The Bill of Rights 1 st – freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, & religion 2 nd – right to bear arms 3 rd – forbade quartering troops 4 th – forbade unreasonable searches & seizures
5 th – rights during trial & life, liberty, property 6 th – right to fair & speedy trial 7 th – right to trial in civil cases 8 th – forbade excessive fines & unusual punishments
9 th Amendment: Certain rights “shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people” People retain rights not enumerated here
10 th Amendment so-called “state’s rights amendment” all rights not explicitly delegated or prohibited were reserved to the states or the people
Hamilton’s Financial Plan Hamilton:“Father of National Debt” “Funding at par” “Report on Public Credit” Rev. War debt certificates paid at full face value (“at par”) Purpose: bolster national credit
Assumption of State Debts “Report on Manufactures” Would tie states & creditors to federal government North-South struggle ensued Massachusetts – large debt Virginia – small debt
Compromise reached South agreed to assume the debt if North agreed to allow the new Capital to be built in the South “log rolling”
Washington, D.C. would be built on the Potomac River on land donated by Maryland and Virginia
Tariffs (customs duties) Revenue Act of 1789 8% tariff on imports Also attempt at helping infant American industries Whiskey Excise Tax (1791)
National Bank Foundation of Hamilton’s plan Private institution in which the government held a majority interest
Government deposited its surplus money in the bank Deposits would then be the source of loans & allow for the printing of a national currency
Bank issue sparks public Hamilton-Jefferson debates Jefferson argued that the bank would favor northern bankers over the western & southern farmers
“Strict Construction” Jefferson also argued that the Constitution said nothing about creating a bank & therefore it was unconstitutional
“Loose Construction” Hamilton argued that the bank was “necessary & proper” and permitted by the elastic clause Gave Congress “implied powers”
Hamilton won over Washington The Bank of the United States was founded in 1791 & chartered for twenty years More N-S friction!
Foreign Debt $11,710,000 Federal Domestic Debt $42,414,000 State Debt $21,500,000 Custom Duties (Tariffs) Excise Tax on Whiskey Misc. Revenue Pay off $80 million debt Excise tax: Taxes placed on manufactured products Tariff: a tax on imports Establish good credit with foreign nations Create a national bank with a national currency Raise money for gov’t backed by gold silver Assumption Act passed as a compromise with Thomas Jefferson placing the US Capital in the South (Virginia)
HAMILTON Safe place to deposit and transfer money Provide loans to government and state banks A national currency---$$$$$ An investment by people to buy stock into US bank Constitution did not forbid a national bank….Loose construction of Constitution National debt good for countryJEFFERSON Went against the Constitution State banks would collapse Only wealthy could invest in bank and would control bank than control the government Hurt the common man Strict construction…If it is not mentioned in the Constitution than there can’t be a national bank Against a national debt BUS
Whiskey Rebellion (1794) SW Pennsylvania farmers hated Hamilton’s whiskey tax “Liberty and No Excise” Major challenge to new national government
Washington summoned the militia of several states to put down the insurrection “Rebels” were dispersed without bloodshed
President Washington reviews 13,000 troops of the Western Army assembled at Fort Cumberland, Maryland, to crush the Whiskey Rebellion.
Swift & decisive action of President gave the new government badly needed respect Federal Government could ensure domestic tranquility!
Emergence of Political Parties Factionalism, fueled by newspaper editorials, developed into organized political parties
Political duels of Jefferson & Hamilton = the beginning of the political party system
Jefferson and Hamilton were at completely opposite poles in the political spectrum.
Jefferson, an Anti-Federalist, opposed a strong central government. Hamilton, a Federalist, was suspicious of giving power to the people.
Jefferson was a friend of France and believed in their revolution. Hamilton was a friend of England and wanted close ties for trade.
Jefferson distrusted commerce and industry, he believed in a rural population of farmers and an economy of agriculture.
Hamilton wanted a strong commercial economy based on trade and commerce and an urban population.
Federalists (1790s) Gov’t by “best people” Distrusted common people Strong central government Gov’t should encourage business Pro-British foreign policy
Jeffersonians aka Democratic-Republicans Rule of the people (literate) Appealed to middle class & underprivileged Gov’t that governed best, governed least
State’s rights should prevail National Debt was a curse Primarily agrarians Freedom of speech to expose tyranny Pro-French foreign policy
Federalist Beliefs (former Anti-Federalists) Democratic-Republicans Leader Appealed to Alexander Hamilton John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison Manufacturers, merchants, wealthy, and educated Favored seaboard cities Farmers and Planters common man Favored the South and West Ideas of Government Loose Construction Strong government over states Loose Construction of Constitution Implied powersImplied powers Wealthy and educated involved Limit freedoms of speech & press Preferred govt. similar to a king Strict construction State’s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of Constitution Expressed/Enumerated powersExpressed/Enumerated powers Common man but educated Bill of Rights is sacred Lesser government the better Domestic Policy Supported National Bank—BUS Supported excise tax National debt good for country National govt. assume state debts Tariffs should be high Against National Bank—BUS Against excise tax Against National debt States pay their own debts Tariffs should be low Foreign Policy Opposed French Revolution Wanted war with French Favored the British Supported French Revolution Opposed war with French Favored the French political
1792 Election Results (16 states in the Union) George WashingtonVirginiaFederalist13297.8% John AdamsMassachusetts Federalist 77 57.0% George ClintonNew YorkDemocratic- Republican 5037.0% Thomas JeffersonVirginiaDemocratic- Republican 43.0% Aaron BurrNew YorkFederalist10.7% Electoral Votes Not Cast --- -----64.4% Total Number of Electors132 Total Electoral Votes Cast264 Number of Votes for a Majority 67
“Reign of Terror” Jeffersonians became less favorable
1793 - France and Britain go to war U.S. bound to aid French shipping in West Indies by the Alliance of 1778
Washington believed in avoiding war at all cost: militarily weak economically unstable politically disunited Hamilton & Jefferson agreed
Washington makes Neutrality Proclamation government & the people to be neutral Jeffersonians mad he didn’t consult Congress Federalists happy
Washington’s Neutrality Speech “Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain and the United Netherlands, of the one part and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the U.S. require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers. I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the U.S. to observe the conduct aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and warn the citizens of the U.S. carefully to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition…” (April 1793) “Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain and the United Netherlands, of the one part and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the U.S. require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers. I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the U.S. to observe the conduct aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and warn the citizens of the U.S. carefully to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition…” (April 1793)
Citizen Genet Affair (1793) Envoy from France arrives and recruits army & privateers to aid France Washington warns him to stop, Genet goes over his head to the people
Genet is withdrawn People are outraged Proclamation was in the self-interest of both the US and France
British Problems British harassment of US shipping & French trade in the West Indies British hoped to provoke the US to defend the French alliance
Britain impressed US sailors Impressment = the act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy
British seized 300+ US merchant ships in West Indies Jeffersonians called for war against Britain Hamilton’s economic plan was tied to British trade
Britain continued to hold fur-trading forts on US soil Violation of Peace Treaty of 1783 Britain used Indians as a buffer against US expansion
Jay’s Treaty (1794) Washington’s motivations He sought to avoid war while US was weak Sent John Jay to London Hamilton gave British information that weakened Jay’s position
Jay’s Treaty: British agree to abandon forts & pay damages for seized ships British would not agree to halt future seizures & impressments nor stop selling arms to Indians
Jay agreed to help force Americans to pay debts American public response: Jeffersonians declared Jay a traitor South held the most debts Federalist north got damages for shipping
John Jay is burnt in effigy because Americans believed he sold out to the British.
Significance: War with Britain averted Increased factional differences between 2 parties Origins of Democratic- Republican party
Victory in Old Northwest St. Clair defeated in Ohio “Worst military defeat ever!” Left US with 300 troops total 1 st Congressional Investigation
General “Mad Anthony’ Wayne defeats Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers - August 20,1794
Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) Spain feared an American- British alliance & signs Pinckney’s Treaty US got disputed territory north of Florida
US got free navigation on Miss. River 3 year right of deposit in New Orleans
Spain cut off our farmers right to use the Mississippi River and deposit their crops in New Orleans.
Washington’s Farewell Address Washington served a reluctant 2 nd term Verbal abuse wore on him A warning to Americans against disunity
Washington’s Farewell “Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation…Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course…It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world…Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies…” (1796)
Major Points: Avoid political factionalism Avoid permanent foreign alliances Follow our own self-interest Did not advocate isolationism
Washington’s Legacy Kept young nation from war Chose & consulted Cabinet 2-term office limit Went outside Supreme Court for Chief Justice Hamilton’s financial program
1796 Election Results (16 states in the Union) John AdamsMassachusettsFederalist7151.4% Thomas JeffersonVirginiaDemocratic- Republican 6849.3% Thomas PinckneySouth CarolinaFederalist5942.8% Aaron BurrNew YorkDemocratic- Republican 3021.7% Samuel AdamsMassachusettsFederalist1510.9% Oliver EllsworthConnecticutFederalist118.0% George ClintonNew YorkDemocratic- Republican 75.1% Other--1510.9% Total Number of Electors138 Total Electoral Votes Cast276 Number of Votes for a Majority70
Problems with France US merchants getting rich off war trade Britain violated Jay’s Treaty & impressed US sailors French Directory, fearful of Jay’s Treaty, ordered seizure of American ships
XYZ Affair (1797) Adams sends John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and Charles Pickney to France to negotiate 3 French officials (X, Y, & Z) want bribes to set up negotiations with Talleyrand - French foreign minister
Negotiations end – Marshall returns a hero War hysteria swept America
Navy Dept. created (3 ships!) Marines established 10,000 man army authorized
“Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute.”
Adams suspend trade with France & authorizes capture of French ships Undeclared Naval War 1798-1800: “Quasi-War” 80 French ships captured
“Convention of 1800” Adam’s Finest Moment Negotiated a peace with Napoleon Avoids war Ends 22 year French alliance
Alien & Sedition Acts 1798 – Federalists passed laws to reduce power of Jeffersonians & silence anti- war opposition
Alien Acts Raised requirements for citizenship from 5 to 14 years Allowed President to deport “dangerous” aliens in peacetime & imprison them during war
Sedition Act Impeding the government or defaming officials would lead to fines or imprisonment 10 Jeffersonians convicted including Matthew “spitting” Lyon
Laws was never declared unconstitutional & expired in 1801
Kentucky Resolutions - penned by VP Jefferson Virginia Resolutions - written by James Madison Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
Premise: States had right to nullify unconstitutional laws Essentially campaign documents against Federalists
Compact Theory of Government Sovereign states had entered into a compact with federal government States were the final authority on the constitutionality of a law
Doctrine of Nullification Last Kentucky resolution added the premise that nullification was “remedy” of unauthorized acts Called for states to nullify the laws - neither state did - others would try later
Significance: Nullification would be used later by southerners prior to the Civil War
Federalist Legacy Hamilton’s financial plan Washington’s precedents Kept US out of wars Preserved gains of Revolution & fended off anarchy Two-Party system arises