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4 This Project Manly Made In PowerPoint Software By Using 32 Times New Romen Font Some of Slides Are not In 32 Size To Show out we can customize this Project According To Our Needs.We Can Put Sound & More Graphics In These Slides. In This Project You Have Not To Do Any thing Like Press Enter one after another, In this Project Just Run & Set Back After 5-8 Sec Slide Will Change Automatically.HTML Copy of this Project is Also Attached Here Our School Teacher’s Mrs.Daljeet Kaur Helps Me a Lot In Completing The Project Jatinder Joshi CF Govt.High School. Cheema Jodhpur Barnala

5 About School Our School Govt. High School Cheema Jodhpur is the First School In Punjab Whose Faculty Create & Launch Website of School with Facility. Log On The Site & Send Us Suggestions.

6 Unit One Contain from P.S.E.B English Reader Up to Slide No 45 Unit Two Contain from P.S.E.B English Book Poems From Slide No 46 to 54 Unit Three Contain from P.S.E.B English Suplimentry From Slide No Unit Four Contain from P.S.E.B English Grammar Part From Slide No

7 Unit

8 CHAPTERS 1.Journey by Night

9 Journey by Night Brief introduction of the story It is a story of rare courage shown by a 12-year- old boy. His name was Sher Singh. His younger brother had fallen ill. His father was not at home. His mother was not in a position to leave home. The city hospital was many miles away. So, Sher Singh carried his little brother on his back and set out for the city. He had to pass through a hilly area that was full of many dangers.

10 A thick forest and two hilly rivers fell on the way. But Sher Singh braved all these dangers with great courage. The only thought in his mind was to reach the city hospital as soon as possible. At last, Sher Singh was able to reach the hospital with his brother. Everybody was surprised to hear the story of his great courage. The doctor at once gave first aid to Sher Singh’s brother. The doctor said that the boy was out of danger. Sher Singh was really a Sher, a lion. He had saved the life of his brother at a great risk of his own life.

11 Textual questions Que.1 Who was Sher Singh Bahadur? Ans. He was a famous hunter. He lived in Laldwani village. His name was Sher Singh. The worth ‘Bahadur’ was added to him like a medal. Que.2 Why there were no men in the village? Ans. All men of the village had gone to the jungle with a hunting party. That was why there were no men in the village. Que.3 What had happened to other children? Ans. They all had died. It was cholera and influenza that had taken their lives.

12 Que.4 How did Sher Singh carry his brother? Ans. Sher Singh’s mother took one of her two saris. She made a sling with it. Sher Singh put it round his forehead and down his back. It was in this sling that he carried his brother. Que. 5 Explain the circumstances in which Kunwar was carried to the hospital. Ans. Kunwar had severe pain in his stomach. The pain was getting worse and worse. So the boy had to be taken to hospital. Sher Singh’s father was not at home. There was no other man also in the village. His mother, too, could not leave home. Thus there was none but Sher Singh to carry Kunwar to the hospital. And he did it like a hero.

13 Passage 1 Sher Singh himself was only 12 years old, small and cheerful, a child of the jungle, and his brother was several years younger. There had been other children of course, but they were dead, carried off by cholera and influenza. “I will wring out rags in boiling water and lay them on his stomach.” said Mother. She did not weep. She had lived through everything.

14 Questions 1.How old was Sher Singh? 2.Did he remain sad or cheerful? 3.What do you mean by ‘a child of the jungle’? 4.Did Sher Singh have any brother or sister? 5.What had happened to the other Children? 6. What did his mother want to do with rags? 7. Why did she not weep? 8. Give the opposites of small,old, dead, everything.

15 Answers He was 12 years old. He remained cheerful. It means a child who has been born and brought up in a jungle. He had a younger brother. They had all died. She wanted to wring them out in boiling water and lay them on the stomach of her ailing son. She had lived through many such misfortunes. Small -> big; old -> young; dead -> alive; everything -> nothing.

16 Passage 2 Sher Singh gathered grass and, plaiting it into a rope, tied it round his brother and himself so they would keep together. Then he entered the water just above the bridge. The river seized them and flattened them against the wreck. Unable to move at first, he edged forward into the maelstrom, feeling for the split of bamboo.

17 Questions 1.What did Sher Singh gather? 2.Why did he do with it? 3.Why did he do that? 4.What place did he enter the river? 5.What happened then? 6.What ‘wreck’ has been referred to here? 7.What did he do while going forward? 8.Find in the passage a word that means ‘a very strong spinning current of water.’

18 Answers He gathered some grass. He plaited it into a rope. He wanted it to tie his brother to himself. He entered just above the bridge. The river seized the two and threw them against the wreck. It refers to the broken bridge. He felt for the split ends of the bamboo. Maelstrom= a very strong spinning current of water.

19 Use of textual Words/Phrases 1.Several - There are several places of worship on the banks of the Holy Ganges. 2. Resort - Gandhi ji took fasting as a last resort. 3. Scar - Even the scar on her face did not spoil her beauty. 4 Mauled- The mountain bear mauled her face. 5. Cliff – We went on a picnic by the side of a cliff. 6. Poach- Poaching of animals is banned in this state. 7. Plod – the old man plodded along the hilly path.

20 Textual Vocabulary & Grammar Q:-1 Identify and match the sounds made by the animals under column A to the sounds in column B: 1.Ans:- dogs - bark 2. donkeys- bray 3. frogs - croak 4. horses- neigh 5. lions - roar 6. bees - buzz 7. birds - chirp 8. cats - mew 9. cocks - crow 10. cows - low or moo

21 Q-2 Add the correct suffixes to the words given in the brackets choosing from the list given below: - dom ; -ness;-hood. 1.We salute the (wise) and (martyr) of those who fought for the (free) of our country. 2.His journey from (child) to (man) was full of struggle. 3.(good) and (sweet) of behavior are of no avail if one lacks in (bold) of character. 4.(Parent) brings responsibilities. 5.He lost his (king) to the enemy. 6.(happy) is a state if mind.

22 Ans:-1. wisdom, martyrdom, freedom 2. childhood, manhood 3. goodness, sweetness, boldness 4. Parenthood 5. kingdom 6. Happiness.

23 Q-3.Correct the following sentences: 1.The football match ended to a draw. 2.Our Principal is a honest lady. 3. He is senior than me. 4.She is M.A., B.Ed. 5.Mr. Sham is a Honorable man. 6.He is an European. 7.He is an one-eyed man. 8.I read Tribune every day. 9.This is an useful article. 10.A lion is the king of forest.

24 Answers 1.The football match ended in a draw. 2.Our Principal is an honest lady. 3. He is senior to me. 4.She is an M.A., B.Ed. 5.Mr. Sham is an honorable man. 6.He is a European. 7.He is a one-eyed man. 8.I read The Tribune every day. 9.This is a useful article. 10.A lion is the king of the forest.

25 The Bishop’s candlesticks-1 & 11

26 Q-1. What did the convict want? Ans- The convict said that he had eaten nothing for three days. He was starving. He asked the Bishop to give him food to eat. Q-2.Why did the convict become a thief ? Ans- The convict was out of job. His wife was ill. She was dying. He had no food to give her. So he had to steal to buy food for his wife.

27 Q-3. Write a short note on Bishop. Ans- The Bishop is a very kind-hearted person. He goes out in the cold night to attend on the sick mother of his maid. He sells his silver salt-cellars to pay the rent for a poor old woman. The Bishop is also very forgiving. The convict runs away with his candlesticks. Even then the Bishop saves him from the sergeant. Q-4. Who had given the candlesticks to the Bishop? Ans- The Bishop’s mother had given him the candlesticks as a gift.

28 Q-5. Write a short note on Persome’s behavior. Ans- Persome is the Bishop’s sister. From her conversation with Marie she appears to be a short- tempered, selfish and abusive woman. She loves her brother very deeply. All her wrongs are born out of her love for the Bishop. Nowhere in the play does Persome show that she is selfish for her own sake..

29 Q-6 write a short note on the changing of the convict from a wild beast to a man. Ans- The convict threatens to kill the Bishop. But the Bishop gives him food to eat and a comfortable bed to sleep on. The convict slips away with Bishop’s candlesticks. A police sergeant catches him and brings him to the Bishop. But the Bishop says that he himself has given him the candlesticks. This kindness of the Bishop touches the convict’s heart. He is now changed completely

30 The Bishop’s candlesticks-1 & 11 Passage 1 Persome : Marie, is n’t the soup boiling yet? Marie: Not yet, madam. Persome: Well, it ought to be. Marie: But madam, you yourself made the fire up. Persome: Don’t answer me back like that. It is rude. Marie : yes, madam. Persome: Then don’t let me have to rebuke you again. Marie: No, madam. Persome: I wonder where my brother can be. (Looking at the clock). It is after Eleven o’ Clock and no sign of him. Marie!

31 Questions 1.Name the play and the writer. 2.What was Persome to the bishop? 3.Who had made the fire up? 4.What was Persome worried about? Answers 1.The name of the play is ‘The Bishop’s Candlesticks’. The name of the writer is Norman Mckinnel. 2.Persome was the Bishop’s sister. 3.It was Persome who had made the fire up. 4.The Bishop had not returned home so far. It was already 11o’clock in the night. This worried Persome.

32 Passage 2 Persome : Brother, I have no patience with you. There, sit down and take your soup, it has been waiting ever so long. And if it is spoilt, it serves you right. Bishop : it smells delicious. Persome: I’m sure Marie’s mother is not so ill that you7 need have stayed out on such a night as this. I believe those people pretend to be ill just to have the Bishop call on them. They have no thought of the Bishop. Questions 1.Why is Persome angry with her brother? 2.How does the Bishop try to please Persome? 3.What is Persome’s grudge against the people? 4.What is Persome’s Suspicion about Marie’s mother? Answers 1.She is angry with her brother because he is late in coming back home. 2.The Bishop tries to please her by praising the soup. 3.Persome feels that people have no thought of the Bishop’s health. 4.Her suspicion is that Marie’s mother is not so ill.

33 Textual Vocabulary & Grammar Q-1. Match the phrases in column A with their meanings in column B: Ans: 1. to make up = to reconcile 2. to go without = to manage without something 3. play one false = to deceive 4. at beck and call= ready to take orders 5. dare out = have no courage 6. to call on = to go to visit some one 7. to look after = take care of 8. to call out = shout for help 9. to hunt for = search for

34 Q-2. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B: Ans: 1. gratitude=thankfulness 2. witch=a wicked woman 3. mon dieu= my God 4. estate= property 5. audacity=boldness 6. rouse=awaken 7. vines=creepers 8. vermin=worms 9. queer= strange 10.vermin=worms

35 Q-3. Supply the necessary nouns or verbs in the blanks given below: Ans: VerbNoun 1. enter entrance 2. hate hatred 3. obeyobedience 4. trace trace 5 imprisonprison 6. dodeed 7. dine dinner 8. adviseadvice 9. terrifyterror 10.performperformance

36 God sees the truth, But waits-1 & 11 Brief introduction to the story This story brings out the idea that God is just and we should have faith in Him. When something goes wrong, we should look up to God for comfort. Only to God should be pray for mercy. Aksenov was a young and carefree merchant. He was unjustly convicted of murdering a fellow merchant. He was sentenced to life-imprisonment. He was whipped on his back. He bore untold sufferings. There was no joy left in his life. He lost his youth and was now an old man. When he came tom know that it was Maker Semenich who was the real murdered, he was filled with deep pain and anger. He thought of having his revenge thought he might have to die for it. Soon he got an opportunity when could have his revenge on Makar Semenich. The first thought that came to his mind was that he should have no mercy for the man who had ruined his life. But then noble thoughts got the better of him. He did not tell the jail Authorities that it was Makar.

37 God sees thea truth, but waits

38 Who had dug a hole under the prison-wall in in order to escape from there. Aksenov’s goodness moved maker’s heart. He confessed to Aksenov that it was who he had murdered the merchant and had than hidden the knife in Aksenov’s bag. He began to sob bitterly and begged Aksenov to forgive him. He also confessed to the jail Authorities all his crime. Thus at last Aksenov’s a innocence was proved. But when the orders for his release came, he had already breathed his last.

39 Textual Question Qus.1. How did Makar’s heart change? Ans. Makar had ruined Aksenov’s life. Even then Aksenov returns him god for evil. He does not tell the jail authorities that it was Makar who was digging the hole under the prison wall. It touched Makar’s heart. His conscience curses him. He admits his crime. He begs Aksenov to forgive him. Qus.2. Did Aksenov recognize Makar Semenich ? Ans. No. He did not recognise him. He had never seen him before. From Makar’s Story, he could only guess that this very man had murdered the merchant. Qus. 3.What was the dream of Aksenov’s wife ? How did Aksnov react to it? Ans. Aksenov’s wife dreamt that when her husband returned home from the fair and took off cap, his hair had turned grey. Aksenov gave no importance to it and laughed it away.

40 Qus.4.Why didn’t Aksenov’s desire to leave the prison? Ans. Aksenov’s wife was already dead. His children had forgotten him. Now he had Nowhere to go to. That was why he had no desire to leave the prison Qus. 5.What was Aksenov charged with? Ans. He was charged with murdering a merchant and robbing him of twenty thousand rubles.

41 Passage 1 The police officer ordered the soldiers to bind Aksenov and to put him in the cart. As they tied his feet together and flung him into the cart, Aksenov crossed himself and wept. His money and goods were taken from him and he was sent to the nearest town, and imprisoned there. Then the trail came on: He was charged with the murdering a marchant and robbing him to twenty thousand rubles. Questions 1. What was the police officer’s order ? 2 Was Aksenov found guilty? What was the charged on him? 3. ‘Imprisoned’ has ‘im’ as prefix added to the word ‘poisoned’.Suggest two more words with ‘im’ as prefix. 4. Change the voice : His money and goods were taken from him and was sent to the nearest town.

42 Answer:- 1.The police officers ordered the soldiers to bind Aksenov and put him an the cart. 2.Yes, Aksenov was found guilty. The charges on him were that he had murdered a fellow merchant and robbed him to twenty thousand rubles. 3. A) Immoral B) Impatient 4.They took his money and goods and sent him to the nearest town.

43 PASSAGE 2 The police officer ordered the soliders to bind Aksenov and to put him in the cart. As they tied his feet together and flung him into the cart, Aksenov crossed himself and wept. His money and goods were taken from him and he was sent to the nearest town, and imprisoned there. Then the trail came on: he was charged with murdering a merchant and robbing him of twenty thousand rubles. Question 1.What was the police officer’s order? 2.Was Aksenov found guilty? What were the charges on him? 3.‘imprisoned’ has ‘im’ as prefix added to the word ‘prisoned’. Suggest two more words with ‘im’ as prefix. 4.Change the voice: His money and goods were taken from him and he was sent to the nearest town.

44 Answers 1.The police officer ordered the soldiers to bind Aksenov and to put him in the cart. 2.Yes, Aksenov was found guilty. The charges on him were that he had murdered a fellow merchant and had robbed him of twenty thousand rubbles. 3.Immoral:impatient. 4.They took his money and goods from him and sent him to the nearest town.

45 Textual Vocabulary & Grammar Q-1 There are some adverbs joined by and in the box A. Pick out their meaning from the box B. Ans. 1. again and again=repeatedly 2. off and on=frequently 3. out and out=completely 4. through and through=decidedly 5. over and above=in addition to 6. far and near= in all directions

46 Q-2. Fill in the blanks with the following compound prepositions/phrases: 1.…………….. emergency, call the police. 2.Pack your books……….. Your clothes. 3.The secretary made the speech ………. The chief guest. 4.The students went to see the movie …………….going to the college. 5.A responsible citizen is he who acts ………….the rules and laws of the land. 6.……………..his sincere efforts, he failed. 7.He lost his job ……………….his laziness. Ans. 1. In case of 2. along with 3. on behalf of 4. instead of 5. according to 6. In spite of 7. because of

47 Q-3 Join each pair of sentences by means of a suitable conjunction. You can make the necessary changes: 1.Lata can sing well. Asha can sing well. 2.You must start at once. You will be late. 3.Sunita works hard. Her brother works harder. 4.Our landlord is not polite. we seldom talk to him. 5.The man is poor. He is happy. Ans. 1.Both Lata and Asha can sing well. 2.You must start at once or you will be late. 3.Sunita’ brother works harder than she does. 4.We seldom talk to our landlord because he is not polite. 5.The man is poor yet he is happy.

48 Unit II Poems

49  OPEN THY EYES ANS SEE THY GOD  NO MEN ARE FOREGIN POEMS

50 OPEN THY EYES ANS SEE THY GOD ( Rabindernath Tagore ) Brief Introduction To The Poem In this poem,Tagore says that the worship of idols is useless.He says that God can never be found in places of worship. He can be found where the tillers are tilling land. He can be found where the workers are sweating in the sun. anyone who wants to find God, should go and work with the tillers And pathmakers. Moksha cannot be achieved through empty rituals.In fact, the very desire for deliverance is unholy. Even God has not given Himself deliverance. He always remains busy in the task of creation. A true devotee of God should also work tirelessl;y.He should work for the poor and the downtrodden.

51 STANZA FOR COMPREEHENSION Leave this chanting and singing and telling of beads! Whom dost thou worship in this lonely dark corner of a temple with doors all shut? Open thine eyes and see thy God is not before thee! Questions 1.What does the poet want us to leave?Why? 2.The poet in this stanza asks a question.What is the question? 3. Our eyes are open. Why does the poet say ‘open thine eyes’ ? 4. Who are these lines addressed to? 5. What does the poet want the worshipper of God to do?

52 Answers 1.The poet wants us to leave chanting and telling beads in temples. He says that God doesn’t live in temples. We can’t find him tere by the singing hymns and telling beads. 2.The poet asks whom we are worshipping in the lonely dark corner of the temple with doors all shut 3.Our physical eyes are open but our eyes of mind are closed. That is why the poet asks us to open our eyes. 4.The poet imagines someone singing hymns and telling beads in a dark corner of a temple. He addresses these lines to such a worshipper of God. 5.He wants the worshipper to open his eyes and see that God whom he is worshiping is not there before him.

53 TEXTUAL QUESTIONS Q. 1 Write the central idea of the poem. Ans. Tagore says that we can’t find God in temples. He can be found where the tillers are tilling land. He can be found where the workers are sweating in the sun. So we should go and work with the poor if we want to find God. Q. 2. Why does the poet say that we should leave chanting,singing And telling of beads? Ans. The poet wants us to leave chanting and telling beads in temples. He says that God doesn’t live in temples. We can’t find him tere by the singing hymns and telling beads. Q. 3. Where can God be found? Ans. He can be found where the tillers are tilling land. He can be found where the workers are sweating in the sun.In other words, God lives among the poor hardworking people.

54 NO MEN ARE FOREIGN ( James Kirkup ) Brief Introduction To The Poem This poem contains a very noble idea. It advocates the unity of mankind. No men are strange, and no countries are foregin. All men live on the same earth and breath the same air. If we hate others,it is like hating ourselves because there is no difference between and others. Love is the best weapon to win others. By talking up arms against one another, we defile the human earth itself. So we should always remember that no men are foregin and no countries are strange.

55 STANZA FOR COMPREEHENSION Remember, no men are strange, no countries foregin Beneath all uniforms, a single body breathes Like ours: the land our brothers walk upon Is earth like this, in which we all shall lie. Question 1.Name the poem and the poet. 2.What should we remember? 3.What are all men to us? 4.Where do weall walk upon? 5.Where shall we all liein the end ?

56 ANSWERS 1.The name of the poem is ‘No Men Are Foregin’. The name of the poet is James Kirkup. 2.We should remember that no men are foregin and no countries are foregin. 3.All men are brothers to us. 4.We all walk upon the same earth. 5.We shall all lie in the same land. TEXTUAL QUESTIONS Q. 1 Write the central idea of the poem. Ans. All men are same. They have the same kind of body. They breath in the same way..thus no men are strange or foregin. We should never hate others. They are all our brothers. By hating others we lose their love. Thus the poet gives the message of love and brotherhood

57 Q. 2 What impression do we derive from this poem ? Ans. The poet inspires us to look upon the people of all countries as our brothers. No men are foregin. No countries are foregin. Everywhere there are men who live and die in the same manner. Therfore,we should love all and hate none. Q. 3 This poem is an attempt to create ‘brotherhood’ amongst people.Discuss. Ans. This poem tries to create a feeling of brotherhood among all people. It says that no men or countries are foregin. All men have same kind of body. They breathe in the same way. They eat,sleep and wake up in the same manner. After their death, they lie under the same earth. Thus all men are brothers.

58 UNIT-III SUPPLEMENTARY READER

59 CHAPTERS  I BECAME A GREAT FRIEND OF ANIMALS AND BIRDS  A LETTER TO GOD  THE LAST LEAF

60 I BECAME A GREAT FRIEND OF ANIMALS AND BIRDS ( Georgi Ovlov ) Brief Introduction To The Chapter In this chapter, the writer tells how he became a great friend of birds and animals. One day he caught some grouse. Some of them got injured while they were being chased. The writer was proud that he had caught them without using a gun. But just then he saw a hawk pouncing upon a starling. The hawk caught the starling in its sharp paws and flew away with it. Its mate followed the hawk and tried to save the partener, but all in vain. This sight brought a complete change in the writer. Now his pride was changed into shame. He felt that he himself was no better than a hawk. He at

61 once went back home with the grouse. He and his wife nursed them for some days. When they were all right he took them to the forest He left them on the trees from where he had caught them. This one good deed led tomany others. Now, whereever he found a bird or animal in trouble, he would feel great joy in giving it all help. In this story, he tells in detail how he saved some ducklings from a kite. Another time he treated a hodgehog that had been bitten badly by a sanke. He also saved a bear cub that was hanging dangerously from a crecked pine. The writer concludes by saying, “One has only to start doing a good thing, and it at once leads to another good one”.

62 TEXTUAL QUESTIONS Q. 1 Where was the writer going ? Ans. He was going towards the Volga. Q. 2 Why was the writer happy with his catch ? Ans. He was happy because he had caught the grouse without using his gun. Q. 3 Why did the writer free the grouse and how did he help them? Ans. He realised how cruel it was to kill birds. So he freed the grouse. He tool the injuried grouse home. There he and his wife nursed their wounds. When they were all right, he left them in the woods. He left them in the same trees from where he had caught them. Q. 4 Why did the writer go to the lake? What happened there? Ans. He went there to fish. A duck came swimming with its ducklings. Suddenly, a hawk pounced on the duckling. The writer at once swung his fishing line. The hook caught the hawk’s wing. The hawk was very powerful. He flew away with the line. But the ducklings were saved.

63 Q. 5 How did the writer help the ducklings? Ans. The writer swung his fishing line. The hook The hook caught the hawk’s wing. The hawk was very powerful. He flew away with the line. But the ducklings were saved. Q. 6 how did the writer save the hedgehog ? Ans. The writer cleaned the wounds on the hedgehog’s stomach. Then he took a sharp pine and silky blade of grass. With these he sewed up the stomach of the hedgehog. He also gave him birch juice to drink. Q. 7 How did the writer save the bear cub? Ans. The bear cub was hanging from a cracked tree. It was in great danger. The writer split the tree to its root. The club fell to the ground. It started crying. The writer stroked its ears. After some time the cub stopped crying.

64 A LETTER TO GOD ( G. L. Fuentes ) Brief Introduction To The Chapter Lencho was a poor farmer. He was very hard-working. Once there was a hailstrom. It destroyed his crops completely. Lencho had great faith in God. He wrote a letter to God. He asked God to send him money. The postmaster saw this letter. He decided to help Lencho. He collected some money. He put it inside an envelope. Lencho came to trhe post officeto check his mail. The post office people gave him the envolpe.Lencho opened the envelope. He took out the money and counted it. He found that it was less than he had asked for. He wrote another letter to God. He asked Godto send hijm the rest of the money. But he wanted Him not to send the money through the mail. He said that the post office people were a bunch of crooks.

65 TEXTUAL QUESTIONS Q. 1 Where was Lencho’s house located? Did he gave any neighbours? Ans. Lencho’s house was on the top of a low hill. It was the only house in the vally. Thus Lencho had no neighbours. Q. 2 When did it start raining? Ans. It started raining when Lencho and his family were having dinner. Q. 3 What was Lencho’s family doing when it started raining? Ans. His family were having dinner Q. 4 Why did Lencho become unhappy after the strom? What did he say? Ans. After the strom, the field was ll covered with hailstones. Not a leaf remained in the trees. The corn was totally destroyed. The flower s were gone from the plants. All this made Lencho very unhappy. He said that the hail had left nothing. They would have nmo corn that year.

66 Q. 5 Why did Lencho’s sons run out? Were they happy? How do you know? Ans. It had start hailing. The sons went out to collect hailstones. They were very happy. The hailstones seemed to them like frozen pearls. And they ran out to collect them. Q. 6 What did Lencho think troughout the night? Ans. Lencho thought only of the help from God. This was his only hope. He believed that God sees everything. He believed that God sees even what is deep in one’s heart. Q. 7 Who did Lencho write to for help? What did he write in his letter? Ans. Lencho wrote to God for help. In his letter, he wrote,” God, if you don’t help me, my family and I will go hungry this year. I need a hundred pesos in order to sow my field again.”

67 Q. 8 How did Lencho address the envelope? What did he do after that? Ans. Lencho wrote on the envelope only two words :” To God”. He put his letter inside the envelope and went to the town. There he got a stamp at the post office. He put the stamp on the envelope and dropped it into the mailbox. Q. 9 Who took the letter to the postmaster ? Ans. It was a postman who took the letter to the postmaster. Q. 10 What did the postmaster do after reading Lencho’s letter? Why did he do so? Ans. The postmaster was struck by Lencho’s faith in God. He thought of sending God’s reply to Lencho’s letter. He collected money from his employees. He himself gave a part of his salary. Thus he collected seventy pesos. The money was handed to Lencho in the form of a letter.

68 THE LAST LEAF ( O. Henry ) Brief Introduction To The Chapter This story is based on the idea that our way of thinking has a deep effect on our life. If we have a postive approach towards life, we remain happy and enjoy good health. But if our way of thinking is negative, it always results in mistry, unhappiness and evev death. If a patient thinks positively and hopefully,it can help the doctor a great deal in curing him. Otherwise, he can’t hope to get well in spite of best efforts on the part of the doctor.

69 TEXTUAL QUESTIONS Q. 1 Who were Sue and Johnsy? What happened to Jhonsy? Ans. Sue and Johnsy were two young artists. Jhonsy was seriously ill. She had pneumonia. Q. 2 What did Johnsy feel about her illness? Ans. She thought she was not going to get well. She thought she would die with the falling of the ivy leaf. Q. 3 What did Sue do to make her feel happy? Ans. She talk about clothes and fashions. She started whistling while working at her painting. Q. 4 Who was Behrman? Ans. He was an old painter. He was sixty years old. He had always desired to paint a masterpiece. But he could never begin it.

70 Q. 5 What happened to Behrman and why? Ans. In order to save Johnsy, Behrman painted an ivy leaf on the wall. He worked in the night. It was a cold and windy night. It was raining also. Behrman got pneumonia. He died after two days. Q. 6 What was Behrman’s masterpiece? Ans. It was ivy leaf he had painted on the wall. It looked so real that Johnsy could not know it. She regained her will to live. Thus the painting proved Behrman’s masterpiece. Q. 7 Do you think Behrman was right in sacrificing his life? Why? Ans. Behrman painted an ivy leaf on the wall. It looked so real that Johnsy could not know it. She regained her will to live. Behrman got pneumonia and died. His sacrifice was not in vain. He had painted a masterpiece and also saved a life.

71 Unit –IV GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

72 Conjunctions Study the following sentences: [1] I went home and took my food. [2] Give her a pen or a pencil. [3] I could not contact him because he was ill. [4] He is so weak that he can not walk. In all these sentences the underlined words join words or sentences. The are linking words and are, therefore called conjunctions [or connectors]

73 Conjunctions Definition:- A conjunction is a part of speech that connects words clauses or sentences or shows relations between sentences.

74 Kinds of conjunctions Conjunctions can be classified into three types. [1] Co-ordinative conjunctions [2] Subordinative conjunctions [3] Correlative conjunctions

75 [A] Co-ordinative Conjunctions Study the following sentences 1 [A] He has seen this house. [B] He has decided to buy it. [C] He has seen this house and has decided to buy it. 2 [A] He can not write. [b] He cannot read. [c] He cannot write or read. 3 [a] Go where you like. [b] Do not disturb me. [c] Go where you like, only do not disturb me. In each of the above three sets of sentences, sentences under [A] and [B] are independent of each other. They are joined in sentences under [C] by a conjunction [ underlined]. Such conjunctions are called Co-ordinative conjunctions.

76 [A] Co-ordinative Conjunctions Co-ordinative conjunctions are those conjunctions the join words, phrase or clauses of equal rank here are some more examples. [1] Sonu is a cowarel but his brother is very brave. [2] He is sick yet he is always cheerful. [3] You will succeed for you are handworking.

77 (B) Subordinative Conjunctions Study the following sentences: 1 (a) The thief was caught red handed. (b) He was stealing a jewellery box. (c) The thief was caught red-handed while he was stealing a jewellery box. (time) 2.(a)The students work hard. (b)They want to pass. (c)The students work hard so that they should pass. (Effect) In above two sets of sentences,sentences under. (b) depend upon or are subordinate to the sentences under (a)They have been joined under (c) with the help of some conjunctions (under lined) such conjunctions are called subordinative conjunctions.

78 Subordinative conjunctions are those conjunctions that join the subordinate clause/clauses to the principal clause. Here are some more examples :- 1 He made a promise that he should be have better in future. 2 He is taking exercise regularly in order that he may improve his health. 3 The news is true as for as I know it. (B) Subordinative Conjunctions

79 (c) Correlative conjunctions Study the following sentences. 1 No sooner did he reach the station than the train steamed off. 2 She is not only beautiful but intelligent also. In the above two sentences Conjunctions are seen to occur in pairs such as no sooner -----than, Not only------but also. Such conjunctions are called Correlative conjunctions.

80 (C) Correlative conjunctions Here are some examples to illustrate the use of some Correlative Conjunctions :- 1 Neither nor Ramesh can neither see nor hear. 2 Though yet Though he is rich, yet he is not mean. 3 So that He worked so hard that he won a scholar ship.

81 Simple and complex sentences Types of sentences :. Sentences are of three types : 1.Simple sentences 2. Compound sentences 3.Complex sentences

82 Simplex sentence A sentence which has only one subject and one predicate is known as a simple sentence. For example :- My sister works very hard. (Subject) (predicate)

83 Compound sentence A compound sentence is composed of two on more co-ordinate clauses. For example: Gurpreet loves Mathematics but simran hates it. (Co-ordinate clause) (co-ordinate clause) In this compound sentence,two co-ordinate clauses “Gurpreet loves Mathematics’ and “simran hates it” are joined by the co-ordinate Conjunction

84 Complex sentence A complex sentence is composed of two on more clauses” One of the clauses in a complex sentence is more important than the other/others the more important clause is called the Main clause or the Principal clause the less important clause /clause is /are called the Subordinate or Dependent clause/Clauses. for example : I know a man who lives in Canada. (Principal clause) (subordinate clause)

85 Types of Subordinate Clauses Subordinate clauses can be divided into three types. 1. Noun clauses. 2. Adjective clauses. 3. Adverb clauses.

86 Noun Clause A Noun clause functions as a noun in a Complen Sentence. It generally occupies the place of the subject or the object as illustrated in the following sentence. [a] subject That simran is honest is a fact ( Subject) [b] Object I understood that he needs money very badly (Object )

87 Adjective Clause An Adjective clause functions as an Adjective. therefore qualifies a noun or pronoun in Some other clause. Adjective clauses are introduced in Two ways 1.By relative pronoun like who, whose, whom, wich, that etc. 2.By relative adverbs like when, how etc. 3.she is the girl who came first (Principal clause) (Subordinate adjective clause)

88 Adverb Clause An adverb clause functions as an adverb. It functions to modify a verl, an adjective or an Adverb. An adverb clause may express one of the following : 1 Cause of Reason 2. Time 3. Purpose 4. Condition 5. Place 6. Manner or exlent 7. Contrast 8. Comparison 9.Effect or Result 10. proportion [a] My dog will follow me where ever I go Principal clause subrdinate adverb clause

89 Voice The verb in english occurs in two special forms in relation to the 'deer' of the action, the is the active form and the second the passive form. It is easy to identify a passive verb as it contains be + v3 ( past participle)structure. The sentence using the active form of the verb is said to be in Active Voice while the one using the passive form of the verb is said to be in passive voice. It is as follows how sentences in the active form are changed into the passive form: Active Subject Verb Object Passive (new ) Subject New form ( verb ) (new ) object

90 Passive Verb be +v3 ( past participle ) Present and past indefinite Continuous Tenses Perfect Tenses is, am, are / was, were is, am, are was were has, have, had (being) (been) to - infinitive Modals (to be) (be) for example: Active: Passive She writes a letter. - A letter is written by her. I had learnt my lesson. _ My lesson had been learnt by

91 Rules Active passive 1. present Simple 1st form of the verb + s\es is,am,are- third form do,does(not)_1st form is,am,are- not-3rd form 2. Past Simple 2nd form of verb was,were- 3rd form did (not)- 1st form was, were - not- 3rd form 3. Present Continuous is, am, are(not) - 1st form +ing is, am, are (not) being 3rd form 4. Past Continuous was, were (not)- 1st form + ing was, were (not) being -3rd form 5. Present Perfect has, have (not) -3rd has, have (not) been -3rd form 6.Past Perfect had( not) 3rd form had(not) been -3rd form 7. Infinitive to- 1st form to be -3rd form 8. Future Perfect will, shall (not ) have 3rd form will, shall (not) have been -3rd form

92 Main uses of the passive voice 1 When the person doing the action (the agent) is not known or when it is unnecessary to mention the agent e.g. My pen has been stolen 2. To emphasire the action or event rather than the agent e.g. Letters are collected from the boxes, taken to the sorting office, sorted and then sent to the given addresses 3. To avoid using 'you' or 'one' when making an impersonal statement e.g. 1. Taking photographs in the museum is forbidden. 2. Children are not allowed in the bar.

93 Writing Part Note-Making Telegram Formal-Letters Informal-Letters Paragraphs

94 Note-Making Sometimes ideas are recorded/writing by using phrases or very short sentences. Both brevity and clarity are required in short pieces of writing. While making notes,students must have the power to know what points they should include and how much they shouts leave out. They should read the beginning at the end of the passage carefully to know what is it about. This is called skimming. They Should follow the hints given below:- 1. Write down the title if there is any. 2. Note down the main points and the sub-points if the passage is long. 3. Use letters and numbers to write the main points and sub points for long passage 4. Avoid writing full sentences. 5. Abbreviations commonly understood can also be used.

95 Example:- If the young students in schools and colleges do not learn discipline they will never be able to extract obedience from others in society. In fact, Society will never accept them as persons fit for any responsible position in life A school or college without discipline can never impart suitable education to students. Such a school or college is no better than a factory that turns out imperfect men and women, Sense of discipline plays a very important part in the playground and battlefield. A disciplined team is likely to win the match in spite of its weakness but a very good team may not fare well for want discipline The role of Discipline equally applies to soldiers in the battlefield. Notes: Need for discipline in schools and collages for good education. Undisciplined Students fail to win any respect or position later on in their life. Importance of discipline.for players on the playground. Importance of discipline, for soldiers in the battlefield.

96 Telegram A telegram is widely used medium to send “urgent message”. Example: R. Saxena died 6 January. Funeral Tuesday 10 January Message:- Mr. R. Saxena died on 6 th January His funeral wile take place on Tuesday,10 January 2006.

97 Stands on Electronic Mail. is the fastest means of communication these days it is being used by people Who have access to the Internet. The Internet web Mail is a service that allows people to send and receive message from across the world. Steps to Send Type your Address in the “from” slot. Exp: 2.Type the address of the person whom you are sending the message in the “To” slot. Exp: 3. Type the subject of the message in the “subject” slot. Exp: Hello 4. Type the message in the “message” slot. Exp: Hi! How r u 5. Click on the “send” button to send the message.

98 Formal-Letters Formal-letters are also called business letters. They include letters to editors of newspapers and magazines, applications for Jobs/leave and other official letters. Exp:- Applying for a Job. Hari Singh 438,phase-2 Mohali 8 January ’06 Dear Sir, Subject: Application for the job of an Office Assistant. I saw your advertisement in the Indian Express of 7 January 2006 for the post of an Office Assistant. I wish to apply for the job. The Bio- Data sheet with the lists of my qualifications and details of my experience is enclosed. I shall be happy to present myself for an interview. Yours faithfully [Hari Singh] Encls: a) Bio-Data b) Testimonials.

99 Informal-letters One writes letters to friends and relations such letters are called informal or personal letters. Exp:- Advice to take interest in studies 46,Model Town, Jalandhar City. 6 June, 200__. My Dear Vijay, I received your result-card yesterday. Your result is very poor. You are failed in all the subjects. It is a matter of shame for us. Vijay, you are neglecting your studies. This is very bad. Final examinations are drawing near. You should work very hard. Engage some tutor. Leave bad company. If you do not take interest in your studies now. you will have to repent later on. I hope you will act upon my advise. Yours affectionately, Gurnam Singh

100 Narration 1. (Rule) If the reporting verb is in the present or in future tense then the tense of the reporting speech doesn’t change at all. 2 (Rule) If the reporting verb is in the past tense then the tense of the reporting speech will be changed as given below.

101 Present Indefinite changes into past indefinite. Present continuous changes into past Continuous. Present perfect changes into Past Perfect Present Perfect Continuous changes into Past P. Cont. Past Indefinite changes into Past Perfect. Past Continuous changes into Past perfect Continuous. Can changes into Could May changes into Might Shall changes into Should Will changes into Would Past Perfect & Past Perfect Continuous Tenses Do no Change

102 Now Changes into then This Changes into that These Changes into those Today Changes into that day Tonight Changes into That night Tomorrow Changes into The next day Yesterday Changes into The previous day Ago Changes into Before Here Changes into There Pronouns of the First person in the reported speech changes according to the subject.

103 Exercise:- Change the following 1.Mother says,” Tea is ready.” 2.Ram will say,” I have done my work.” 3.She said to me,” He is wasting his time.” 4.Ram said,” I can not help you now.” 5.The master said to the servant,” Bring a new flower today.” 6.I said to him,” When you are coming?” 7.She said,” What a beautiful flower”! 8.I said to him,” Will you return tomorrow”? 9.He said," May you live long!” 10.He said,” Alas! I have been ruined!”

104 Correct the errors in the following sentences: 1.The man asked ma that what I want. 2.She was telling that she would not eat rice. 3.Ram suggested that let us go for a picnic. 4.My sister asked when I have arrived. 5.She said that she lives in Ludhiana.

105 Non-Finites There are three kinds of non-Finites:- 1.Infinitive 2.Participle 3.Gerund Infinitive: ‘to + I Form’ Examples: It s time to ring the bell. Participle: ‘A Participle is a verbal form used as an adjective and sometimes as an adverb. Example: He gave me a broken slate. Gerund: ‘A Greund ends in ‘ing’ ( Ist Form of verb + ing). It has the force of a noun and a verb. Example: Dancing is an art.

106 Exercise for Practice: 1.I have no time ……………… 2.I have new plan ……………… 3.………… is a very good exercise. 4.No………….. In this compartment. 5.It was a ……………….. Sight. 6.It was a ……………. Play.

107 Tense (Concord and Sequences) Exercise : Correct the Tense in the following 1.They have come yesterday. 2.I have bought this house last year. 3.She is working in the office for two years. 4.I had gone to the club last night. 5.Take care that you will not be cleared.

108 Put the Correct Verb in the blanks : 1.Slow and steady ……………….. The race ( Win, Wins) 2.You as well as he, …………….. Innocent. (Is, are) 3.None but the brave……………… the fair (deserve, deserves) 4.The news of the flood ………………. Caused grant anxiety ( has, have) 5.Time and tide …………… for none ( wait, waits) 6.The jury ………………… divided on the issue. (was, were) 7.Neither my brother nor I ……………….. Ever been to Mumbai (Has, have) 8.Oil and water ………………… mix. (does not, do not)] 9.The crow did …………… best to save the ship. (its, there) 10.Neither you nor …………. Lucky. (am, are) Find Some Fun Here By Click on Downloaded file

109 Paragraph Describe People Describe Places Describe Incidents Describe Procedure

110 How to Make a Candle It is very easy to make a candle. First wax is broken into small pieces. Then water is boiled in a double boiler. Now the wax is put in the Top container of the double boiler to melt. It is made to boil to 21F. Care is taken not to over boil it because if heated more it starts smoking. If one wants colored candles, color is added at this stage. A wick is inserted inside a mould which is lubricated from inside. It is made sure that wick does not fall inside the mould by placing a rod across on its top. The wick is tied to it. Now the Melted wax is poured into it. The filled mould is put into a bucket containing cold water. The weight is removed and the wax is left to harden over night. Next Day the candle is gently pulled out. The candle is ready.

111 My Best Friend I Have many friends. But Ram is my best friend. He is 14 Years old. Her father is a Doctor. Her mother is a teacher. He belongs to a good family. He gets up early in the Morning. He goes out for walk daily. He is an Intelligent student. He is a good player. He helps the poor. Ram is also a good player. He is a captain of the Tennis team of our School. All teachers love him. He always Speaks the truth. He is an Honest and Sincere. He respect his Elders. He is true friend in the real sense. Everybody wants to be friendly with him. May he live long!

112 A visit to Zoo There is a zoo in our city. I visit it last Sunday. I went with my parents. We bought tickets and went in. First of all we saw birds. There were many beautiful and rare kinds of birds. We saw parrots,Swallows,peacocks,ducks, herons, gulls and geese. Then we saw some wild beasts. A lioness and her cub were basking in the sun. We saw also Wolvs,tigers, elephants and rhinos. When we were coming back we saw a muddy Pond. There were many big snakes in it. I saw fearful to look at them. We stayed in the zoo for about three hours. Then we came back home.

113 A House on Fire It was Sunday. I was sitting in my room with my friends. Suddenly, we saw clouds of smoke rising in the sky. There was a big fire in the next street. People were running to the site of fire. Children were shouted for help. People brought buckets of water. We also joined them. We Threw sand and water on the flames. The fire was put out after half an hour. It was the house of carpenter. The poor man suffered a big loss. All his wood, grain and money were gone. The house was reduced to ashes. He was very sad at his loss. People felt sorry for him. They give him food, clothes and some money. The poor carpenter thanked them with folded hands.

114 Thanking You G.H.S Cheema Jodhpur (BARNALA)


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