Presentation on theme: "American Government Unit One:"— Presentation transcript:
1American Government Unit One: Foundations of American Government
2GPS StandardsSSCG1 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of United States constitutional government.Analyze key ideas of limited government and the rule of law as seen in the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights.Analyze the writings of Hobbes (Leviathan), Locke (Second Treatise on Government), and Montesquieu (The Spirit of Laws) as they affect our concept of government.
3GPS StandardsSSCG2 The student will analyze the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence.Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence and the Social Contract Theory.Evaluate the Declaration of Independence as a persuasive argument.
4GPS StandardsSSCG19 The student will compare and contrast governments that are unitary, confederal, and federal; unitary, oligarchic, and democratic; and presidential and parliamentary.SSCG20 The student will describe the tools used to carry out United States foreign policy (diplomacy; economic, military, and humanitarian aid; treaties; sanctions; and military intervention).
6What is a Citizen?The Greek Philosopher Aristotle, one of the first students of government, defined a citizen as someone who participates in politics.What does that mean?
7What is a Citizen?Citizenship was first defined in the 14th Amendment to the Constitution following the Civil War in 1868.It states that all people born and naturalized in the United States. US citizens are also citizens of the States in which they live.
8What is a Citizen? Citizens are members of a political society. Naturalization- the legal process by which a person is granted the rights and privileges of a citizen.
9What is a Citizen?Jus Soli- “Law of the Soil.” Nearly all persons born in the US or a US territory are citizens of the United States.Jus Sanguinis- “Law of the Blood.” If you are born of American parents, then you are an American citizen.
10What is an Immigrant? Immigrants are referred to as aliens. Resident alien - person from a foreign nation who has permanent legal residence in the US.Nonresident alien -here temporarily.Illegal alien In the US without passport, visa, or entry permit.Aliens can legally become citizens through naturalization.Refugee – flees a country to another to escape persecution.
11European Immigrants- 1800’s Immigrants in the 1800’s came from Europe.
12Latin American Immigrants Today Most Immigrans today come from Asia and Latin America.
13What are the rights of an Immigrant? The protections and rights in the Constitution are guaranteed not only to US citizens, but to aliens as well.Aliens are required to pay taxes but are not allowed to vote. They are also exempt from military service and jury duty. Aliens are not permitted to travel freely throughout the country without notifying the government.
14How do immigrants become citizens? There are 5 steps in the naturalization process:Enter the US legally.Be of good moral character.Declare support of principles of America.Read, write, and speak English.Basic knowledge of American history and government.
15How do immigrants become citizens? Applicants must be 18 years old.Lived in the US as a legally 5 years, 3 if married to a citizen.Lived in the state the petition is filled in for 3 months.
16How can you lose US citizenship? Expatriation - when one becomes a citizen of a foreign nation and gives up American citizenship.Citizenship taken away as punishment for treason, rebellion, or attempting to over throw the government.
17How can you lose US citizenship? Denaturalization - when an immigrant loses citizenship if found to have been fraudulent or deceitful during the naturalization process.
18What are the responsibilities of a citizen? Know and respect the laws and your rights.Participate in politics and society, most commonly by voting. Can also be done by petitioning the government.Good citizens should stay informed about community, state, and national concerns.
193) Answers will vary.2) Answers will vary.1) by the “law of the soil”
21What is a Government?State - political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government that can make and enforce laws without approval of a higher authority.Nation - a sizeable group of people united by common race, language, customs, traditions, and/or religion.Nation is often mistakenly used to describe a state.
22What is a government? Not all states are nations: Quebec, Canada: Follows French culture and language and Catholic religion. Most of Canada is English and Protestant.Not all nations are states:Many African tribes are divided among many different separate political states.When the territory of a nation and state coincide, you have a nation-state.
23Four Characteristics of a State PopulationTerritorySovereigntyGovernment
24Theories of the origin of the state. Evolution Theory: The state evolved from the family group.Force Theory: One person or a group used force to establish its authority to govern.Divine Right Theory: The rulers were chosen by the gods to govern.Social Contract Theory: The people gave the government its power to rule, in return the government had to protect and respect the people’s rights.
25Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes in the 1600s wrote a book called the Leviathan, in which he described the world without government,“In such condition there is…worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man (is) solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short…”People create a government by entering into a social contract.Hobbes developed the theory of the social contract in Leviathan.
26Jean-Jacques Rousseau In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published a book called The Social Contract, in which he stated that people gain and lose certain things when entering into the social contract,“What man loses through the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything that tempts him and that he can acquire. What he gains is civil liberty and the proprietary [exclusive] ownership of all he possesses.”Without government, a person can own anything he can take by force. With government, a person owns anything that they possess – whether or not they have the force to keep it.
27John LockeJohn Locke ( ) believed that the contract creates a limited government that relies entirely on the consent of the governed. The people, and only the people, give it the authority to govern.Natural Rights - The rights that people are born with. Locke wrote about these rights in his Second Treatises on Government, where he listed the natural rights as the rights to life, liberty, and property.The people have the right to abolish that government and form a new one.Influenced founders, especially Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence.
28MontesquieuCharles Montesquieu – Developed the theory of separation of powers in his book, Spirit of LawsDivided power among three branches– Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches
29Purpose of Government Maintain social order Provide services Protect peopleHelp control the nation’s economy.
30Governments SystemsA unitary system gives all key powers to the national or central government.A confederacy is a loose union of independent states that come together to form a common goal. Our first form of government was a confederacy – it failed to unite the states so that they could work together.A federal system of government divides the powers of government between the national and state governments.
31Constitutions and Government A constitution is a plan that provides the rules and structure for government.Constitutions set out the goals and purposes of government.Constitutions provide the supreme law for states and their governments.
32Goals of the U.S. Constitution The Preamble lists the goals of our Constitution. They are…To form a more perfect unionEstablish justiceEnsure domestic tranquilityProvide for the common defensePromote the general welfareSecure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.
33Politics and Government Politics is the effort to control or influence the policies and actions of government.Special interest groups seek special benefits towards a specific goal.The Constitution is designed to promote the general welfare.
34Major Types of Government In an autocracy power and authority reside in a single individual.In an oligarchy, such as a communist country, a small group holds power.In a democracy the people hold the power.
37Characteristics of Democracy Equal opportunity.Majority rule minority rights respected.Free and open elections in which every vote has equal weight.Candidates for office respect the voters’ decisions and act as loyal opposition.
38The Roots of DemocracyConditions that favor the democratic system of government.Citizens participate in civic life.Stable, growing economy with a large middle class.A public school system open to all.A strong civil society in with a network of voluntary organizations.The people accept values such as liberty and equality for all.
39Representative Democracy The US has a Representative Democracy. The people elect representatives that run the country.In a Direct Democracy every citizen votes on every issue.
401) representative democracy 2) oligarchy3) No, some monarchies are democracies where the monarch’s powers are limited.
41Three major economic types Capitalism-Socialism-Communism-
42CapitalismCapitalism runs off the free market, producers and consumers make economic decisions.Adam Smith created Capitalism in his book The Wealth of Nations.Laissez-faire economics, when the government does not get involved.Competition would be the “invisible hand” that guides the economy.
43CapitalismThe US is a mixed-market economy, in which free enterprise is combined with government restrictions (minimum wage, child labor laws).
44SocialismThe government owns the basic means of production, distributes profits and wages, and provides social services.In 19th century industrialized Europe working class people were severely underpaid and mistreated causing them to revolt against capitalism.
45SocialismDemocratic-socialism, people have basic human rights and some control over government officials through free elections.
46Socialism- 3 main goals Distribution of wealth equally. Government control of all major economic decisions.Government ownership of means of production.
47Socialism Criticisms of socialism: Stifles individual initiative. Over taxes people.Can give rise to dictatorships.
48Communism Karl Marx - The Communist Manifesto. There were two groups, the wealthy capitalists called the bourgeoisie, and the workers called the proletariat.The bourgeoisie used its power to keep the proletariat as a working class.
49Communism The workers would overthrow the capitalists. Resulted in elimination of classes and government ownership of all means of production.Pure communism; there would be no need for government, property held in common (everybody would just share everything).
50CommunismCommand economy, decisions are made at the upper levels of government and handed down.All communist states have failed to progress to no government.Inadequate standards of living caused them to loosen their control or face revolt.
511) capitalism with a mixed-market economy 2) socialism and communism3) capitalism
54An English Political Heritage English colonists brought with them a heritage of freedom and principles of government that helped shape the development of the United States.Most important to the colonists was to have a government which limited the monarch’s power and represented the will of the people.
55Three documents that limited the power of the King Magna CartaPetition of RightEnglish Bill of Rights
56Magna Carta AKA the Great Charter 1215 – signed by King John of EnglandLimited Government – the king did not have all the powerEstablished the rule of law, meaning that everyone had to follow the law.Protect life, liberty and property
57Petition of Right1628King Charles I, and monarchs to follow, could not:Collect taxes without consent of Parliament.Imprison people without just cause.House troops in private homes.Declare martial law.
58English Bill of Rights1688Monarchs rule with the consent of the peopleParliament must agree to suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain an armyMonarch cannot interfere in Parliament electionsRight to petition the governmentFair and speedy trialsNo cruel or unusual punishment
59Representative Government Followed the model of Parliament, which was a bicameral, or two chamber, legislature:House of LordsHouse of Commons
60Principles of Colonial Government What are three key practices found in the colonial governments?Written constitution-Ex. Mayflower Compact – 1st written constitution in America.Legislature of elected representatives- Ex. VA House of Burgesses – first legislative body.Separation of powers
61In a nutshell… The American colonies were founded by the British The colonies were a source of raw materials and a market for British goodsBritain was 3000 miles awayColonial government handled most business with some guidance from Parliament and the king.The colonists did not have representation in Parliament
62Why did things change?French and Indian War , allowed the British to solidify control over the continent.King George III came to power in 1760 with a different idea of how to rule the colonies.
63Colonies on their own…Although Britain had been allowing the colonies limited self-government.The British government tightened its control over the colonies after the French and Indian wars.King George III and his ministers made the colonies help pay for the war by levying new taxes on the colonists.
64Taxes and Colonial Response Stamp Act – The first direct tax on the colonists. It required a stamp tax on legal documents, pamphlets, newspapers, dice and playing cards. To pay for the French and Indian war.Stamp Act Congress – first meeting organized by the colonies to protest the king’s actions. They sent the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated, “no taxation with out representation.”
65Taxes and Colonial Response The colonists protested and boycotted until the Stamp Act was repealed.Committees of Correspondence – Groups that formed so that information about British actions could be more easily spread throughout the colonies.The Townshend Acts – taxed many products that were needed daily, including tea.
66Taxes and Colonial Response The tax on tea and further British control resulted in the Boston Tea Party.The British responded to the tea party with punishments and tightening of control of Boston.Intolerable Acts – a set of acts passed after the Boston Tea Party that was designed to punish the people of Boston. They closed the harbor, placed Massachusetts under martial law, and allowed British troops to be quartered in people’s homes.
67Colonial UnityHarsh British policies and taxes helped unite the colonies.To protest British policies, the colonists sent petitions to the king.The First Continental Congress held in Philadelphia in 1774 debated what the colonies should do about their relationship with Britain.They imposed and embargo and said that if Britain used force, so would they.
68First Shots FiredApril 19, 1775 – Battle of Lexington and Concord. First shots and beginning of the American Revolutionary War.The Second Continental Congress met in 1775, it organized a military and appointed George Washington as commander. Served as acting government throughout the war.
69IndependenceThomas Paine - Common Sense Strengthened the independence movement. Said King George III was a tyrant and the colonies were destined to be free.The Declaration of Independence in 1776, which set forth the principles for the new nation.
70Independence (cont.) The Declaration had three parts: statement of purpose, describing basic human rights;list of specific complaints against King George III;statement of determination to separate from Great Britain.
711. What symbol represents the colonies in this 1779 political cartoon? Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity1. What symbol represents the colonies in this 1779 political cartoon?The bucking horse represents the colonies.
72The SigningJohn Hancock of Massachusetts, the president of the Continental Congress, was the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. When he did, he wrote his name in very large letters, declaring, “There, I guess King George will be able to read that!” Even today, Americans often refer to a person’s signature as a “John Hancock.”
73Independence! Now what?We all know that the United States achieved independence from Great Britain after the American Revolution, but winning a war was not the only concern. Colonists also had to come up with a new form of government.
74Articles of Confederation First attempt at a unified government of all 13 former colonies.Proposed in 1777.Ratified by all 13 independent states by 1781.
75Key Features of the Articles Weak national governmentOne branch of government – LegislativeUnicameralOne vote per state – all were equal.
76Weaknesses of the Articles The Congress had to depend on the states for money and had no power to tax, regulate trade, or enforce laws.Amending the Articles required the approval of all the states.No president or executive branch.No system of national courts; state courts enforced and interpreted national laws.
781) They could borrow or request money from states. 3) They could wage war and make treaties and alliances with other nations2) Weak, they gave little power to government
79Discussion QuestionWhy did the writers of the Articles of Confederation make the plan so weak?Their experience with a king made delegates afraid to give any one individual or branch too much power.
80Important achievements… The Confederation government …..established policy for developing western land – Northwest Ordinance.signed peace treaty with England.set up departments establishing the precedent for cabinet departments.
81The Need for Stronger Government Soon after the war, disputes broke out among the states; the government’s debt left soldiers unpaid.An economic depression in 1786 led to Shays’s Rebellion, an armed uprising by Massachusetts farmers who could not pay their debts.They decided to call a constitutional convention in Philadelphia
82Discussion QuestionHow did Shays’s Rebellion suggest the need for a stronger government?The rebellion alarmed people who feared mob violence and the Confederation government’s inability to do anything about it.