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Unit 1: Foundations of American Government Chapter 1: Principles of Government Chapter 2: Origins of American Government By: Courtney Michaels.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: Foundations of American Government Chapter 1: Principles of Government Chapter 2: Origins of American Government By: Courtney Michaels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1: Foundations of American Government Chapter 1: Principles of Government Chapter 2: Origins of American Government By: Courtney Michaels

2 What is Government? Government- the intuition through which a society makes and enforces its public policies Public Policies- all of the many goals that a government pursues in all of the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved Ex: Taxation, defense, education, crime, health care, transportation, environment, civil rights and working conditions

3 Types of Power Legislative Power- the power to make law and to frame public policies Executive Power- the power to execute, enforce, and administer the law Judicial Power- the power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning and to settle disputes that arise within the society

4 The State The State- is a body of people living in a defined territory, organized politically with a government, and has the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority

5 Characteristics of a State
Population- the people who make up a state may or may not be members of a group who share customs, a common language, and an ethnic background Territory- land in which the people can live that has known and recognized boundaries

6 Characteristics of a State (cont.)
Sovereignty- has supreme and absolute power within its own territory and can decide its own foreign and domestic policies. Its neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority Ex: The US can determine its form of government, frame its economic system and shape its own foreign policies

7 Major Political Ideas The Force Theory- one person or a small group of people claimed control over an area and forced all within it to submit to that persons of groups rule They believe that the state was born free The Evolutionary Theory- claims that the state developed naturally out of the early family

8 Major Political Ideas (cont.)
The Divine Right Theory- God created the state and that God had given a “divine right” to rule The Social Contract Theory- the state exists only to serve the will of the people and that they are the sole source of political power and that they are free to give or to withhold that power as they choose

9 Purpose of Government Form a more Perfect Union Establish Justice
Insure Domestic Tranquility Provide for the Common Defense Promote the General Welfare Secure the Blessing of Liberty

10 Classifying Government
Who can participate in the governing process The geographic distribution of governmental power within the state The relationship between the legislative (lawmaking) and the executive (law-executing) branches of the government

11 Democracy Supreme political authority rests with the people
The people hold the sovereign power and government is conducted only by and with the consent of the people There are two types of democracy A direct democracy or pure democracy exists where the will of the people is translated into public policy directly by the people themselves in mass meetings A representative democracy is a small group or people chosen by the people to act as their representatives and express the popular will of the people

12 Dictatorship Dictatorship exists where those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people. The government is not accountable for its policies nor for how they are carried out. Autocracy- a government in which a single person hold unlimited political power Oligarchy- a government in which the power to rule is held by a small usually self appointed elite

13 Dictatorship (cont.) All dictatorships are authoritarian which means those in power hold absolute and unchallengeable authority over the people Modern dictatorships are totalitarian and they exercise complete power over nearly every aspect of human affairs Ex: China has complete control over the internet

14 Unitary Government (centralized government)
All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency The central government creates local units of government for its own convenience The local governments have only those powers that the central government chooses to give them

15 Federal Government Federal Government- one in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments An authority superior to both the central and local governments makes this “division of powers” on a geographic basis The division cannot be changed by either the local or national level acting alone

16 Confederate Government
Confederation- an alliance of independent states The powers of the Confederate Government have been limited to the fields of defense and trade A confederate structure makes it possible for several states to cooperate in matters of common concern, and at the same time, retain their separate identities

17 Presidential Government
The executive and legislative branches of government are separate, independent of one another and co-equal The chief executive (president) is chosen independently of the legislature, and holds office for a fixed term and has broad powers not subject to the direct control of the legislative branch

18 Parliamentary Government
The executive is made up of the prime minister or premier and that officials cabinet The prime minister and cabinet themselves are members of the legislative branch, the parliament The prime minister and the cabinet remain in office only as long as their policies and administration have the support of a majority in parliament

19 Foundations of Democracy
A recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person A respect for the equality of all persons A faith in the majority rule and an insistence upon minority rights An acceptance of the necessity of compromise An insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom

20 Worth of the Individual
Democracy is firmly based upon a belief in the fundamental importance of the individual Each individual, no matter what his or her station in life, is a separate and distinct being When a democratic society forces people to pay a tax or obey traffic signals, it is serving the interests of many

21 Equality of All Persons
All are entitled to equality and opportunity All are entitled to equality before the law The Democratic concept of equality holds that no person should be held back for any such arbitrary reason Ex: race, religion, and gender The concept holds that each person must be free to develop themselves as fully as they can and that each person should be treated as the ewual of all other persons by law

22 Majority Rule, Minority Rights
In a democracy the will of the people and not the dictate of the ruling few determines public policy The democratic process searches for “satisfactory” solutions to public problems

23 Necessity of Compromise
In a democracy, public decision making must be largely a matter of give and take It is a matter of compromise in order to find the position most acceptable to the largest number

24 Individual Freedom Democracy insists that each individual must be as free to do as he or she pleases as far as the freedom of all will allow

25 Free Enterprise System
It is an economic system characterized by the private ownership of capital goods, investments made by private decision, not by government directive, and success or failure determined by competition in the marketplace This system is based on four factors: private ownership, individual initiative, profit and competition

26 How the System Works The free enterprise system does not rely on the government to decide what items are to be produced, how much of any particular item should be produced or how much any item is to sell for. These decisions are made by the market through the law of supply and demand When supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop. When supplies become scarcer, prices tend to rise

27 Government and the Free Enterprise System
Mixed Economy is when private enterprises exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion The government does this to protect the public and to preserve private enterprise Government’s participations in the economy is seen at every level: national, State and local Ex: antitrust laws, pure food and drug laws, anti-pollution standards, and city and county zoning ordinances and building codes

28 Democracy and the Internet
Democracy demands that the people be widely informed about the government Therefore, internet users can check out the Web sites of political candidates, discover what’s happening in Congress, and read the most recent Supreme Court decisions

29 Chapter 2 Origins of American Government

30 Ordered Government The 1st english colonists saw the need for an orderly regulation of their relationships with one another, that is government They created local government based on those they had known in England Many of the offices and units of government they established are still with us today Ex: The offices of the sheriff, coroner, assessor and justice of the peace, the grand jury, counties and townships

31 Limited Government The colonists also brought the idea that government is not all powerful In limited government, government is restricted in what is may do and each individual has certain rights that the government can’t take away

32 Representative Government
Is the idea that government should serve the will of the people Also that people should have a voice in deciding what the government should and should not do

33 Magna Carta A group of determined barons forced King John to sign the Magna Carta or The Great Charter at Runnymede in 1215 The barons were seeking protection against heavy handed and arbitrary acts by the king The Magna Carta included such fundamental rights as trial by jury and due process of law or protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty or property These protections against the absolute power of the king were originally intended only for the privileged classes The Magna Carta established the principle that the power of the monarchy was not absolute

34 The Petition of Right In 1628 when Charles I asked Parliament for more money in taxes, Parliament refused until he signed the Petition of Right It demanded that the king no longer imprison or punish any person but by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land It also insisted that the king not impose martial law or, rule by military, in time of peace or require homeowners to shelter the king’s troops without their consent The petition challenged the idea of the divine right of kings, declaring that even a monarch must obey the law of the land

35 The Bill of Rights The English Bill of Rights prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of Parliament and required that all parliamentary elections be free This also included guarantees as the right to a fair trial, and freedom from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment

36 The English Colonies Each colony was established on the basis of a charter or a written grant of authority from the king Over time these led to three different kinds of colonies: royal, proprietary and charter

37 Royal Colonies The royal colonies were subject to the direct control of the Crown In 1624 the king revoked the London Company’s charter and Virginia became the first royal colony The king named a governor to serve as the colony’s chief executive He also named a council who served as an advisory body to the royal governor The governor, advised by the council appointed the judges for the colony’s courts The laws passed by the legislature had to be approved by the governor and the Crown

38 The Proprietary Colonies
By 1775 there were three proprietary colonies: Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware The colonies were organized by a proprietor, a person to whom the king had made a grant of land In Maryland and Delaware the legislatures were bicameral or two house while Pennsylvania was unicameral meaning one house body

39 The Charter Colonies Connecticut and Rhode Island were charter colonies The governors were elected each year by the white, male property owners in each colony There charters were so liberal for their time that with independence they were kept with only minor changes as State constitutions- until 1818 and 1843

40 Britain’s Colonial Policies
Each colonial legislature began to assume broad lawmaking powers. They often bent a royal governor to their will by not voting the money for his salary until he came to terms with them By mid 1700’s the relationship between Britain and the colonies had become federal This meant that the central government in London was responsible for colonial defense and for foreign affairs It also provided a uniform system of money

41 Britain’s Colonial Policies (cont.)
In 1760 shortly after George III came to throne Britain began to deal more firmly with the colonies Restrictive trading acts were expanded and enforced and new taxes were imposed The colonists did not agree which then started “taxation without representation” Within the next couple of years they had to choose to submit or revolt

42 Early Attempts In 1643 the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven and Connecticut settlements formed the New England Confederation A confederation is a joining of several groups for a common purpose In this confederation they formed a “league of friendship” for defense against the Native Americans.

43 The Albany Plan In 1754 the British Board of Trade called a meeting of seven northern colonies to discuss the problems of colonial trade and the danger attacks by the French and their Native American allies This is when Benjamin Franklin offered what became known as the Albany Plan of Union He proposed the formation of an annual congress of delegates or representatives from each of the 13 colonies It would have the power to raise military and naval forces, make war and peace with the Native Americans, regulate trade with them and collect customs duties

44 The Stamp Act Congress The harsh tax and trade policies of the 1760s cause resentment throughout the colonies Parliament passed the Stamp Act of 1765 which required the use of tax stamps on all legal documents, on certain business agreements, and on newspapers Nine colonies in October of 1765 sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York where they prepared a protest called the Declaration of Rights and Grievances

45 The Stamp Act Congress (cont.)
Parliament repealed and mob violence erupted and many colonists supposed a boycott of English goods On March 5, 1770, British troops fired into a crowd killing five in what became known as the Boston Massacre Organized resistance was carried on through Committees of Correspondence which was formed by Samuel Adams in Boston in 1772 Protests multiplied and the Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773 A group of men disguised as Native Americans boarded three tea ships in the Boston Harbor and dumped the tea into the sea to protest the British control of the tea trade

46 The First Continental Congress
In 1774 the Parliament passed more sets of laws to punish the colonists. These were known as the Intolerable Acts Delegates from every colony except Georgia came to Philadelphia to discuss a plan of action They sent a Declaration of Rights, protesting the British The delegates stressed refusal of trade with England until the hated taxes and trade regulations were repealed or cancelled A call for a second congress to be convened the following May and over the next several months all of the legislatures including Georgia’s gave their support to the actions of the First Continental Congress

47 The Second Continental Congress
The British refused to compromise so on May 10, 1775 the Second Continental Congress met The second Revolution had begun and the “shot heard ‘round the world” had been fired

48 Representatives Each of the 13 colonies sent representatives to Congress Most of those who had attended the First Continental Congress were again present Some notable newcomers were Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and John Hancock of Massachusetts

49 Our First National Government
The Second Continental Congress had become the nation’s first national government for five years however, it had no constitutional base It was condemned by the British as unlawful assembly and a den of traitors

50 The Declaration of Independence
Congress named a committee of five to prepare a proclamation of independence The product being the Declaration of Independence which the majority of the work came from Jefferson On July 2nd the delegates agreed to Lee’s resolution but only after spirited debate Two days later on July 4th, 1776 they adopted the Declaration of Independence proclaiming the existence of the new nation 13 colonies became free and independent States and 56 men signed the document

51 The First State Constitutions
In January of 1776, New Hampshire adopted the Declaration to replace its royal charter Less than three months later so did South Carolina Then on May 10, Congress urged each of the colonies to adopt “such governments as shall, in the opinion of the representatives of the people, best conduce to the happiness and safety of their constituents”

52 Drafting State Constitutions
In 1776 and 1777 most States adopted written constitutions The Massachusetts constitutions of 1780 is the oldest present-day State constitutions Also it is the oldest written constitution in force anywhere in the world today

53 Common Features The most common features were the principles of popular sovereignty, limited government, civil rights and liberties and separation of powers and check and balances

54 The Articles of Confederation
On November 15, 1777 the Articles of Confederation were approved They established “a firm league of friendship” among the states The Articles didn’t go into effect immediately they needed ratification or formal approval from all 13 States 11 agreed within a year and Delaware added its approval in Feb. of 1779 Maryland did not ratify until March 1,1781 and that its declared the Articles of Confederation’s official effective date

55 Governmental Structure
A Congress was the sole body created and was unicameral, made up of delegates chosen yearly by States in whatever way their legislatures might direct Each State had one vote in the Congress, whatever its population or wealth Since the Articles established no executive or judicial branch these functions were to be handled by committees of the Congress Each year Congress would choose one of its members as its president That person would be its presiding officer

56 Powers of Congress Make war and peace Send and receive ambassadors
Make treaties Borrow money Set up a money system Establish post offices Build a navy Raise an army by asking the State for troops Fix uniform standards of weights and measures Settle disputes among the States

57 State Obligations Obey the Articles and acts of the Congress
Provide the funds and troops requested by the Congress Treat citizens of other States fairly and equally with their own Give full faith and credit to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State Surrender fugitives from justice to one another Submit their disputes to Congress for settlement Allow open travel and trade between and among the States

58 Weakness The Congress did not have the power to tax
Congress did not have the power to regulate trade between the States The Congress didn’t have power to make the States obey the Articles or the laws it made

59 The Critical Period, the 1780s
The Revolutionary War ended on October 19,1781 and the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 The States ended up taxing one another’s goods and banned some trade Violence broke out because of economic chaos. One of them being known as Shay’s Rebellion

60 The Framers 12 out of the 13 States sent delegates to Philadelphia to attend the Philadelphia Convention known as the Framers of the Constitution These men had been in the Revolution or had been important, intelligent people in society

61 Organization and Procedure
On May 25 the unanimously elected George Washington as president of the convention Then on Monday, May 28, they adopted several rules and procedures

62 Working in Secrecy The delegates decided to keep everything a secret
They worked throughout the hot summer keeping this a secret They even kept the windows closed so that people could not hear what they were saying

63 The Virginia Plan On May 29 the Virginia Plan, was presented to Randolph The Virginia Plan called for a new government with three separate branches: legislative, judicial, and executive It also called for a bicameral legislature in which each State’s membership would be determined by its population or its financial support for the central government The plan presented by delegates from Virginia at the Constitutional Convention

64 The New Jersey Plan It is a plan presented as an alternative to the Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention It called for a unicameral legislature in which each State would be equally represented

65 Compromises Connecticut Compromise- an agreement during the Constitutional Convention that Congress should be composed of a Senate in which States would be represented equally, and a House in which representation would be based on a State’s population The Three-Fifths Compromise-an agreement at the Constitutional Convention to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State

66 The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
An agreement during the Constitutional Convention protecting slave holders It denied Congress the power to tax the export of goods from any State and for 20 years, the power to act on the slave trade

67 The Convention Completes its Work
After several weeks in hot Philadelphia, the Committee of Stile and Arrangement headed by Governor Morris put the Constitution in its final form On September 17, the document was finished with 39 names placed on it

68 Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Two groups emerged the Federalists who favored ratification and the Anti-Federalists who opposed it The Federalists stressed the weakness of the Articles meanwhile the Anti-Federalists attacked every part of the new document

69 Ratify Delaware was the first to ratify and then New Hampshire on June 21, 1788 Virginia then followed New Hampshire four days later On July 26, 11 states had ratified On April 30, Washington took the oath as the first President of the United States

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