Presentation on theme: "The New Republic 1789-1816 How did the United States build a government, expand its territory, and conduct foreign policy in its early years?"— Presentation transcript:
1The New RepublicHow did the United States build a government, expand its territory, and conduct foreign policy in its early years?
2Government and Party Politics Chapter 6, Section 1 How did debate over the role of government lead to the formation of political parties?
3Sec 1: Government and Party Politics Building the Federal GovernmentMain Idea: The new government started out with enormous problems, including a large national debt, a small military, Spain’s efforts to keep trade closed along the Mississippi River, and British forts still maintained along the Great Lakes. Important tasks for the new republic included electing a president, and setting up the judiciary and Cabinet.Hamilton’s Plans Stir DebateMain Idea: As a Federalist, Hamilton believed that a strong centralized government was necessary to preserve the Union. However, as he developed plans for paying off the new nation’s great debts, his plans received fierce and vocation opposition from Antifederalists.Opposing HamiltonMain Idea: Opposition to Hamilton’s plans grew steadily in the South, where the states’ income from agriculture enabled them to pay their share of the country’s debts.A Two-Party System EmergesMain Idea: The federal government, headed by Washington and Hamilton, sought to secure its power and authority. Meanwhile the opposition, led by Madison and Jefferson, grew stronger.Continued…Sec 1: Government and Party Politics
4Sec 1: Government and Party Politics (con’t) Government and Party Politics (continued…)Witness History: The First InauguralNote Taking: Reading Skill: SummarizeChart: Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring DebtColor Transparencies: The First PresidentPolitical Cartoons: The Whiskey RebellionInfographic: Political Parties GrowHistory Interactive: Political Parties GrowProgress Monitoring TransparencySec 1: Government and Party Politics (con’t)
8First InaugurationThe oath of office was administered in New York CityGeorge Washington repeated the oath of office of PresidentInauguration: official swearing-in ceremonyCabinet: leaders of the executive departments of the federal government
10President Washington Administration: staff in the executive branch Precedent: something done or said that becomes an example, rule, or traditionEstablished a tone of dignity; Washington believed that parties and pomp were necessary to command the respect of the worldElected to second term in 1792Tradition of being elected for only two terms
13Setting Up the Judiciary Constitution called for Supreme Court and smaller onesLeft details of organization to CongressJudiciary Act of 1789 – system of courtsThirteen federal district courtsJohn Jay was first Chief Justice of the U.S.
14Government AffairsForeign affairs: relations with foreign countries; the Secretary of State heads the State Department and coordinated U.S. involvement with foreign countriesDomestic affairs: Issues relating to a country’s internal affairs
15CabinetCabinet: officials selected by the President to head the major departments of the executive branch and to advise the PresidentAttorney General: Edmund RandolphSecretary of War: Henry KnoxSecretary of State: Thomas JeffersonSecretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
16Thomas JeffersonPlanter, lawyer, and diplomat; had served several years as ambassador to FranceWriter, inventor, and violinistFounded the University of Virginia
17Alexander Hamilton Brilliant man Private secretary to General WashingtonBelieved that governmental power could accomplish great things
18Hamilton and Jefferson Debate Hamilton and Jefferson in ConflictHamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educatedJefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participationHamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern, WesternHamilton’s Economic PlanU.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private citizensPlan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume states’ debtSome Southern states have paid debts, against taxes to pay for North
19Hamilton’s Program Supported strong national power Little faith in the peopleFelt that government needed to direct the development of the American economyHamilton’s Plan: take on Revolutionary War debts of statesWanted to charter a Bank of the U.S.
20DealSouthern states would support the debt plan, if northern states would support the plan to locate the capital in the SouthHamilton’s strategy:- Creditors owed money by the government did not want government to collapse- Creditors were concerned with the future of the U.S. so they would get paidSet up a budget payment plan: sell government bonds
22Hamilton’s Opponents Washington sided with Hamilton Thomas Jefferson resigned from the Cabinet in 1793.Believed that Hamilton was betraying the spirit of the RevolutionHad more faith in the people
23Interpretation of Constitution Strict construction – government should not do anything unless specified in the ConstitutionLoose construction – government could do anything that was not forbidden in the Constitution
24Payment PlanTariff enacted in 1789 to tax imported goods to raise money1791, congress placed a tax on whiskeyFund set up to pay creditors slowly, with interest
25Whiskey Rebellion Corn made into whiskey Used as a kind of currency Rebels closed courts and attacked tax collectors1794, army of 12,000 men put down the rebellion in Pennsylvania to demonstrate the power of the government
26Analyzing Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion TRANSPARENCYAnalyzing Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion
28Democratic Republicans Stood for a more democratic republicAlong with Federalists, they became the first political parties: a group of people who seek to win elections and hold public office in order to control government policy and programs
31The Struggle Over Foreign Policy Chapter 6 Section 2How did foreign policy challenges affect political debate and shape American government?
32Sec 2: The Struggle Over Foreign Policy Conflict in the Ohio ValleyMain Idea: From the forts they maintained along the Great Lakes, the British supplied the Miami Indians and their allies with arms and ammunition. The British hoped to limit American settlement in the Northwest Territory. This led to violent conflict.American Relations With EuropeMain Idea: While the British were helping Native Americans take a stand against theUnited States, Americans became embroiled in the first major foreign policy event of its short history: the French Revolution.The Parties Debate Foreign PolicyMain Idea: The Federalists and Antifederalists conflicted over many issues concerning government power. A crisis in France briefly united the nation, but the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions soon revealed the party divisions once again.The Election of 1800Main Idea: Complications in the election of 1800 forced the House of Representatives to choose between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. Burr had been Jefferson’s running mate, and both men won 73 electoral votes. To avoid another electoral crisis, in 1804 the Constitution was amended to require electors to vote separately for President and Vice President.Continued…Sec 2: The Struggle Over Foreign Policy32
33Sec 2: The Struggle Over Foreign Policy (con’t) The Struggle Over Foreign Policy (continued…)Witness History: A Great Orator SpeaksNote Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Supporting DetailsColor Transparencies: The XYZ AffairPolitical Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition ActMap: Presidential Election of 1800Progress Monitoring TransparencySec 2: The Struggle Over Foreign Policy (con’t)
35Analyzing Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act TRANSPARENCYAnalyzing Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act35
36French Revolution 1789 French people overthrew King Louis XVI During the Reign of Terror, thousands of people were executed,including King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette
37WarFederalists opposed the French Revolution, while Jefferson and his supporters thought of it as an extension of the American RevolutionWar broke out between Great Britain and FranceAmerica neutralAmericans were split as to which side to support.
38Jay’s TreatyWashington sided with Britain in war because of British navyBritain agreed to leave the forts in Northwest TerritoryExpanded trade, but did not solve ship problem of stopping American ships to search for British subjectsLost support of many Americans
39Washington’s LegacyWashington was famous for his honesty, dignity, an self-controlHe was very popular in his first four yearsProblems clouded his second termMany distrusted the governmentMany disliked Hamilton’s economic plansJefferson resigned in 1793Divisions in the government developed
40Capital City First government was in New York City Capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790Residence Act of 1790: 10-square-mile stretch of land on Virginia-Maryland borderDistrict of ColumbiaBenjamin Banneker: surveyorPierre-Charles L’Enfant developed the city plan with broad streets, the White House for the President’s residence, and the Capitol building for Congress; moved in 1800
41U.S. Response to Events in Europe Reactions to the French Revolution• Federalists pro-British; Democratic-Republicans pro-French• Washington declares neutrality, will not support either side• Edmond Genêt, French diplomat, violates diplomatic protocolTreaty with Spain• Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain• Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed:- Spain gives up claims to western U.S.- Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel- Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic
42Washington’s Farewell Address “[A system of political parties] agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, [and] foments [stirs up] occasional riot and insurrection.” 1796
43Election of 1796 Washington set a precedent of serving two terms John Adams ran against Thomas Jefferson.Adams elected with Jefferson his Vice President (from different political parties)
45John Adams Second President Lacked the prestige of Washington Rise of political partiesThreat of war from abroad with the French over Jay’s TreatyFrench began seizing American ships in French harbors
46XYZ Affair French were seizing American ships X, Y, and Z were French agents sent by Tallyrand to demand a bribe from America to see himAmericans returned homeUndeclared war with France
48Adams Provokes Criticism First Party-Based Elections• 1796, Federalist John Adams elected president- Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, is vice-president• Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests above nationAdams Tries to Avoid War• French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance; seize U.S. ships• XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister• Congress creates navy department; Washington called to lead army• Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years
49Alien ActPresident gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S.
50Sedition ActPersons who wrote, published, or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be jailed or fined
51Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson, Madison, and others felt the Sedition Act violated free speechLegislatures of two states came up with “null and void” ideaStated that states had the right to judge whether federal laws agreed with the Constitution
52NullificationPrinciple that a state could declare a federal law “null and void” in a statePrinciple unresolved
53Prosser’s RebellionGabriel Prosser, a blacksmith, in Richmond, Virginia, led a rebellion. It failed and twenty of them were executed.
54Election of 1800 Personal attacks Jefferson versus Adams Jefferson did not gain a majority so decided in the House of Representatives
55Transfer of Power Peaceful Americans must be willing to disagree peacefully
56Map: Presidential Elections of 1800 Presidential Election of 1800MAPMap: Presidential Elections of 180056
57The Age of Jefferson Chapter 6 Section 3 What were the successes and failures of the Jefferson administrations?
58Sec 3: The Age of Jefferson Pursuing Republican PrinciplesMain Idea: Jefferson and his administration set out to do things quite differently from their Federalist predecessors. Jefferson cut taxes but succeeded at cutting the national debt by streamlining government bureaucracy. Federal revenue also surged due to growth in foreign trade and sale of federal lands.John Marshall’s Supreme CourtMain Idea: John Marshall, a Federalist, became the Chief Justice of the United States in His four-part legacy and his participation in over 1,000 court decisions made a tremendous impact on the nation’s history.The Nation ExpandsMain Idea: Jefferson insisted that farm ownership was essential to the freedom of white Americans. Yet, without expansion there would not be enough farms for the rapidly growing population. As a result, Jefferson set his sights on expanding the U.S. to the Pacific.Jefferson’s Foreign TroublesMain Idea: While Jefferson succeeded in his plans to expand to the west, he faced significant challenges to solidifying the position of the United States as an international power.Continued…Sec 3: The Age of Jefferson5858
59Sec 3: The Age of Jefferson (con’t) The Age of Jefferson (continued…)Witness History: A Jefferson Calls for Free SpeechNote Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main IdeasNote Taking: Reading Skill: Recognize SequenceColor Transparencies: The Marshall CourtGeography Interactive: U.S. Territory, 1803Chart: U.S. Population,Map: The Reexport Trade in ActionProgress Monitoring TransparencySec 3: The Age of Jefferson (con’t)59
60Reducing GovernmentJefferson reversed much of what the Federalists had done, such as presidential style; addressed as “Mr. President”Reduced taxesCut the bureaucracy – the departments and workers that make up the federal governmentSlashed the size of the army to 3,000 menLet stand the Bank of the United States since charter would expire in 1811
61Rivals to Jefferson Aaron Burr: Vice President Alexander Hamilton, now a lawyer in New YorkBurr killed Hamilton in a duel in 1804, ending his political future
62Judiciary ActsJudiciary Act of 1789: created a national court system with three circuit courts and thirteen district courts, headed by the Supreme CourtStated that the Supreme Court would settle differences between state and federal laws
63Judiciary ActsJudiciary Act of 1801: decreased the number of Supreme Court justices and increased the number of federal judges. Adams filled the new posts to have more Federalists judges;Known as midnight judgesAngered Jefferson who felt that he should appoint new judges from his political party
64John Marshall Federalist leader Became Chief Justice in 1801 and held post for 34 yearsEstablished principle of constitutional law – judicial reviewInsisted federal laws were superior to state laws
65Marbury v. MadisonAdams appointed Marbury as justice of the peace for the District of ColumbiaSecretary of State Madison never delivered the papersMarbury sued MadisonChief Justice Marshall ruled against Marbury; declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutionalEstablished the power of judicial review
66Judicial ReviewEnables federal courts to review state laws and court decisionsCan decide if laws passed by Congress are constitutional
69U.S. Population,CHARTChart: U.S. Population,6969
70Louisiana PurchaseNorthwest Ordinance of 1787: established a process by which territories could become statesLand Act of 1800: Americans able to buy land in small parcels and on creditNapoleon, the French ruler, took over much of the Spanish land in the West and charged large sums of money from American traders to use the Mississippi River and New Orleans
71Louisiana Purchase France controlled New Orleans Napoleon failed to stop a rebellion in HaitiJefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to buy New Orleans for $10 million, but he bought all French land for $15 millionJefferson overcame doubts about constitutionality of buying land and signed purchaseDoubled the size of the U.S.
72Lewis and Clark Expedition Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the Louisiana Purchase in 1804 to make contact with Native Americans and to gather information about the region’s natural resourcesSacajawea and husband were interpreters
74Zebulon PikeTraveled as far west as the Rockies and then south into Spanish-held territory between 1806 and 1807Pike’s Peak
75Foreign Policy Jay’s Treaty expired in 1805 Great Britain and France at war againHarassing American ships; British kidnapping American sailorsLeopard incident – British ship, the Leopard, attacked the U.S.S. Chesapeake, inflicting 21 casualties in search of deserters from the British navy
76Barbary War Barbary States of North Africa used piracy for profit U.S. had paid prote4ction money to the Barbary StatesPrice increased, so Jefferson blockaded the port of TripoliPeace in 1805
77Reexport TradeWar between Britain and France with British capturing French merchant shipsAmericans brought cargoes from French islands to American ports, and then shipped them to FranceBritish began to confiscate American merchant ships for trading with the FrenchBritish began to impress American sailors
79Embargo of 1807 Outlawed almost all trade with foreign countries Little effect on British or French tradeAmericans smuggled goods to Europe in defiance of the embargo (a restriction of trade)Jefferson used navy and federal agents to enforce the lawRuined Jefferson’s second term
80Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas 8080
81Election of 1808 James Madison was elected president Jefferson retired to his home
85The War of 1812 Gearing Up for War Main Idea: Democratic Republicans felt humiliated by the failure of the 1807 embargo against Britain. With persistent British abuses on the oceans, and stepped-up Native American resistance in the West, Americans increasingly blamed the British for their problems.War Breaks OutMain Idea: President Madison urged Congress to declare war on Britain in June of Disunited, unprepared, and with only a small army and navy, the United States went to war once again with the world’s greatest power.War’s Aftermath and EffectsMain Idea: After the War of 1812 and Jackson’s victory in New Orleans, Americans experienced a surge of nationalism and a new confidence in the strength of their republic. By weathering a difficult war, the nation seemed certain to endure. Also, westward expansion contributed to a union that was bigger and stronger than ever.Witness History: Burning the CapitalNote Taking: Reading Skill: Recognize SequenceDecision Point: Should the United States Declare War on Britain?Continued…Sec 4: The War of 18128585
86The War of 1812 (continued…) Geography Interactive: Major Battles of the War of 1812Color Transparencies: The War of 1812Analyze: Cause and Effect: The War of 1812Progress Monitoring TransparencySec 4: The War of (con’t)86
87Northwest Ordinance of 1787 No state northwest of the Ohio River could be a slave stateMissouri not covered by this lawNorthern congressmen worried that if Missouri was admitted as a slave state, the balance of power would tip toward the South
88War in the Old Northwest American Revolution weakened Iroquois and CherokeeMiami, Delaware, Shawnee, and other Native American groups grouped to fight expansionMiamitown 1790 – Little Turtle and Blue Jacket defeat armyExpedition led by Arthur St. Clair defeated
89Battles-Army Victories Legion of the U.S. led by General Wayne win at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in OhioNative American groups forced to accept Treaty of GreenvilleMiami, Delaware, Shawnee, and other groups lost southern two thirds of OhioOhio River no longer a permanent boundary between their land and settlers
90Native American Reaction 1. Accept white culture2. Blending Indian and American cultures3. Returning to Indian religious traditions4. Taking military actions
91Accepting White Culture Little Turtle-leader of the Miami peopleAdopted some American customsTried to live peacefully with settlers
92Blending CulturesHandsome Lake - a Seneca called for a rebirth of Seneca culture that would blend customs of both Native Americans and AmericansUrged his people to abandon war and focus on rituals
93Returning to Traditions Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) called for a rejection of European ways and a return to traditionEstablished Prophetstown in Indiana; had warlike attitude
94Military ActionTecumseh believed that Native Americans must unite the Native American groups to fight the Americans; brother of TenskwatawaBattle of Tippecanoe – William Henry Harrison was attacked by Tenskwatawa; Prophetstown burned
95ResultTecumseh dies in Canada during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the ThamesTecumseh does not accomplish goal of uniting Native AmericansTecumseh and Tenskwatawa showed defiance and earned respect for their people and culture
97Decision Point: Should the United States Declare War on Britain 9797
98Reasons for WarAmericans believed the British were encouraging the Native Americans to attackWar Hawks (Clay and Calhoun) wanted Britain out of North AmericaBritish interference with shipping-impressment: the act of forcing people into military service
99Land WarTried to defeat British in Canada; defeated by the British in summer of 1812; Americans were poorly equipped and ledBattle of the Thames, 1813, Americans defeated British and Native Americans, including Tecumseh
101Naval War American vessels outnumbered 20 to 1 Perry defeated British fleet on Lake Erie, protecting northern borderBritish blockaded coast
102Baltimore British bombarded Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key watched and wrote the Star-spangled banner
103Washington, D.C. 1814, British ended war with Napoleon British seized Washington and burned the White House and the CapitalPresident Madison fled
104War EndsThe Hartford Convention 1814: New England considered leaving the Union; called for constitutional amendments to increase New England’s political powerTreaty of Ghent-Representatives met in Belgium-All old boundaries between the U.S. and Britain were restored