Treaty is significant in part because of the tremendous uproar it cause
31Pinckney’s TreatyOne of the most important diplomatic aims of the Washington administration was to secure recognition of American borders from the great powers. Britain did so in Jay's Treaty (negotiated in 1794 and ratified in 1795). France was unlikely to cooperate on any issue, given that the United States had failed to honor the alliance of Spain at this time held the prized port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi River.Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain, was dispatched to Spain and won two highly desirable concessions:Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession)Spain granted Americans the right to deposit goods for transshipment at New Orleans.The second provision was a vital concern of American farmers in the West. Efforts to transport their goods to market in the East by overland routes were time-consuming and expensive. The right of deposit allows one nation to temporarily store goods on another nation's soil without paying any fees or duties.Spain granted these concessions to the United States, not from fear of America's military might, but from concern over major power diplomatic realities.Spain was a rival of Britain and noted the warming relationship between Britain and the U.S. as evidenced in Jay's Treaty. Therefore, Spain hoped to keep Britain off balance by establishing a positive relationship with America
32Fallen TimbersUnder the Treaty of Paris, Britain was suppose to leave the westThey did not but they did encourage Indians to attack settlersFallen Timbers, battle fought in 1794 between tribes of the Northwest Territory and the U.S. it took place southwest of present-day Toledo. The Native American defeat hastened the collapse of indigenous resistance in the area, secured the northwest frontier, and demonstrated the strength of the new national government.
33Treaty of GreenvilleAt the Battle of Fallen Timbers, in 1792, American forces soundly defeated the IndiansUnder the treaty, the Indians gave up Ohio for $20,000 down and $10,000 per yearThis trend continues as Americans move west
34Election of 1796Washington announced that he would not run for a 3rd term with the hopes that Republicans would not have time to find a candidate.John Adams, Federalist, ran against Thomas Jefferson, Dem. Rep.
35Election of 1796 J. Adams - 71 Jefferson - 68 Pinckney - 59 Burr - 30 70 needed to winJ. Adams - 71Jefferson - 68Pinckney - 59BurrSectional differences can already be seen
361796 ElectionAlexander Hamilton tried to manipulate the electoral college so Adams would loseAs it happened, Adams became president but his political enemy, Jefferson, became his vice president
37The Electoral College is a controversial mechanism of presidential elections that was created by the framers of the U.S. Constitution as a compromise for the presidential election process. At the time, some politicians believed a purely popular election was too reckless, while others objected to giving Congress the power to select the president. The compromise was to set up an Electoral College system that allowed voters to vote for electors, who would then cast their votes for candidates, a system described in Article II, section 1 of the Constitution.
38XYZ Affair Adams tried to ease tensions with France He sent 3 ambassadors to speak to the French foreign ministerInstead they were sent to lower level officials who demanded payment of $250,000
39Election of 1796The ambassadors declared, “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.”When news of the bribe reached America, anti-French sentiments roseJohn Adams creates the Department of the Navy to protect our shipsGeorge Washington was enlisted again to be Comm. In Chief, Hamilton runs the ArmyNever declaring war, America fought a quasi-war with France
40Alien and Sedition Acts Opposition to the Federalists continued to growNew immigrants typically became Dem. Republicans as they became citizensThe Federalists pass a series of laws to help keep themselves in power
41Alien and Sedition Acts The Alien Act made immigrants wait 14 years (instead of 5) to become citizensIt made it easier to deport aliensThe Sedition Act made it illegal to speak poorly of the Federalists, even if the accusation were true
42Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Jefferson and James Madison fought the acts by passing these resolutionIt stated that states could nullify any act they felt was unconstitutionalThis was a political ploy to make the Federalists look bad
43Launching the New Nation Jefferson Alters the Nation’s CourseChapter 6Section 3
44Election of 1800Hamilton again tried to manipulate the electoral college to ensure Thomas Pinckney a winIt costs the Federalist the electionThey will never win again
45Election of 1800Jefferson - 73BurrJ. Adams - 65Pinckney - 64
46Election of 1800Aaron Burr, Jefferson’s running mate, and Jefferson received the same number of electoral votesThe House of Representatives chose JeffersonHamilton had convinced them that Burr was dangerous
4712th Amendment The election reveals the need for an amendment The 12th Amendment – electors cast separate votes for president and vice president
48Jefferson’s Administration The Democratic Republicans will monopolize the White House until 1860Jefferson believed in a simple government, ignoring the trappings of the gentry class
49Jefferson’s Plans Jefferson reduced the size of the army and navy Lowered the cost of governmentEliminated all internal taxesReduced influence of National Bank
50Jefferson’s PlansJefferson was the first president to move to Washington DC and live in the White HouseHe was the first of the Jeffersonian presidents from VA
51Midnight Judges Adams did not leave office with grace In the last days of his administration he created new court positions (that he filled with Federalists) and appointed John Marshall as Supreme Court chief justice.
52Midnight JudgesPacking the courts with Federalists meant that their views could be present for the next 30 years since judges retain their position until deathAppoints that were not received by the time Jefferson took office were declared invalid
53Midnight JudgesWilliam Marbury did not receive his appointment sued James Madison, Jefferson’s Sec. Of State, for it.The Judiciary Act of 1789 required the Supreme Court to deliver the papers
54Judicial ReviewThe John Marshall court decided that the Supreme Court had the power of judicial review – they can review all acts of Congress for constitutionalityThe late appointments were not confirmed.
55Moving West Settlers moved into Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee Most came through the Cumberland GapThe trail became the Wilderness Trail
57Further West In 1800 Spain returned land west of the Miss. R to France Jefferson wanted to buy the land and Monroe to ParisNapoleon’s war was not going well and he needed money
58Further WestHe offered to sell all of the Louisiana Territory, not just New Orleans, for $15 millionThe deal was closed but Jefferson wasn’t sure it was ConstitutionalThe Senate approved the purchase and the US doubled in size
59Lewis and ClarkJefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new landThey recorded new plants and animals, sent bear cubs to the White House, and walked to the Pacific Ocean.
65NapoleonBritain and France renewed their hostilities toward one another.Napoleon started the Continental System ordering all French controlled land to stop trading with Britain
66NapoleonBritain responded by stating that all ships going to Europe had to stop in Britain first.This put the US in the middle of the two countriesThe US traded heavily with both countries.
67Embargo ActBritain stopped American ships and impressed (kidnapped) sailorsJefferson convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act which stated that Americans would stop trading with all foreign nations
68Embargo ActSince a large portion of the population was involved in trade, this hurt Americans more than EuropeansIn fact, Britain tried to take America’s trade routes while Americans were denied the right to trade.
69Election of 1808Madison – 122Pinckney – 47Clinton - 6
70Non-Intercourse ActJames Madison and Congress lifted the Embargo Act in 1809 but replaced it with the Non-Intercourse ActThis act forbade trade only with Britain and France
71Tecumseh’s Confederacy As Americans moved farther west, interaction with the Indians was hostile.Tecumseh tried to form a confederacy to fight against the Americans
72Tecumseh’s Confederacy Gen. William Henry Harrison fought against the Shawnee at the Battle of TippecanoeWar Hawks, led by Sen. John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay urged him on
73War of 1812Pres. Madison decided to go to war against Britain for not removing their western fortsMuch of the war was on the Great Lakes
74War of 1812The British entered Baltimore Harbor and marched to Washington DCThey burned the White HouseDolly Madison saved important papers and paintings
75War of 1812In New Orleans, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians and then British forcesThe battle happened AFTER the war was over.
76Treaty of Ghent The treaty ended the war and settled land differences Britain left N. AmericaThe war of 1812 is sometimes called the last battle of the Revolution.