Presentation on theme: "Lesson Five: The One Against the Many I. Preparation: 1. About the author: Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1917- ) Study note 1 on page 69."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson Five: The One Against the Many I. Preparation: 1. About the author: Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1917- ) Study note 1 on page 69.
2. About “The One Against the Many”: The United Stated of America was born in Within a span of less than 250 years, the U.S. has grown from a new- born country of 13 former colonies to the only superpower in the world with its interests projected to nearly every corner of the world. Why has the US developed so fast?
What are the most important factors that have contributed to such a rapid development? The author thinks that the single most important explanation is “the national rejection of dogmatic preconceptions about the nature of the social and economic order”
This text taking America as an example, analyzes the relationship between “the one” referring to one viewpoint and “the many” referring to many viewpoints. In other words, the author regards pragmatism as the key factor which contributed to the rapid development of the US. Compared with the experience of China, we can further understand the differences between dogmatism, ideology and pragmatism.
II. Outline of the essay Part I (Para.1) American experience in achieving rapid national development Part II (Para.2-6) the factors that facilitated the rapid social and economic development of the United States Part III (Para.7-10) difference between pragmatism and ideology
Part IV (Paras.11-12) an example of distinction between ideals and ideology Part V (Para.13-14) what is wrong with ideology? Part Ⅵ (Para.15-19) differences between the ideologist and the pragmatist in their views of history and in their approaches to issues of public policy. Part Ⅶ (Para.20-22) conclusion: the “many” should be the choice
III. Detailed Analysis of the Text: Part 1 (para.1): American experience 1. period, epoch, era and age Period is the general term for any portion of historical time. Epoch and era are often used interchangeably, but in strict discrimination, epoch applies to the beginning of a new period marked by radical changes, new developments, etc., and era, to the entire period.
Age is applied to a long period identified with some dominant personality or distinctive characteristic. e.g. The curtain was rung up on a new epoch in our history. 我国历史上一个新纪元的序幕揭开 了 Einstein's theory marked a new epoch in history. 爱因斯坦的理论标志着历史上一个新时代 的开始。
The October Revolution ushered in a new era in the history of mankind. 十月革命开创了人类历史的新纪元。 We are living in the computer era. 我们正生活在计算机时代。 Many people call the age we live in the age of technology. 许多人把我们生活的时代叫做工业技术时代。
2. instructive: enlightening, informativeenlighteninginformative e.g. He found it both interesting and instructive to learn about the careers of great men. 他觉得了解伟人的生平既很有趣又有教益。 This is an instructive book. 这是本有教育意义的书。
Part II (Paras.2-6): Factors This part deals with the factors that facilitated the rapid social and economic development of the United States. The author points out in Paragraph 6 that the fundamental factor has been the national rejection of dogmatic preconceptions about the nature of social and economic order.
Para.2 1. The first sentence of this paragraph is a transitional sentence. The last sentence refers to the several fundamental elements that facilitated the rapid social and economic development of the American continent.
2. capacity: ability to do things e.g. He has an inbred capacity for reading the riddle the right way in cases of mystery, great or small. We are impressed by his capacity for handling an immense amount of work without appearing to extend 我们很佩服他能处理大量的工作而看来一点 也不勉强。
3. bless - give a benediction to e.g. Bless you, my boy. 孩子, 为你祝福。 Good-bye, and may God bless you. 再见, 愿上帝保佑你。 Bless her from marrying a miser. 上天保佑她不要和一个吝啬鬼结婚。 Bless your heart, I know you didn't break the vase on purpose. Don't cry. 好了好了，我知道你不是故意把花瓶打破 的。别哭了。
4. above all: over and above all other factors or considerations e.g. Prize security above all else. 安全第一 He was above all a good and tireless writer. 他首先是位优秀的、不知疲倦的作家。 What a child should do, above all, is to do well in his studies. 小孩子该做的最重要的事是学好功课。
5. scarce; rare scarce: insufficient to meet demand rare: unusual; excellent; undercooked, as meat e.g. His collection of rare books is worth millions. Jack is a rare friend. I like rare steak, nice and bloody! Food was scarce throughout the war.
6. in relation to something: compared with something; and how that connects to something e.g. I have nothing to say in relation to that matter. 关 于那件事, 我没什么好说的。 You are only slightly underweight for (i.e. in relation to) your height. 按你的身高来说, 你体重仅稍轻一点儿.
7. ratio: relation in degree or number between two similar things e.g. The ratio of students to teachers is 35:1. 学生和老师的比率是三十五比一。 Men outnumber women here in the ratio of three to one. 此地男子数量以三比一超过女子。 The birthrate in this city is increasing at a ratio of0.6 to a thousand every year. 这个城市的出生率以每年千分之 0 ． 6 的比率 上升。
8. “Had that been so, the Indians, for whom the ratio was even more favorable, would have developed the county long before the first settlers arrives from over the seas.”
This statement is in the subjunctive mood. The original sentence is “If the favorable ratio between population and resources had been the only factor the Indians, for whom the ratio was even more favorable, would have developed the county long before the first settlers arrives from over the seas.” Who were “the first settlers”?
Generally speaking, they referred to the founders of Jamestown (Virginia) in 1607 and the 102 passengers who sailed on the mayflower in 1620 to plant the first colony at Plymouth in what is today southeastern Massachusetts.
9. approach: v. to begin to deal with or work on (= go about; set about); to come near or nearer, as in space or time e.g. He prefers to approach a problem from different angles 他喜欢由不同的角度研究一个问题. Spring approaches.
Para This paragraph is about the first factor: the deep faith in education. “It arose originally from a philosophical rather than an economic commitment—from a faith in the dignity of man and from the resulting belief that it is the responsibility of society to offer man the opportunity to develop his highest potentialities. But at the same time, it also helped produce the conditions essential to successful modernization. ”
2. Why did it originally arise from a philosophical rather than an economic commitment?
The thinking of Thomas Jefferson exemplifies the position that state- supported education for all citizens is a basic requirement for democracy. He wrote in 1816, “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be.”
3. Through this paragraph, we can know the importance of education to a development of a nation, as a Chinese college student what do you think is the distinct importance of education to our country? 4. What is the function of the last sentence?
In spite of the fact that economic commitment was not the major reason for respect for learning, wide literacy became a necessary condition for modernization. This statement also lends itself to smooth transition to the next paragraph.
5. arise: come into being e.g. Accidents often arise from carelessness. 事故往往起因于粗心。 How did this quarrel arise. 这场争吵是由于何种原因引起的 ?
Para. 4 The first sentence of this paragraph is the topic sentence. This sentence, linking up with the last sentence of paragraph 3, forms a smooth transition. 1. Do you think the concept applicable to China?
Yes. The national strategy of economic development through science- technology and education is based on this concept.
2. attribute: to relate to a particular cause or source; ascribe (v.); a quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to someone or something (n.);
e.g. They attribute their success to their teacher's encouragement. 他们把成功归因于老师的鼓励。 Politeness is an attribute of a gentleman. 彬彬有礼是绅士的本色。 Her greatest attribute was her kindness. 她最大的特点是为人厚道.
4. rightly: in a correct manner; properly; with honesty; justly.; really (informal)
e.g. If I remember rightly the party starts at 8 pm. 我记得聚会是在下午 8 点开始. He believed, rightly or wrongly, that she was guilty. 对也罢，错也罢，反正他认为她是有罪的。 I don't rightly know whether it was Tuesday or Wednesday. 我说不准那天是星期二还是星期三。
5. tangible: perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch (= concrete; intangible) intangible e.g. There is no tangible proof. 没有确凿的证据。 The U.S. troops brought few tangible benefits to the Iraqi people. 美国部队没有伊拉克人民带来多少实际 好处。
Para. 5 This paragraph is about another factor: self-government and representative institutions. We have found no better way than democracy to fulfill man’s talents and release his energies.
1. Self-government : it is the principle that the people are the ultimate source of governing authority and that their general welfare is the only legitimate purpose of government.
2. representative institutions: ( 代议制政 府机构 ) They refer to a system of government institutions that give citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf.
3. commitment : the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose; the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action (= loyalty, dedication ) loyaltydedication
His political commitment is only skin- deep. 他政治上的承诺只是表面文章。 The President affirmed America's commitment to its European allies. 总统申明美国履行对其欧洲盟国承担的 义务. I felt I did not have to make such a commitment to them. 我觉得我没有必要 对他们作出那样的承诺。
In the last decade ， however ， we have sought to fulfill the goal with greater zeal ， greater commitment ， and greater success than at any period in our history. 在过去十年中，我们比历史上任何时期都力 求更加热心地，更加献身地，更加成功地来 达到这个目标 My aunt has a sincere commitment to Buddhism. 我姑妈笃信佛教。
4. fulfill: to develop to the full e.g. She fulfilled herself both as a mother and as a successful writer. 作为一名母亲和作为一名成功的作家， 她都充分发挥了自己的才能。 She succeeded fulfilling herself as an actr ess. 她作为一名演员充分发挥了自己的才 干。
5. Put the following sentences into Chinese: 1)The doctor’s instructions must be fulfilled exactly. 2)This way of life no longer fulfills the individuals concerned. 3)If he is lazy, he will never fulfill his ambition to be a doctor. 5. What is cooperative activity?
6. initiative - readiness to embark on bold new ventures; the first of a series of actions (=go- ahead, first step, opening move) e.g. man‘s subjective initiative 人的主观能动性 The initiative has passed to us. 主动权已转到我方 give full scope to the initiative of the masses. 充分发挥群众的积极性 In the absence of my commanding officer, I acted on my own initiative. 指挥官不在场, 我主动见机行事.
7. Another has been the understanding of the role of cooperative activity, public as well as voluntary: In this sentence the author wants to show that emphasis on personal freedom and personal initiative does not preclude cooperative activity, which is also very important.
Cooperative activity takes two forms; one is public, that is to say, compulsory; the other is voluntary. Public cooperative activity presumably is organized by the government. Voluntary activity is widespread in the U.S. Community service and community spirit is a case in point. There are also many voluntary organizations in the U.S.
Para. 6: the most important factor 1. …the national rejection of dogmatic preconceptions about the nature of the social and economic order:
As a nation, America has refused to cling to certain rigid principles concerning social and economic development. America has been adaptable and flexible.
2. America has had the good fortune not to be an ideological society: It is lucky that Americans are not keen on following a body of rigid ideas or theories in their social, economic or political activities.
3. dogmatic: opinionated (=arbitrary)arbitrary e.g. A teacher who is not dogmatic is simply a teacher who is not teaching. You have merely made a few dogmatic comments on my work, and I can’t accept your dogmatic opinion.
4. ideological: political and ideological education 政治思想教育 the ideological sphere 意识形态领域 He helped me enormously with advice on how to do ideological work 他告诉我怎样做思想工作，对我有很大帮助。
. Part III (Paras.7-10) the difference between pragmatism and ideology Para.7 1. What are the elements in the definition of ideology?
The definition includes two elements: one is a group of doctrines (beliefs) which are precise and not flexible and which form a system; the other is the use of these doctrines to understand, preserve or transform the world. 2. What is one big thing the hedgehogs know?
When they encounter danger, they will invariably curl themselves up into balls with the sharp spines sticking out as defense. This is the only way they know to protect themselves. The hedgehog is here being compared to the ideologist who only follow the dogma he believes in. 3. What is the characteristic of the foxes?
The foxes do not stick to one way of protecting themselves. They use many different ways to deceive their chasers.
4. dogma: a belief or doctrine that is handed down by authority as true and indisputable e.g. The young man could not accept his parent's narrow dogma. The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy present” (Abraham Lincoln) “ 平静的过去时代的那些信条，不适用于 暴风骤雨式的现代社会了
5. intelligence : the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge; bright, perceptive people e.g. Use your intelligence, and you‘re sure to achieve something. 发挥你的聪明才智, 你一 定能取得成就。 Bill Gates is one of the top intelligences in the world.
6. Isaiah Berlin
Sir Isaiah Berlin, (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997) was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century.June November 51997political philosopherhistorian of ideasliberal20th century
Para.8 1. “Nor can one suggest that …temptation”: No one can say that Americans have never been tempted by the approach of understanding, preserving or transforming the world according to rigid dogmas.
2. immune: adj. secure against (≈exempt); relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection) (= resistant) e.g. He seems to be immune to criticism. 他似乎不受批评的影响。 I'm immune to smallpox as a result of vaccination. 我种过牛痘了, 所以对天花有免疫力.
3. condition: v. to affect, modify or influence e.g. She had to condition herself to long hours of hard work. 她必须习惯长时间辛苦的工作. They conditioned the troops to marches in snow mountains. 他们使部队能适应在雪山地带行进．
4. formidable: extremely impressive in strength or excellence (≈impressive )impressive e.g. He was one of the most formidable intellects of his time. 他是该时代的盖世奇才. It is a formidable task, but we are determined not to shrink from it. 这是一个非常艰巨的任务，但是我们决不 退缩。
5. secular: worldly rather than spiritual. e.g. Living in the secular world, people can hardly avoid making errors. The old monk freed himself from secular concerns. 这位老僧超脱了凡夫俗子所关心的事情．
６. endow: to provide with some talent or quality e.g. She is endowed with great writing ability. 她具有杰出的写作天赋。 Great musicians like Mozart and Beethoven certainly were endowed with musical talent. ; 像莫扎特, 贝多芬一类的 伟大音乐家确实具 有音乐 天赋.
8. all-inclusive: including everything; comprehensive. e.g. Tom's eyes swept the room in a single all- inclusive glance. I prefer all-inclusive tour ( 全包价旅游）, simple and easy.
9. translate: change from one form or medium into another (= transform)transform e.g. I translate his silence as a refusal. 我把他的沉默解释为拒绝。 They started to translate into action the dreams of African unity. 他们开始将统一非洲的梦想转化为行动。
After the war he was translated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 战后, 他被调到外交部工作。 I wonder how your religious beliefs would translate into political action. 我不知道你的宗教信仰如何转化为政治行 动。
10. construe; understand construe: to interpret the meaning e.g. How do you construe what he did? 你对他之所为作何解释 ?
Para yet: conj. and despite this; nevertheless e.g. "Well, it may be a joke; and yet the professor seems very much in earnest about it," replied Tom. She is willing ， yet unable ．她心有余而力不 足。
2. foxily: in an artful manner (= craftily )craftily e.g. He foxily arranged to be there when the decision was announced.
3. mistrust; distrust mistrust: to feel doubt (v.) distrust: to completely lack confidence in (v.) e.g. She has a deep mistrust of anything new or strange. 她对任何新奇事物皆十分怀疑. He mistrusted Jim‘s ability to do the work. 他怀疑做这项工作的能力．
I could hardly distrust my ears when I heard the news. 听到这个消息，我简直不敢不相信自己的 耳朵． Her constant lying led me to distrust everything she said. 她总撤谎, 我完全不相信她的话了.
4. a priori: accepted without being thought about or questioned (formal) e.g. The existence of God is a priori for most people with a religious faith. In a court of law, a priori assumptions about guilt and innocence can be dangerous.
5. Our national faith has been not in propositions but in processes: Americans believe in continuous development, in ways toward better life or better society rather than in fixed ultimate goals.
6. so to speak: this is one way to say it (= in other words) e.g. Mary is, so to speak, a hardworking student. 玛丽可说是个用功的学生。 The new procedures have been officially christened, so to speak. 新措施可以说已经正式实施了
A: Do you make a lot of money, so to speak (=in general)? 一般来说，你赚很多钱吗？ B: That's none of your business. 于你无关. A: My friend is an actress, so to speak (= kind of). 我朋友好象是个女演员。 B: What does that mean? Does she act or...? 那是什么意思？她到底演不演还是怎么？
7. falsify - make false by mutilation or addition (= distort) e.g. Her speech in Parliament was falsified by the newspapers. 她在议会里的发言被报 纸歪曲了。 Don't falsify data, China statistics chief says.
falsify reality: to present a wrong picture of actual situation due to looking at things dogmatically; to distort or misrepresent actual situation as a result of clinging to certain dogmas.
8. imprison - confine as if in a prison (≈detain; confine ) e.g. YOU can imprison my body but not my mind. 你可以禁錮我的身體, 卻束縛不了我的心靈. His daughters are virtually imprisoned in their own house; he does not let them go out alone. imprison experience : to restrict what people can do; to limit the practice of the people
9. in consequence; in consequence of Cause + in consequence + result Result + in consequence of + cause e.g. Lily liked to show off her beauty, in consequence, her friends deserted her. 她喜欢 炫耀自己的美貌，因此朋友们都离她而去 Lily's friends deserted her in consequence of her showing off her beauty all the day.
Para Pragmatism is no more…experience: Abstract ideas have a place in pragmatism just as experience has a role in ideology.
2. devoid: adj. completely lacking e.g. This is a novel devoid of wit and inventiveness. 这是一部缺乏创意和情趣 的小说. A well devoid of water is useless. 无水的 井没有用途。
2. Why does the author mention the American Revolution? The author wants to show that the colonists used the ideals explained by the British as reasons for their fight for independence. The origin of the ideas embodied in the Declaration of Independence can be traced to the two Treatises on Civil Government published by British political philosopher John Locke in 1689.
3. What does the author want to prove? The author, in describing the American Revolution, uses the word “ideal”. This leads to the explanation of the differences between “ideology” and “ideals” in Paragraph 11.
Part IV (Paras.11-12) In this part, the author uses Thomas Jefferson as an example to illustrate the distinction between ideals and ideology.
1. ideal; idealistic ideal: perfect idealistic: pursuing perfection, believing that people and things can be perfect or nearly perfect
e.g. For all its richness and all its progress, it is not an ideal society. 尽管它很富有, 也很进步, 但 它不是一个理想的社会。 He is looking for a wife but he hasn‘t found his ideal mate. 他正在寻找未来的妻子，但还没有找到理 想人选。 He was her ideal of all that was manly. 他集男子汉所有气质于一身, 是她心中的偶 像。
They made an ideal couple; she made money and he spent it. Some idealistic people have a frustrating time in this life; they don't know what perfection is.
2. As an ideologist, however, Jefferson…curiosity : As a man following a fixed set of beliefs, Jefferson is only an interesting historical figure. His beliefs are out of date and are irrelevant to present reality.
expound; propound expound: to explain in detail propound: to put forward for consideration e.g. I would like you to expound your views. 我希望你能发 表见解。 I find it hard to expound it clearly. 我发现对此很难解 释 清楚. He likes to propound problems but not the ways to solve them. 他喜欢提出问题而不喜欢提出解决问 题的办法.
4. fertile: rich in invention e.g. He is fertile of imagination. 他想像力很丰富。 With a fertile mind, he turned out to be a novelist. 凭着想象力丰富的头脑, 他成为了小 说家.
5. As an ideologist, however, Jefferson…curiosity :
As a man following a fixed set of beliefs, Jefferson is only an interesting historical figure. His beliefs are out of date and are irrelevant to present reality.
6. As an ideologist, he believed, for example, that agriculture was the only… to national development:
According to the author, Jefferson held that agriculture should be the basis of the United States and farmers constituted the best citizens of a democratic state. He opposed the development of commerce and industry, the establishment of national bank, urbanization and a strong, federal government.
7. basis; base; Basis: foundation, fundamental part (used figuratively) Base: foundation, fundamental part (used literally)
e.g. We camped at the base of the mountain. 我们在山脚下扎营。 Our company's base is in New York, but we have extended many branches all around the world. 我们公司的总部设在纽约，但是分公司遍 及全世界。
What's the basis of your opinion? 你的意见的根据是什么？ We are willing to develop economic relations with all countries on the basis of mutual benefits. 我们愿意在互利互惠的原则下同各国发展 经济关系。
8. This was Jefferson’s ideology, and had the United States…modern state:
According to Jefferson’s ideology, he was opposed to industrialization, hence modernization. So if the U.S. had accepted his ideology and put it into practice, there would not be a strong modern America.
9. impotent: lacking power or ability (≈infertile) e.g. Without the chairman‘s support, the committee is impotent. 没有主席的支持，委员会是无能为力的。 Failure results from the impotent leadership. 失败在于不得力的领导．
Para conform - be similar, be in line with (=in line with) e.g. A coat must conform to the figure of the wearer. 衣服必须与身材相配. On the first day when a pupil enters school, he is asked to conform to the school rules. 从进 校的第一天起, 学校 就要求学生遵守校规.
2. … who said that one generation could not…human destiny:
Jefferson, the idealist, did not believe that one generation should impose on the next generation its view of what policy a nation should pursue or what should be the future goal of the nation.
Part V (Paras.13-14) The part answers the question: what is wrong with ideology? The author points out that the ideologists confuse ideology, an abstraction from reality, with reality itself. This confusion leads to two bad results, in the interpretation of history and the choice of public policy.
Para An ideology is not a picture of actuality;… from reality:
Ideology is not reality. It is an abstraction from reality. In other words, ideology heaves out part of reality in order to form a simplified picture or model. The earlier definition of the author stresses the composition and characteristics of ideology: a set of systematic, detailed, comprehensive and dogmatic principles. The current definition deals with the relationship between these principles and reality.
2. salient: strikingly conspicuous; prominent (= noticeable) e.g. The following are salient points of Budget 2007 which was announced by Prime Wen in a 110- minute speech in the National People’s Congress.. The salient point of his plan is summed up in this report. 他的计划的要点在这个报告中酌此概括。
3. per se: by itself or in itself e.g. Most people know very little about educational process per se. 大多数人对于教育工作的过 程本身并不了解。 Alcohol per se is harmless enough; it is only when taken in excess that it becomes dangerous. 酒本身并无大害，只有饮用过度 才有危险。
4. discourse: spoken or written communication, serious talk or discussion e.g. Sweet discourse makes short days and nights. 【谚】话若投机嫌日短。 They listened to his discourse on human relations. 他们听他作关于人际关系的演讲。 discourse analysis 语篇分析
5. The ideological fallacy is to forget … itself: The mistake of ideologist is to take ideology for reality itself, forgetting that it is only a theoretical summary of certain part of reality.
6. fallacy: a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning e.g. This is a statement based on fallacy. 这是一项基于谬误推理之声明。 The fallacy has been exposed in its naked absurdity. 这谬论的荒诞性已被充分揭露。
Para.14 Question1: Does the author really think the ideologist has committed a sin? Question2: Why is reality unpredictable, untidy?
Answer 1: No, he uses this word in a humorous way, meaning fault or bad habit.
Answer 2: Actual development in reality does not work according to plan, theory or arrangement. The Asian financial crises took people by surprise. The same with SARS. That is why we advance the ideas of “seeking truth from facts” and “keeping abreast of the times”.
1. beset: to trouble persistently e.g. Premier Says China Beset by Corruption and Rural Land Issues. Work is the grand cure of all the maladies and miseries that ever beset mankind. ( Carlyle ) 工 作是医治人间一切病痛和疾苦的万应良药。 ( 卡莱尔 )
He was beset by doubts. 他疑虑重重。 The country was beset with many problems. 这个国家被许多困难所困扰。 The government is beset with a complex array of economic problems. 政府为一系列复杂的经济问题所困扰。
Part Ⅵ (Paras.15-19) In this part the author elaborates on the differences between the ideologist and the pragmatist in their views of history and in their approaches to issues of public policy.
Para The ideologist contends that… an infallible priesthood: The ideologist argues that history can be explained and predicated with the command of a body of clear-cut, absolute social dogmas. And only the group of people who have mastered these dogmas can correctly interpret history.
2. custody: care; protection; guardianship e.g. A father has the custody of his children when they are young. （孩子年幼时，做父亲的有 监护的责任。） His car was held in the custody of the police. （他的汽车被警察扣压。）
3. infallible: incapable of error; never wrong e.g. None of us is infallible. 我们中没有一个人是 绝对不会出错的. Development: the infallible choice of social development in the contemporary time. 科学发 展观 : 当代中国社会发展道路的必然选择.
4. …and often whose central dogma is…priesthood : The essence of the theoretical system is put in the hands of a small group of people who can never go wrong. What is the tone of this statement?
The author is highly critical of this infallible priesthood. The tone is satirical.
5. In the old philosophic debates… interpretation: This statement tells us the conflict is an old one. The “one” and ideology are one and the same thing. But ideology is contrasted with pragmatism as is the “one” with the “many”.
Para.16 The first sentence of this paragraph is a transition, leading to the view of the “many”.
1. repugnant: offensive to the mind e.g. Terrorist acts are repugnant to me whether they are committed by organizations. We are repugnant to every sort of dishonesty. Why this view is repugnant and false?
It is repugnant because it is inconsistent with the actual development of history. It is false because it fails to give a true picture of history.
3. empirical - derived from experiment and observation rather than theory; (≠theoretical )theoretical e.g. It is your own empirical generalization, and it is correct. Human life and its persons are poor empirical pretensions.
4. Against the belief in the all- encompassing … unconstrained minds: 1) This is a long sentence with five parallel phrases beginning with “against” and three parenthetical structures. The purpose is to build up force and make the statement more powerful.
2) …the belief in the all-encompassing power of a single explanation: … the belief that a single explanation has the power to give answers to all issues in history.
3) What is meant by “in the back of some sacred book”? The author means in the last few pages or in the concluding part of some book which the ideologists regard as authoritative. The author is being sarcastic about those books, hence the word “sacred”.
4) …where free men may find…Absolute Truth,…: In the universe a person whose mind is unconstrained may be able to discover relative truths but no man on earth can claim that he has already grasped the one and only Truth.
5. unfinished - not brought to an end or conclusion e.g. The first thing he asked for was the unfinished letter. Have watched the film “An Unfinished Life ”?
6. contingency - a possible event or occurrence or result e.g. For a harmonious society the contingency management system is necessary. Don’t worry, Jack. We’ve got the contingency plan ( 应急预案 ) already.
Para.17 This paragraph is a transitional paragraph. The first sentence sums up the arguments in the previous two paragraphs. The second sentence beings the readers to the differences “in their approach to issues of public policy”.
1. mistake (for): to take (sb. or sth.) for another by mistake; to recognize or identify incorrectly e.g. Don't mistake coincidence for fate. Don't mistake friendship for love.
Para What is meant by “the choice between private and public means”? It means the choice between nationalization, state ownership and planned economy on the one hand and private ownership and market economy on the other.
2. Why has there been much discussion on underdeveloped countries? After winning political independence in the 1960s, these newly independent countries started looking for a path towards rapid economic development. Should they follow the path of former colonial powers or should they follow the path of the Soviet Union? There were serous debates. These countries later took different paths with different consequences.
3. What is the author’s view on this issue? The author thinks this is not moral issue to be decided on absolutist grounds. It is a practical question as to which means can best achieve the desired goal. It can only be solved through experience and experiment. Note the remarks of Mr. Deng Xiaoping: “ 二十年不要争论 ”, “ 摸 着石头过河 ”
4. What is the author’s suggestion? The author’s suggestion is that certain words should not be allowed to use in discussions because they do not have clear meanings and can only arouse emotion.
5. What, according to the author, are those words? The author may refer to words like socialism, capitalism, democracy.
6. obsess - be preoccupied with something (≈worry) e.g. I don’t obsess as much as I used to over stupid things. I don't have time to obsess about my weight, because now I'm obsessing about my kid.
7. banish: to get rid of e.g. My first wish is to see this plague of mankind, war, banished from the earth. I know, to banish anger altogether from one's breast is a difficult task. It cannot be achieved through pure personal effort.
8. demagoguery: the methods or practices of a demagogue (a person who tries to stir up people by appeals to emotion, prejudice, etc. in order to win them over quickly and so gain power) e.g. Any politician who starts shouting election-year demagoguery about the rich and the poor should be asked, "What about the other 90 percent of the people?
Para What is mixed economy? Mixed economy refers to an economy that embraces both private and public enterprises. Today most economies in the world accept the need of both market force and government regulation. This is, in a way, what we mean by “socialism with Chinese characteristics” or “socialist market economy”.
2. But ideology is a drug; … persist: Ideology has the characteristic of a narcotic. In spite of the fact that it has been proven wrong many times by experience, people still long to commit themselves to ideology.
3. Why does the author draw an analogy between ideology and a drug? A drug is habit-forming. Once you are addicted, it is hard to break away from it. Ideology is also addictive. It is equally hard to rid oneself of ideology. Drugs satisfy certain physical desires while ideology satisfies certain intellectual desires.
Part Ⅶ (Paras.20-22) This is the concluding part. The author sums up the conflict of our times. He analyses the goal of ideologist and the goal of free men, leading to the conclusion that the “many” should be the choice.
Para According to the authors, what is the basic conflict of our time? The author thinks that the basic conflict is the conflict between the one and the many. In China, The conflict between the liberation of thought and the shackles of out dated concepts, policies and systems is still going on.
That is why the report to the 16th Party Congress points out that creativeness is the soul of national progress and the inexhaustible source of development and prosperity. The report further states that as there is no limit to practice and experiment, so there is no limit to creativeness. This is the law of social progress. And everything has to be tested by practice.
2. predestine: determined beforehand e.g. Man was predestined to have free will. No one predestines your day-to-day life and decisions. For example, no one predestinates your career -- whether you will be a doctor, a lawyer, an Indian chief, or whatever....
Para.21 Why do ideologists prevent free flow of ideas? They sincerely think they have the only Truth in hand, which is all-embracing and all- explanatory, so there is no need for a free flow of ideas. For those who claim to know the Truth, they are afraid of free flowing of ideas because their rule is built on indoctrination and deception. A free flow of ideas may bring to light the fallibility of their truth.
2. —but the only certainty in …abuse: The only thing that is sure of a despotic system is its unrestricted exercise of power.
3. deviant - markedly different from an accepted norm (≈abnormal) e.g. He is troubled by his deviant desires. Some young people are getting used to the deviant lifestyle.
Para. 22 In the concluding part, the author contrasts the worst case of ideology with the openness, sensibility of free men. In presenting ideology, the author writes in a highly critical way. The effect is devastating. In this way, he achieves his purpose, that is, making the readers see that pragmatism is the better choice.
1. Their religious and their intellectual heritage… mistake himself for God: Christian teaching stresses original sin and fallibility of Man. Western philosophy holds that the nature of Man is fallen and flawed.
2. The distinctive human triumph, … nonetheless: The most outstanding achievement of humanity is they know that no mater how hard they try, they cannot achieve Absolute Truth, yet they continue to make great efforts and refuse to give up.
IV. Brief Summary Through the whole text, we come to know the author’s viewpoint, that is: “pragmatism as the key factor which contributed to the rapid development of the U.S.” and “the national rejection of dogmatic preconceptions about the nature of the social and economic order.” With the Chinese experience and current international situation in mind, we will find this essay more interesting. Despite the fact that we may disagree with the author on certain points, we still benefit from studying the well-written essay.
V. Assignment 1. How does the author begin his essay? Why does he begin it in this way? 2. How does the author end his essay? Is it a good ending? Why (not)? P.72- Ⅵ Translate the following into Chinese