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The New United States of America

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1 The New United States of America

2 George Washington (1789-1797) Former leader of the Continental Army
Hero of the American Revolution Unanimously chosen to be the first President of the United States Needed to make many decisions about how to run the new nation

3 What Should Washington Do?

4 Problem #1: The Constitution had authorized Congress to set up a court system, but it did not spell out the details. Judiciary Act of 1789 – created the detailed structure of the federal court system

5 Problem #2: In the Constitution, the Executive Branch only had two members: the President and the Vice President. You need more help running the new nation. Congress created positions to help Washington run the nation: Department of State – to deal with foreign affairs (Thomas Jefferson) Department of War – to handle military matters (Henry Knox) Department of the Treasury – to manage finances (Alexander Hamilton) Attorney General – the chief lawyer of the federal government (Edmund Randolph)

6 Problem #3: Two of your Cabinet members completely disagree over the nation’s future. Alexander Hamilton sees a future as an industrial nation with a strong federal government, like Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson sees a future as an agricultural nation, with a weaker federal government.

7 Hamilton vs. Jefferson Alexander Hamilton powerful federal government
loose interpretation of the Constitution economy based on shipping and industry feared mob rule supported by merchants, manufacturers, landowners, lawyers, and clergy Thomas Jefferson wanted to share power with state governments strict interpretation of the Constitution economy based on farming feared an absolute ruler supported by the common people, farmers, and trades people

8 Problem #4: Whiskey producers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay taxes on whiskey production. They beat up federal tax collectors and have threatened to secede from the Union. Washington ordered 15,000 troops to stop the revolt.

9 Problem #5: Revolutionaries in France have executed their king
Problem #5: Revolutionaries in France have executed their king. France is very unstable. To further complicate the situation, Great Britain is fighting a war against France to stop the revolutionaries. The French revolutionaries have asked the United States for help. Thomas Jefferson wants to help the revolutionaries, but Alexander Hamilton wants to help the British instead. Washington issued a declaration of neutrality—the U.S. would support neither side in the conflict. (War was not in the new nation’s best interest.)

10 Problem #6: After the American Revolution, American settlers moved west across the Appalachian Mountains to farm. Native Americans did not recognize American rights to these lands. Native Americans and settlers often fought violently over control of these lands. Washington appointed a general to lead federal troops against the Native Americans. Native Americans were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. They gave up rights to Ohio for $10,000.

11 Problem #7: The British still have forts in territories west of the Appalachian Mountains. They refuse to leave and encourage Native American resistance to American settlement. Washington sends John Jay to Britain to negotiate a treaty. The British sign Jay’s Treaty and agree to evacuate their forts.

12 Problem #8: Britain and France are at war
Problem #8: Britain and France are at war. The United States is neutral, but when American ships try to trade in the Caribbean, their crews and cargoes are seized by the British navy. John Jay is already in Great Britain. But the British refuse to sign any treaty of shipping neutrality while they are at war with France!

13 Problem #9: The Constitution has no restrictions on how many times a President may be elected to office. After two terms, many people want you to run for President for a third term, but some people have concerns that the Presidency will turn into another monarchy. Washington steps down after two terms, setting a precedent for all presidents until Franklin D. Roosevelt.

14 Washington’s Farewell Address
1) Steer clear of permanent alliances and foreign entanglements 2) Avoid forming political parties Federalists Jeffersonian-Republicans

15 Summary What were Washington’s main issues while in office?
How were they dealt with? Why do you think he warned about the dangers of forming political parties? Domestic and foreign issues… Growing threat of political parties… Powers of the courts… Diplomatic measures/ Jay’s Treaty… Advisement against forming political parties… Judiciary Act… The nation was young and this could prove to be very bad.

16 John Adams (1797-1801) Was a leader during the Revolutionary War
Was Vice President for 8 Years to George Washington - Did not have the prestige of George Washington John Adams had to deal with a young nation with political differences that were growing further apart. These domestic issues, paired with the dangers and complications of issues abroad made Adams presidency one full of challenges.

17 From the beginning of John Adams administration, the United States began to drift toward a state of war with France. The French were upset by Jay’s Treaty, and started to attack American ships in French ports. Adams sent government officials over to France to negotiate peace with the revolutionary government. Upon arrival in Paris, the officials were met with three French secret agents, later identified as agents “X”, “Y”, and “Z”. In order to even see the French foreign minister, the Americans would need to pay 250,000 and provide the French with a 10 million dollar loan. The U.S. was drifting toward war with France … The French were a little bit upset about Jay’s Treaty and they try to catch American ships in French harbors. Adams sent some officials to France in an effort of diplomacy. He did not want to go to war. The Americans do not offer up the money. While it was a common practice in Europe to request money, the Americans saw it as a bribe. Unable to resolve their differences, the French and Americans were involved in an undeclared, and what Adams thought unnecessary, war.

18 John Adam’s already limited popularity was waning
John Adam’s already limited popularity was waning. Many Americans actively expressed their opinions of him, many of which were negative. Jeffersonians were particularly upset because under the Adams administration the size of the army had been increased and taxes were raised to cover the costs of the increased army. Citizens were furious and acted out by printing scandalous accusations and depictions of the president. The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed in The Alien Act granted the President the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the United States. The Sedition Act prohibited people from writing or publishing anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials. The Alien and Sedition Acts got people very upset. They felt it infringed on their rights of free speech granted to them in the Constitution.

19 Thomas Jefferson and James Madison led the movement against the Alien and Sedition Acts. They claimed it was a direct violation of the 1st Amendment rights granted to the people by the Constitution. Since the Constitution did not specify who had the authority to judge whether an act of Congress went beyond the powers stated in the Constitution. As a result the state legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky passed resolutions that proposed the states decide whether federal laws agreed with the Constitution. The process was simple: if a state decided a law was unconstitutional, that law would be “null and void” in the states. The principle of “nullification” remains unresolved. Neither Virginia nor Kentucky tried to enforce the resolutions. But the message of defiance to the federal government was clear.

20 To run or not to run…. That is the question!
Tensions between Federalist and Jeffersonian Republicans continued to grow into Adams presidency. Members of Congress attacked each other in the House of Representatives and crowds would gather on the capital to taunt the president to the point where he had to enter the White House through the back door. As the election of 1800 loomed over the nation Adams had a decision to make…. To run or not to run…. That is the question! The mudslinging that goes on in modern campaigns is nothing new. He runs! Against his BFF Jefferson. Uh-oh

21 The Election of 1800

22 The Election of 1800 John Adams Thomas Jefferson “Spirit of 1776” vs.
Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion -Issue of Slavery Adams peacefully gives up power GOOD JOB ADAMS!!! Thomas Jefferson wins the elec.

23 Thomas Jefferson ( ) Thomas Jefferson was a very accomplished man. Lets go over some of his accomplishments Jefferson went on to invent a funky bookstand, and a levitating bed!! Despite this busy schedule Jefferson still found time to ride horses, play the violin and tinker with novice inventions.

24 “The sum of a good government
1.) … is a wise and frugal government, 2.) … which shall restrain men from injuring one another, 3.)… shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, 4.) … and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned.” A smart government that won’t spend your money. Will be non-violent Will let them take care of economic matters Will not abuse the working class.


26 Jefferson Comes under fire because while he pens the Declaration of Independence Focusing on individual liberties, he owns over 600 slave at Monticello! Jefferson marries Martha Skelton, a widow, and they have 6 children. Martha dies in Childbirth…. JEFFERSON has a slave named Sally Hemings and it is rumored that the two are involved in an intimate relationship Jefferson ‘s actions lead more to believe Sally Hemings Children are HIS! By the time two of the children are 21, Jefferson decides to free them; an act that was not usually done. It was always *Just* a rumor, but in 1998 Scientists found a way to test the DNA of Jefferson. The Truth would finally come ouT!!!!!! I grant you freedom!! Thomas Jefferson Historical society does not like what they are hearing! They try to stop the investigation, but after they see the evidence is overwhelming they concede to the discoveries.


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