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Spanish California and the Mission System

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1 Spanish California and the Mission System

2 Questions What are the Motives for the establishment of the Mission system, as opposed to the Justifications? What are the components of the Mission System and for what purposes did they function? What was the impact of the Mission System on Indian Peoples? How did Indian peoples respond to the conditions of the Mission System?

3 Identifications Master and Alternative Mission Narrative
Mission’s 10 year Plan Francis Guest Components of the Mission system First Pueblos Junipero Serra Jayuntes and Monjeros 18th Century Perspectives of the system Methods of Resistance Chumash Revolt Yuma Revolt Population Decline Mortality rates

4 Master Narrative Missions: Protected Indian’s from exploitation
Relatively small original population Greatest population decline began at Secularization in 1832 Taught them European Skills Ensured a better and/or more consistent food supply Teaching European style agriculture Introducing wheat, corn & domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and horses

5 Master Narrative Myths Mission Indians were docile, passive
Did not revolt Did not make war on the mendicant orders of the civil authorities Especially in comparison to plains tribes during American westward expansion

6 Alternative Narrative
Introduced crops and animals provide less food to populations Yields failed & animals died during drought Introduced diet: Less nutrients Milk: lactose intolerant Population Population equal to other areas that depended on corn, beans and squash Population decline began with the Missions

7 Pre-contact Agriculture
Corns, beans, squash were native crops, not European Corn agriculture by California people - Kumeyaay Trade and contact between California and intensive irrigation agricultural Hohokam and Puebloan cultures dates to at least 900AD Intensive Plant Husbandry, fishing & hunting Yucca, cacti, sedums, sages, sumacs, Manzanita, oaks, pines, wild plums and grapes,

8 The Spanish Mission System
Mission – the crux of Conquest Motives for Conquest Colonization Hispanic-ization Origin of the System

9 The Mission The Mission The Franciscans and Other Mendicant Orders
Salvation in return for labor Goals 10 yr plan Christianize Self government Secularize Farmers Mission San Diego de Alcala est. 1769

10 Wards of the Friars Francis Guest
As is commonly known, Spanish law made the missionaries the legal guardians of their Indian converts. In virtue of their conversion and baptism the neophytes became the wards of the friar Lands confiscated Neophytes became property of the friars

11 Components of the Mission System
The Neophyte Christians in Training Pueblo Presidio Rancho Mission

12 Components of the Mission System: the Pueblo
Agricultural Towns Two Originally Planned, Three Eventually Built Indian Labor Hope to Decrease Reliance on Mexico and Missions Viceroy Antonio de Bucareli

13 The First Pueblos San Jose de Guadalupe
Nuestra Senora La Reina de Los Angeles de Rio de Porciuncula Villa de Branciforte (Santa Cruz)

14 Components of the Mission System: the Pueblo
Multiethnic Los Angeles, 1781 2 families: African-Mulatto (Caucasian-African mix) 2 families: Indian-Indian 2 families: Mulatto-Mulatto 2 families: Spanish-Indian 1 family: Mulatto-Mestizo (Spanish-Indian mix) 1 family: Indian-Mulatto 1 family: Indian-Mestizo

15 The Settlers & “The Sacred” expedition
Direst of Poverty Government promise of support Change would offer some hope of improvement

16 Components of the Mission System: the Presidio
Forts to Protect the Mission Garrisons Return Fugitives Garrisons Capture New Neophytes Four Built Weak Militarily Presidio of Mission San Diego Est. 1769

17 The Presidio Give Spanish Limited Military Control
Unable to Subsist without the Missions Colonial workforce - 1st peoples Allow Control of Coastal Native People

18 Convict Lease system? Presidio labor forces
Neophytes Mission fathers sometimes leased or loaned Indian Laborers to the military If there was payment for services, the padres were the recipients

19 Development and Growth
Father-President Serra and His Legacy Father-President Fermin Francisco de Lasuen El Camino Real and 21 Missions of California Pueblos and Ranchos Mission San Carlos Borromeo

20 Junipero Serra 1713 born on the Island of Majorca, Spain
Educated at the Catholic University became a professor and librarian at the Monastery Entered Franciscan order in 1730 Sent to Mexico in 1749 Back drop of the inquisition 15th – 19th Centuries Tribunals brought to Americas Originally functioned to obliterate Jewish and Moors who could not prove their genuine conversion Functioned to destroy anyone sought to be a threat to the institution, or Catholic ideals

21 1573 Spanish Inquisition Pedro Berruguete. Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe (1475

22 Legacy of Inquisition? Methods of repression continued by Totalitarian Regimes & Police States Creation of racial & religious Ghettos Forcible wearing of badges of shame Formal state & religious propaganda Spying Seizure of property Intimidation & torture Sexual humiliation Good cop/bad cop routine Physical restraint Separation of families No recognition of natural or civil rights Threat and repression of Humanity Many of the techniques developed by the Medieval Inquisitor were picked up and used by later totalitarian regimes and police states. Among them are the creation of racial and religious ghettos; the forcible wearing of "badges of shame"; formalized propaganda and forgery; spying; seizure of property, threats, false promises, intimidation and torture; and disregard for what has long been regarded as natural justice. It is difficult to find any technique of modern totalitarianism that was not pioneered by the Medieval Inquisition, right down to the good cop / bad cop routine; physical restraint; the separation of families; sexual humiliation; the use of agents provocateurs and listening tubes; false promises of leniency; and softening up new victims using psychological techniques such as leaving them for weeks, cold and hungry, isolated in cells within hearing distance of the torture chamber. Inquisitors even charged people for the equipment used to execute members of their families - just as the very worst twentieth century totalitarian states did.

23 Serra 1767 send to Lower California, established 9 missions in Upper California in coastal areas Led invasion and foreign occupation of California Father President Advisor to the civil and military authorities for the missions and colonies Francisco Palou Biography of Serra describes him as the “ruler of the province” Traveling through Baja he noted the extensive and severe hunger of the Guadalupe Mission Indians and others, claimed to not be able to do anything When others attempted to scare the Spanish away in an effort to encourage them to leave, he ordered the military to shoot them

24 Fermin Francisco Lasuen
Wrote in 1800 his justification for coercion It is evident that a nation which is barbarous, ferocious, and ignorant requires more frequent punishment than a nation which is cultured, educated, and of gentle and moderate customs

25 Components of the Mission System: the Rancho
Mission Herds Use Indian Labor Major Source of Wealth in Mission System Give Missions Power over Spanish Government

26 San Diego & San Luis Rey Lacked sufficient agricultural lands to support a congregated baptized population Majority lived in their own villages, fed themselves, maintained their own crops Brought to the missions on Feast days and as a rotating labor force Death rate exceeded birth rate under these more favorable conditions compared to other missions Death rate was per thousand while the birth rate was per thousand at San Diego Mission contributing to a much reduced population by 1832 when the missions were secularized.

27 Punishment Indian threw a stone at a missionary Soldier for Rape
25 lashes a day for 9 days 35 – 45 lashes each Sunday for 9 Sundays Soldier for Rape Soldier would receive 8 days of sentry duty Or 16 days on graveyard shift

28 San Diego Mission 1772 letter from Fr. Jayme
Worried about several attempted rebellions Destruction of crops by soldiers Sexual violence perpetrated by soldiers endemic 4 villages in which the soldiers rape and murder Evidence of 3 incidents of gang rape Blind women carried screaming and beaten into the woods to be raped Neophytes believed the fathers could have stopped this but allowed it to “keep the soldiers content”

29 Sexual Abuse Brutal attacks and Sexual violence previously unknown to Tongva or others San Gabriel Mission - Tongva - Chasing, lassoing, raping, beating, killing San Diego Mission - 3 Soldiers, 2 Kumeyaay girls, gang raped and one murdered Sentenced to life as a California Citizen Santa Barbara - Chumash - rape, mutilation and Murder

30 Santa Barbara Mission Conditions terrifying & restraints unbearable
Study by John Johnson 67% children born at mission died before 5 yrs 75% died before puberty Converts lived average of 12 years 60% population decrease Measles, cholera, diphtheria, SYPHYLIS introduced by Spanish soldiers

31 San Luis Rey Mission “Miserable Conditions”
Failed escapes: flogged, iron clog fastened to their legs Destruction of crops Famine General abuse Forced labor

32 San Diego Mission Revolt
Revolt of November, 1772 Jayme killed Revolt of 1775 the Mission burned down

33 Forced System of Labor Excessive confining work Santa Barbara Mission:
Fr. Maynard Geiger Brick Manufacture Men made adobe bricks Women aided in transporting bricks & tiles Weaving lucrative for the mission Women & Children employed in processing wool and weaving Evidence of piece rate system, paid “in kind”

34 Physical Punishment General coercive nature of the system
Padre Antonio de la Conception Horra, 1799 The treatment shown to the Indian’s is the most cruel I have ever read in history. For the slightest things they receive heavy floggings, are shackled, and put in the stocks and treated with so much cruelty that they are kept whole days without a drink of water

35 Forced Conversion Captain Beechy, visited San Francisco Bay, 1826 – 27
If Indian’s refused to convert, they would imprison them for days at a time releasing them to walk around the mission until they agreed to renounce the religion of their forefathers Lt. Pear’s Journal, Hugo Reid’s Letters, Cook, 1976 Evidence of use of military coercion

36 Conditions of Women Unmarried girls, women and widows kept in special compounds and locked in dormitories at night. Separated from families and men Men kept in Jayuntes or men’s quarters Poor diet Poor hygiene at the missions Greater contagion Higher rate of death among women

37 Women’s Quarters: Monjero
Russian Explorer Otto Van Kotzebue Santa Clarita Mission, 1824 large quadrangular bldg without windows and only one carefully secured door resembling a prison These dungeons are opened 2-3 x/day, but only to allow the prisoners to pass to and from church I have occasionally seen the poor girls rush out eagerly, to breathe fresh air, and driven immediately into the church like a flock of sheep, by an old ragged Spaniard armed with a stick. After mass they are hurried back to their prison

38 18th C Perspectives French Explorer Jean Francois Galaup Comte de La Perouse Likened the Indians of Mission San Carlos in 1786 to the Slaves of Santo Domingo Descriptions lf serious charges of cruelty George Vancouver Expeditions Naturalist Archibald Menzies, 1792 Documents & letters authored by military authorities in & cited by George Bancroft

39 Native Resistance “Cooperation” Passive Resistance Fugitivism
Active Resistance Revolt Homicide Raids on livestock Revitalization

40 “Cooperation” Only if there was something to gain, material benefits, or too much to lose in resisting

41 Passive Resistance Non cooperation Work Slow Down
Destruction of Tools and Resistance

42 Fugitivism “Huntin’ ‘em up!”
12 lashes after Sunday Mass, then kiss hand of missionary “I don’t want it, I am returning to my land” Pagan Headmen caught for harboring fugitives Kept confined for one month Whipped killed

43 Revitalization Movements
Chumash - Santa Barbara Chupu - Earth Goddess & “tears of the sun” Split between “Traditional” & conversos or neophytes

44 Mission San Gabriel Revolt
Revolts & resistance so common as to not be recorded regularly 1785 revolt against Mission San Gabriel Led by Taypurina, 24 yrs woman shaman 4 people received 20 lashes, 2 released General Ugarte orders 2 years later Condemned Nicolai to six yrs of work at the presidio followed by perpetual exile 2 other women dismissed with 2 years imprisonment

45 Chumash Revolt February 21, 1824
No way out of Mission except escape Catalyst for revolt, flogging so severe a young neophyte died of wounds at Santa Ynez Mission Building burned La Purisima Mission of Lompoc Santa Barbara Mission


47 San Rafael Mission Revolt
Pomponio (Coast Miwuk) originally from Mission Dolores in San Francisco 1821 – 1824 He led guerilla warfare between San Rafael and Santa Cruz missions

48 Resistance Uprisings between 1820 – 1830s of Missions in San Francisco Bay Area Leaders of Revolts Yozcolo Captured, beheaded, head hung on a pole for all to see Estanislao Marin Quintin

49 Yuma & San Diego Revolts
San Diego Father Jayme Yuma Revolt Most Successful Destroyed 2 missions and the settlements 30 soldiers 4 padres Cut off Travel over Anza trail until 1820s

50 Impact of the Mission System and Spanish Settlement
Land Population Culture Mission Santa Barbara

51 Population Decline 65 years from 1769 – 1834
81,000 baptized 60,000 deaths ,000 resident neophytes remained at 21 missions 50% - 70% decline during mission period Rape and Murder - abortion, infanticide Military & Mission physical torture and abuse Forced labor Malnutrition, starvation disease

52 Social Upheaval Murder of Knowledge Specialists
New economic system -destruction and dispossession Ideas imposed that forced restructuring of social and political relationships Gente de Razon/Gente de Sin Patriarchy

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